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OCT 25 1900 


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OCT 26 1900 






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Charles E. Flandrau 


Many books of the character and general design of the present 
volume have been given to the public as embodying the history of 
certain States and sections of the Uuion, through the medium of 
biographies aud portraits of their representative men; but this work 
differs essentially from them all, in that, while it contains tin' usual 
features of biography and portraiture, it is also accompanied by a 
succinct, accurate, interesting and readable history of Minnesota, pre- 
pared by one of the oldest and most experienced citizens of the State. 
Judge Flamlrau, the author of this history, has participated in every 
important event which has occurred in Minnesota since its organiza- 
tion as a Territory in 1S4!>, and recounts in a colloquial and pleasing 
style, his personal recollections and knowledge of the growth and 
progress of the State. This history will be read by thousands, where a 
more pretentious and voluminous record would be eschewed as too 
laborious an undertaking. 

The State of Minnesota is quite a youthful member of the Union, 
its history compassing but half a century; yet its marvelous growth 
in all the elements that make for substantial worth and greatness, has 
been phenomenal, and entitles it to a prominent niche in the gallery 
of the sisterhood. 

Besides the history, the work contains the biographies of many of 
the prominent citizens of the State, with their portraits. We feel 
justified in saying that the workmanship and art bestowed on these 
portraits, is of superior excellence, both in the engraving and the 
perfection of the resemblance to the subjects portrayed, while the 
biographical sketches are authentic. It has been the aim of the pub- 
lishers throughout, to include in the list only those who have, by their 
ability, industry and courage, contributed to the building of the State 
to its present eminence. Many have been omitted, who are, no doubt, 
entitled to a place on the roll of honor, their great number making it 
impracticable to include them all in one volume. These omissions may, 
however, be remedied in a subsequent volume. 

In presenting to the public this Encyclopaedia of Biography of 
Minnesota, with its accompanying history, the publishers believe they 
have made a valuable contribution to the history and literature of the 
State, and acknowledge their thanks for the aid and support which 
they have received from their patrons and the people of Minnesota 
generally, in the preparation of this work. 





Opening Statement 7 

Legendary and Aboriginal Era 8 

Fort Snelling 12 

Selkirk Settlement 14 

George Catlin 16 

Featherstonhaugh 17 

Schoolcraft; Source of Mississippi 17 

Elevations in Minnesota iS 

Nicollet 18 

Missions 19 

Indians 21 

Territorial Period 24 

Education 26 

First Territorial Government 28 

Courts 29 

First Territorial Legislature 30 

Immigration 3- 

The Panic of 1857 34 

Land Titles 35 

The First Newspaper 35 

Banks 36 

The Fur Trade 37 

Pemmican 39 

Transportation and Express 40 

Lumber 41 

Religion 41 

Railroads 44 

The First Railroad Actually Built 48 

The Spirit Lake Massacre 49 

The Constitutional Convention 51 

Attempt to Remove the Capital 54 

Census 55 

Grasshoppers 55 

Militia 56 

The Wright County War 57 

The Civil War 57 

The Third Regiment 60 

The Indian War of 1862 and Following Years. ... 63 

The Attack on Fort Ridgely 68 

Battle of New Ulm 69 

Battle of Birch Coulie 72 

Occurrences in Meeker County and Vicinity 73 

Protection of the Southern Frontier 74 

Colonel Sibley Moves upon the Enemy 76 


Battle of Wood Lake 77 

Fort Abercrombie 78 

Camp Release 79 

Trial of the Indians 79 

Execution of 38 Condemned Indians 81 

The Campaign of 1863 82 

Battle of Big Mound 83 

Battle of Dead Buffalo Lake 83 

Battle of Stony Lake 84 

Campaign of 1864 85 

A Long Period of Peace and Prosperity S7 

Introduction of New Process of Milling Wheat. ... 87 

The Discovery of Iron 88 

Commerce Through St. Mary's Falls Canal 89 

Agriculture 90 

Dairying 90 

University of Minnesota and Its School of Agri- 
culture 91 

The Minnesota State Agricultural Society 92 

The Minnesota Soldiers' Home 93 

Other State Institutions 93 

Minnesota Institute for Defectives 94 

State School for Dependent and Neglected Chil- 
dren 94 

The Minnesota State Training School 95 

The Minnesota State Reformatory 95 

The Minnesota State Prison 95 

The Minnesota Historical Society 96 

State Institutions Miscellaneous in Character 96 

State Finances 97 

The Monetary and Business Flurry of 1873 and 

Panic of 1893 97 

Minor Happenings gg 

The War with Spain 100 

The Indian Battle of Leech Lake 102 

Population I0 _j 

The State Flag 105 

The Official Flower of the State, and the Method 

of Its Selection jq6 

Origin of the Name "Gopher State" 107 

State Parks jog 

Politics i I0 

Books Which Have Been Published Relating to 
Minnesota 112 




Adams, David T 243 

Adams, John Q 401 

Aikin, Robert W 261 

Allen, Alvaren 251 

Allen, Clarence D 416 

Ames, Albert A 372 

Andrews, Christopher C 216 

Atwater, Isaac 190 

d'Autremont, Charles 405 

Baker, James H 234 

Barnum, Edward P 402 

Bassett, Daniel 208 

Batchelder, George W 396 

Bean, Jacob 386 

Beebe, Warren L 318 

Belden, Clarendon D 451 

Bierbauer, William 236 

Bigelow, Alexander T 437 

Bigelow, Horace R 184 

Blackmer, Frank A 487 

Blanchard, John 488 

Blodgett, Elijah H 398 

Bonniville, Harlow H 420 

Bowler, James M 435 

Bradley, Henry M 247 

Brady, John D 272 

Brant, Jabez A 296 

Brewster, Henry W 423 

Briggs, Asa G 394 

Brill, Hascal R 442 

Brown, Horatio D 362 

Brown, Rome G 234 

Buck, Daniel 202 

Buckham, Thomas S 460 

Bunn, Charles W 392 

Bunn, George L 239 

Butler, Pierce 481 

Campbell, Samuel L 400 

Cant, William A 303 

Canty, Thomas 293 

Carey, John R 267 

Carleton, Frank H 207 

Cash, Daniel G 245 

Castle, Henry A 379 

Christian Llewellyn 233 

Chute, Richard 165 

Chute, Samuel H 194 

Clapp, Moses E 250 


Clark, Thomas C 399 

Clark, Greenleaf 142 

Clark, Kenneth 438 

Clarke, Francis B 313 

Clough, William P 403 

Cone, Royal D 204 

Constans, William 416 

Cotter, Joseph B 446 

Cotton, Joseph B : 455 

Crandall, Charles S 393 

Culver, Joshua B 477 

Dalrymple, Oliver 222 

Daniels, Jared W 428 

Davidson, William F 475 

Davis, Cushman K 374 

Davies, Edward W 413 

Dean, William B 345 

Dobbin, James 439 

Dodge, Willis E 487 

Donahower, Jeremiah C 277 

Doran, Michael 237 

Douglass, Marion 248 

Douglas, Wallace B 249 

Dunn, James H 311 

Dunn, Robert C 281 

Dun woody, William H 232 

Edgerton, Erastus S 381 

Ensign, Josiah D 244 

Fanning, John T 266 

Faribault, Alexander 454 

Faribault, Jean B 473 

Farrington, John 241 

Ferris, Allen F 458 

Flandrau. Charles E 187 

Fletcher, Lafayette G. M 255 

Flower, Mark D 279 

Forbes, Melvin J 357 

Frazer, Sheldon L 456 

Freeman, George W 477 

Gerdtzen, Ernst A 325 

Gilbert, Mahlon N 425 

Gilfillan, Charles D 492 

Gilfillan, James 301 

Gilman, John M 349 

Gilmore, Clark W 325 

Goodfellow, Reuben S 263 

Gotzian, Conrad 360 

Gi >tzian, Paul IT 339 



Grant, Donald 447 

Graves, Charles H 274 

Grimshaw, William II 374 

Grover, Marcus D 312 

Halden, Odin 4'9 

Hawkins, Henry H 35° 

Hill, Ansel L 445 

Hill, James J 494 

Hodgman, Jesse M 38o 

Hodgson, William 417 

Horton, Charles 328 

Horton, Hiram T 342 

How, Jared 440 

Hubbard, Lucius F 214 

Hubbard, Rensselaer D 287 

Hutchinson, Henry 3 21 

Ireland, John 1 3 l 

Kelly, Anthony l6 ° 

Kelly, Patrick H 276 

Kelly, William L 482 

Kempton. Edward S 275 

King, William S 432 

Kingsley. Nathan C 397 

Koon, Martin B l 99 

Koop. John H 358 

Kron, Frederick 320 

Laird, William H 493 

Lamberton, Henry W 3 2 9 

Lawler, Daniel W l8 ° 

Lind, John '57 

Lindcke. William 412 

Lindsay, Thomas B 320 

Lowry, Thomas l82 

Lowry, William D 478 

Lugger, Otto 324 

.Magic. William H 352 

Mann, Eugene L 320 

Martin, John 340 

Mathews, John A 4" 

McGill, Andrew R 290 

McKinstry, Archibald W 395 

McKnight, Sumner T 359 

Meagher, John F 3 2 6 

Mendenhall, Luther 272 

Merriam, William R 3'° 

Mitchell. Edward C 253 

Mitchell. Henry Z 303 

Mitchell, William 147 

Mitchell, William B 308 

Monfort, Delos A 224 

Montgomery, Thomas 337 

Morin, William 463 

Morrison, Clinton 181 

Morrison, Dorilus 176 

Morrison, Daniel A 304 

Mott, Rodney A 4°7 

Munger, Roger S 269 

Mvrick, Nathan 389 


Nelson, Benjamin F 371 

Nelson, Knute 423 

Nelson, Rensselaer R 4 02 

Niles, John H 448 

Northrop, Cyrus 196 

Noyes, Charles P 369 

Noyes, Daniel R 1 30 

Noyes, Jonathan L 459 

Nye, Frank M 421 

O'Brien, Thomas D 483 

O'Connor, Richard T 284 

Odell, Robert R 336 

Ogden, Benjamin H 350 

Palmer, George M 362 

Patterson; Robert H 297 

Paulle, Leonard 325 

Peavey, Frank H 219 

Pendergast, William W 421 

Peyton, Hamilton M 271 

Pillsbury. Charles A 200 

Pillsbury, Fred C 264 

Fillsbury, George A 152 

Pillsbury, John S 119 

Pillsbury. Mahala F 125 

Poole, Charles A 468 

Ramsey, Alexander 128 

Reed, Robert 452 ' 

Reynolds, Reuben 300 

Rice. Henry M 364 

Richardson. Henry M 259 

Richter, Edward W 419 

Roberts, Harlan P 378 

Robertson. Daniel A 431 

Rosing, Leonard A 443 

Ruble, George S 414 

Sanborn, John B 162 

Sanborn. Walter H 172 

Sargent. George B 178 

Sargent, William C 319 

Sawyer, Edward 191 

Schaller, Albert 453 

Schurmeier, Theodore L 441 

Searle, Dolson B 368 

Sellwood, Joseph 353 

Severance, Cordenio A 410 

Severance, Martin J 256 

Shaw, John M 149 

Shaw, Thomas 254 

Sheehan, Timothy J 226 

Sheffield, Benjamin B 363 

Sheffield, Milledge B 485 

Shepard, David C 346 

Sherwood, George W 307 

Sherwood, William C 352 

Shevlin, Thomas H 382 

Shoemaker, James 171 

Sibley, Henry H 464 

Simpson, Thomas 185 



Smith, Charles A 370 

Smith, George M 444 

Smith, Hansen 273 

Smith, James 344 

Smith, Teter B 262 

Smith, Robert A 436 

Stanford. Mortimer H (30 

Start, Charles M 192 

Stevens, John H 484 

Stickney. Alpheus B 383 

Stockton, Albert W 461 

Stone, George C 240 

Tawney, James A 332 

Thompson, Joseph 11 341 

Todd, William E 440 

Towne, Charles A 406 

Towne, Edward P 354 

I'mland, George F 343 

Upham, Henry P 438 

Valentine, Daniel H 292 

Van Cleve, Charlotte 493 

Vanderburgh, Charles E 198 

Ward, William G 479 

Washburn, Cadwallader C 167 

Washburn, Christopher C 310 

Washburn, Jed L 314 

Washburn. William D 135 


Watkins, Joseph R 298 

Webber, Charles C 31; 

Webber, Marshall B 299 

Wedge, Albert C 305 

Welles, Henry T 144 

Werner, Nils 309 

West. John K 4 1 ,x 

Weyerhaeuser, Frederick [93 

Wheeler, John B 466 

Wheelock, Joseph A 490 

Whipple, Henry B 469 

Willard, John A 281 

Willcuts, Levi M 317 

Williston, William C 286 

Willson, Charles C 404 

Wilson Horace B 387 

Wilson, Hudson 398 

Wilson, George P 283 

Wilson, Thomas 170 

Windom, William 209 

Windom, William L 355 

Woodmansee, Benjamin D 2^<) 

Wise, John C 295 

Yi mng, George B 169 

Young, Henry A 206 

Zimmerman, Charles A 384 




As the purpose of Ihis volume is to record 
the biographies of the men who have distin- 
guished themselves in one way and another in 
building the State of Minnesota, it was deemed 
in harmony with the general subject to pre- 
mise the same with a compendious history of 
the State, the duty of preparing which I ac- 
cepted with many misgivings as to my fitness 
or ability to do justice to such an undertaking. 
I have decided to reduce the work to the small- 
est possible limits, and still cover the ground. 
It has been a little over fifty years since the or- 
ganization of the Territory which, at its birth, 
was a very small and unimportant creation, 
but which, in its half century of growth, has 
expanded into one of the most brilliant and 
promising stars upon the union of our flag; so 
that its history must cover every subject, 

1 al. physical and social, that enters into the 

composition of a first-class progressive West- 
ern Slate, which presents a pretty extensive 
field; but then' is also to be considered a pe- 
riod anterior to civilization, winch may be 
called the aboriginal and legendary era. which 
abounds with interesting matter, and to the 
general reader is much more attractive than 
the prosy subjects of agriculture, finance and 

Having lived through nearly the whole pe- 
riod of Minnesota's political existence, and 
having taken part in most of the leading events 
in her history, both savage and civilized, I pro- 
pose to treat the various subjects that compose 
her history in a narrative and colloquial man- 
ner thai may not rise to the dignity of history, 
but I think, while giving facts, will not detract 

from the interest or pleasure of the reader; if 
I should, in the course of my narrative, so far 
forget myself as to indulge in a joke, or relate 
an illustrative anecdote, the reader must put 
up with it. 

Nature has been lavishly generous with Min- 
nesota, more so perhaps than with any State in 
the Union. Its surface is beautifully diversified 
between rolling prairies and immense forests 
of valuable timber. Rivers and lakes abound 
and the soil is marvelous in its productive fer- 
tility. Its climate, taken the year round, sur- 
passes that of any part of the North American 
Continent. There are more enjoyable days in 
the three hundred and sixty-five that compose 
the year than in any other country I have ever 
visited or resided in, and that embraces a good 
part of the world's surface. The salubrity of 
.Minnesota is phenomenal; there are absolute- 
ly no diseases indigenous to the State; the 
universally accepted truth of this fact is found 
in a saying which used to be general among 
the old settlers, that "there is no excuse for 
any one dying in Minnesota, and that only two 
men ever did die there, one of whom was 
hanged for killing the other." 

The resources of Minnesota principally con- 
sist of the products of the farm, the mine, the 
dairy, the quarry and the forest, and its indus- 
tries of a vast variety of manufactures of all 
kinds and characters, both great and small, 
the leading ones being Hour and lumber, to 
which, of course, must be added the enormous 
carrying trade which grows out of and is nec- 
essary to the successful conduct of such re- 
sources and industries; all of which subjects 



will be treated of in their appropriate places. 
A\'i tli these prefatory suggestions I will pro- 
ceed with the history. 


There is no doubt that Louis Hennepin, a 
Franciscan priest of the Recollect order, was 
the first white man who ever entered the pres- 
ent boundaries of Minnesota. He was with 
LaSalle at Fort Creve-Coeur, near Lake Peo- 
ria, in what is now Illinois, in 1680. LaSalle 
was the superior of the exploring party of 
which young Hennepin was a member, and in 
February, 1680, he selected Hennepin and two 
traders for the arduous and dangerous under- 
taking of exploring the unknown regions of 
the upper Mississippi. Hennepin was very am- 
bitious to become a great explorer, and was 
tilled with the idea that by following the water 
courses he would find a passage to the sea and 

On the 29th of February, 1680, he, with two 
voyageurs in a canoe, set out on his voyage of 
discovery. When he reached the junction of 
the Illinois river with the Mississippi, in 
March, he was detained by floating ice until 
near the middle of that month. lie then com- 
menced to ascend the Mississippi, which was 
the first time it was ever attempted by a civ- 
ilized man. On the 11th of April they were 
met by a large war party of Dakotas, which 
tilled thirty-three canoes, who opened tire on 
them with arrows, but hostilities were soon 
stopped, and Hennepin and his party were 
taken prisoners and made to return with their 
captors to their villages. 

Hennepin, in his narrative, tells a long story 
of the difficulties he encountered in saying his 
prayers, as the Indians thought he was work- 
ing some magic on them, and they followed 
him into the woods and never let him out of 
their sight. Judging from many things that ap- 
pear in his narrative, which have created great 
doubt about his veracity, it probably would not 
have been very much of a hardship if he had 
failed altogether in the performance of this 

pious duty. Many of the Indians who had lost 
friends and relatives in their fights with the 
Miamis were in favor of killing the white men, 
but better counsels prevailed, and they were 
spared. The hope of opening up a trade inter 
course with the French largely entered into the 


While traveling up the river one of the white 
men shot a wild turkey with his gun. which 
produced a great sensation among the Indians, 
and was the first time a Dakota ever heard the 
discharge of firearms. They called the gun 
Ma /.a wakan, or spirit iron. 

Tlie party camped at Lake Pepin, and on the 
nineteenth day of their captivity they arrived 
in the vicinity of while St. Paul now stands. 
Prom this point they proceeded by land to 
Mille Lacs, where they were taken by the In- 
dians to their several villages, and were kindly 
treated. These Indians were part of the band 
of Dakotas, called M'de-wa-kon-ton-wans, or 
the Lake Villagers. 1 1 spell the Indian names as 
they are now known, and not as they are given 
in Hennepin's narrative, although it is quite 
remarkable how well he preserved them with 
sound as his only guide.) 

While at this village the Indians gave Hen- 
nepin some steam baths, which he says were 
very effective in removing all traces of sore- 
ness and fatigue, and in a short time made him 
feel as well and strong as he ever was. I have 
often witnessed this medical process among 
the Dakotas. They make a small lodge of poles 
covered with a buffalo skin or something sim- 
ilar, and place in it several large boulders 
heated to a high degree. The patient then en- 
ters naked, and pours water over the stones, 
producing a dense steam, which envelops him 
and nearly boils him. lb' stands it as long as 
he can, and then undergoes a thorough rub- 
bing. The effect is to remove stillness and 
soreness produced by long journeys on foot or 
other serious labor. 

Hennepin tells in a very agreeable way many 
things that occurred during his captivity; how- 
astonished the Indians were at all the articles 
he had. A mariner's compass created much 
wonder, and an iron pot with feet like lions' 
paws they would not touch with the naked 


hand; but their astonishment knew no bounds 
when he told them that the whites only al- 
lowed a man one wife, and that his religious 
office did not permit him to have any. 

I might say here that the Dakotas are 
polygamous, as savage people generally are, 
and that my experience proves to me that mis- 
sionaries who go among these people make a 
great mistake in attacking this institution un- 
til after they have ingratiated themselves with 
them, and then by attempting any reform be- 
yond teaching monogamy in the future. Noth- 
ing will assure the enmity of a savage more 
than to ask him to discard any of his wives, 
and especially the mother of his children. 
While I would be the last man on earth to ad- 
vocate polygamy, I can truthfully say that one 
of the happiest and most harmonious families 
I ever knew was that of the celebrated Little 
Crow, who, during all my official residence 
among the Dakotas, was my principal advisor 
and ambassador, and who led the massacre in 
1802. He had four wives, hut there was a point- 
in his favor — they were all sisters. 

Hennepin passed the time he spent in Min- 
nesota in baptizing Indian babies and picking 
up all the information he could find. His prin- 
cipal exploit was the naming of the Falls of 
St. Anthony, which he called after his patron 
saint "Saint Anthony of Padua." 

That Hennepin was thoroughly convinced 
that there was a northern passage to the sea 
which could he reached by ships is proven by 
the following extract from his work: "For ex- 
ample, we may be transported into the Pacific 
sea by rivers, which are large and capable of 
carrying great vessels, and from thence it is 
very easy to go to China and Japan without 
crossing the equinoctial line, and in all proba- 
bility Japan is on the same continent as Amer- 

Our first visitor evidently had very confused 
ideas on matters of geography. The first ac- 
count of his adventures was published by him 
in 1683, and was quite trustworthy, and it is 
much to be regretted that he was afterwards 
induced to publish another edition in Utrecht, 
in 16S0, which was filled with falsehoods and 
exaggerations, which brought upon him the 

censure of the king of Fiance. He died in ob- 
scurity, unregretted. The county of Hennepin 
is named for him. 

Other Frenchmen visited Minnesota shortly 
after Hennepin for the purpose of trade with 
the Indians and the extension of the Territory 
of New France. In 1089 Nicholas Perot was 
established at Lake Pepin with quite a large 
body of men, engaged in trade with the In- 
dians. On the 8th of May, 1689, Perot issued 
a proclamation from his post on Lake Pepin, 
in which he formally took possession in the 
name of the king of all the countries inhab- 
ited by the Dakotas "and of which they are 
proprietors." This post was the first French 
establishment in Minnesota. It was called 
Fort Bon Secours; afterwards Fort Le Sueur, 
but on later maps Fort Perot. 

In 1005 Le Sueur built the second post in 
Minnesota between the head of Lake Pepin and 
the mouth of the St. Croix. In July of that year 
he took a party of Ojibways and one Dakota to 
Montreal for the purpose of impressing upon 
them the importance and strength of France. 
Here large bodies of troops were maneuvered 
in their presence and many speeches made by 
both the French and the Indians. Friendly 
and commercial relations were established. 

Le Sueur, some time after, returned to Min- 
nesota ami explored St. Peter's river (now the 
.Minnesota) as far as the mouth of the Blue 
Earth. Here he built a log fort and called it 
L'Hullier, and made some excavations in 
search of copper ore. He sent several tons of 
a green substance which he found and sup- 
posed to be copper', to France, but it was un- 
doubtedly a colored clay that is found in that 
region, aiid is sometimes used as a rough paint. 
He is supposed to be the first man who sup- 
plied the Indians with guns. Le Sueur kept a 
journal in which he gave the best description 
of the Dakotas written in those early times, 
and was a very reliable man. Minnesota has a 
county and a city named for him. 

Many other Frenchmen visited Minnesota in 
early (lays, among whom was Du Luth, but as 
they were simply traders, explorers and priests 
among the Indians it is hardly necessary in a 
work of this character to trace their exploits 



in detail. While they blazed the trail for oth- 
ers (hey did not, to any great extent, influence 
the future of the country, except by supplying 
a convenient nomenclature with which to 
designate localities, which has largely been 
drawn upon. Many of them, however, were 
good and devoted men, and earnest in their en- 
deavors to spread the gospel among the In- 
dians; how well they succeeded I will discuss 
when I speak of these savage men more par- 

The next arrival of sufficient importance to 
particularize was Jonathan Carver. He was 
born in Connecticut in 1732. His father was a 
justice of the peace, which in those days was 
a more important position than it is now re- 
garded. They tried to make a doctor of him, 
and he studied medicine just long enough to 
discover that the profession was uncongenial 
and abandoned it. At the age of eighteen he 
purchased an ensign's commission in a Connec- 
ticut regiment, raised during the French war. 
He came very near losing his life at the mas 
sacre of Fort William Henry, but escaped, and 
after the declaration of peace between France 
and England, in 1763, he conceived the project 
of making an exploration of the Northwest. 

It should be remembered that the French 
sovereignty over the Northwest ceased in 1703, 
when, by a treaty made in Versailles, between 
the French and the English, all the lands em- 
braced in what is now Minnesota were ceded 
by the French to England, so Carver came as 
an Englishman into English territory. 

Carver left Boston in the month of June, 
1766, and proceeded to Mackinaw, then the 
most distant British post, where he arrived in 
the month of August. He then took the usual 
route to Green bay. He proceeded by the way 
of the Fox and Wisconsin rivers to the Missis- 
sippi. He found a considerable town on the 
Mississippi near the mouth of the Wisconsin, 
called by the French "La Prairie les Chiens," 
which is now Prairie du Chien, or the Dog 
Prairie, named after an Indian chief who went 
by the dignified name of "The Dog." He speaks 
of this town as one where a great central fur 
trade was carried on by the Indians. From 
this point he commenced his voyage up the 

Mississippi in a canoe, and when he reached 
Lake Pepin he claims to have discovered a sys- 
tem of earthworks which he describes as of the 
most scientific military construction, and in- 
ferred that they had been at some time the 
intrenchments of a people well versed in the 
arts of war. It takes very little to excite an 
enthusiastic imagination into the belief that 
it has found what it has been looking for. 

He found a cave in what is now known as 
Dayton's Bluff, and describes it as immense in 
extent and covered with Indian hieroglyphics, 
and speaks of a burying place at a little (lis 
tance from the cavern, and made a short voy- 
age up the Minnesota river, which he says the 
Indians called "Wadapaw Mennesoto-r." This 
probably is as near as he could catch the name 
by sound; it should be Wak-pa Minnesota. 

After his voyage to the Falls and up the Miu- 
nesota he returned to his cave, where he says 
there were assembled a great council of In- 
dians, to which he was admitted, and witnessed 
the burial ceremonies, which he describes as 

"After the breath is departed the body is 
dressed in the same attire it usually wore, 
his face is painted, and he is seated in an 
erect posture on a mat or skin placed in the 
middle of the hut with his weapons by his side. 
His relatives seated around, each harangues 
the deceased; and, if he has been a great war- 
rior, recounts his heroic actions nearly to the 
following purport, which, in the Indian lan- 
guage, is extremely poetical and pleasing: 
'You still sit among us, brother; your per- 
son retains its usual resemblance and continues 
similar to ours, without any visible deficiency 
except it has lost the power of action. But 
whither is that breath flown which a few hours 
ago sent up smoke to the Great Spirit? Why 
are those lips silent that lately delivered to us 
expressions and pleasing language? Why are 
those feet motionless that a short time ago 
were fleeter than the deer on yondermountains? 
Why useless hang those arms that could climb 
the tallest tree or draw the toughest bow? 
Alas! Every part of that frame which we late- 
ly beheld with admiration and wonder is now 
become as inanimate as it was three hundred 
years ago! We will not, however, bemoan 
thee as if thou wast forever lost to us, or that 
thy name would be buried in oblivion. Thy 
soul yet lives in the great country of spirits 



with those of thy nation that have gone before 
thee; and though we are left behind to perpet- 
uate thy fame, we shall one day join thee. 

Actuated by the respect we bore thee whilst 
living, we now come to tender thee the last act 
of kindness in our power; that thy body might 
not lie neglected on the plain and become a 
prey to the beasts of the field and the birds of 
the air, we will take care to lay it with those 
of thy ancestors who have gone before thee, 
hoping at the same time that thy spirit will 
feed with their spirits, and be ready to receive 
ours when we shall also arrive at the great 
country of souls.' " 

I have heard many speeches made by the 
descendants of these same Indians, and have 
many times addressed them on all manner of 
subjects, but I never heard anything quite so 
elegant as the oration put into their mouths 
by Carver. I have always discovered that a 
good interpreter makes a good speech. On one 
occasion, when a delegation of Pillager Chip- 
pewa s was in Washington to settle some mat- 
ters with the government, they wanted a cer- 
tain concession which the Indian commissioner 
would not allow, and they appealed to the 
President, who was then Franklin Pierre. Old 
Flatmouth, the chief, presented the case. Paul 
Beaulieu interpreted it so feelingly that the 
President surrendered without a contest. 
After informing him as to the disputed point, 
he added: 

"Father, you are great and powerful; you 
live in a beautiful home where the bleak win<ls 
never penetrate. Your hunger is always ap- 
peased with the choicest foods. Your heart is 
kept warm by all these blessings, and would 
bleed at the sight of distress among your red 
children. Father, we are poor and weak; we 
live far away in the cheerless north in bark 
lodges; we are often cold and hungry. Father, 
what we ask is to you as nothing, while to us 
it is comfort and happiness. Give it to us, and 
when you stand upon your grand portico some 
bright winter night and see the northern lights 
dancing in the heavens it will be the thanks of 
your red children ascending to the Great Spirit 
for your goodness to them." 

Carver seems to have been a sagacious ob- 
server and a man of great foresight. In speak- 
ing of the advantages of the country, he says 

that the future population will be "able to 
convey their produce to the seaports with 
^real facility, the current of the river from its 
source to its entrance into the Gulf of Mexico 
being extremely favorable for doing this in 
small craft. This might also in lime be facili- 
tated by canals or short cuts and a communi- 
cation opened with New York by way of the 
lakes." He was also impressed with the idea 
that a route could lie discovered by way of the 
Minnesota river, which "would open a passage 
for conveying intelligence to China and the 
English settlements in the East Indies." 

The nearest to a realization of this theory 
that I have known was the sending of the stern 
wheeled steamer "Freighter" on a voyage up 
the Minnesota to Winnipeg some time in the 
early fifties. She took freight and passengers 
for that destination, but never reached the Red 
River of the North. 

After the death of Carver his heirs claimed 
that while at the great cave. May 1, 17G7, the 
Indians made him a large grant of land, which 
would cover St. Paul and a large part of Wis- 
consin, and several attempts were made to 
have it ratified by both the British and Amer- 
ican governments, but without success. Carver 
does not mention this grant in his book, nor 
has the original deed ever been found. A copy, 
however, was produced, and as il was the first 
real eslate transaction that ever occurred in 
Minnesota I will set it out in full: 

"To Jonathan Carver, a < 'hief under the Most 
Mighty and potent, George the Third, King of 
the English and other nations, the fame of 
whose warriors has reached our ears, and has 
been fully told us by our good brother Jona- 
than aforesaid, whom we all rejoice to have 
come among us and bring us good news from 
Ins country: 

WE, Chiefs of the Nandowessies, who have 
hereunto set our seals, do, by these presents, 
for ourselves and heirs forever, in return for 
I lie aid and good services done by the said Jon- 
alhan to ourselves and allies, give, grant and 
convey to him, the said Jonathan, and to his 
heirs and assigns forever, the whole of a cer- 
tain Territory or tract of land, bounded as fol- 
lows, viz: From the Falls of St. Anthony, run- 
ning on east bank of the Mississippi, nearly 
southeast as far as Lake Pepin, where the 



Chippewa joins the Mississippi, and from 
(hence eastward, five days' travel accounting 
twenty English miles per day, and from thence 
again to the Falls of St. Anthony on a direct 
straight line. We do for ourselves, heirs and 
assigns, forever give unto said Jonathan, his 
heirs and assigns, with all the trees, rocks ami 
rivers therein, reserving the sole liberty of 
hunting and fishing on land not planted or im- 
proved by the said Jonathan, his heirs and as- 
signs, to which we have affixed our respective 

At the Great Cave, May 1st, 17G7. 

(Signed) Hawnopawjatin. 

Otohtongoonlishea w ." 

This alleged instrument bears upon its face 
many marks of suspicion and was very prop- 
erly rejected by General Leavenworth, who, in 
1821, made a report of his investigations in re- 
gard to it to the commissioner of the general 
land office. 

The war between the Chippewas and the 
Dakotas continued to rage with varied success, 
as it has since time immemorial. It was a 
bitter, cruel war, waged against the race and 
blood, and each successive slaughter only in- 
creased the hatred and heaped fuel upon the 
fire. As an Indian never forgives the killing of 
a relative, and as the particular murderer, as 
a general thing, was not known on either side, 
each death was charged up to the tribe. These 
wars, although constant, had very little influ- 
ence on the standing or progress of the coun- 
try, except so far as they may have proved 
detrimental or beneficial to the fur trade pros- 
ecuted by the whites. The first event after the 
appearance of Jonathan Carver that can lie 
considered as materially affecting the history 
of Minnesota was the location and erection of 
Fort Snelling, of which event I will give a brief 


In 1805 the government decided to procure 
a site on which to build a fort, somewhere on 
the waters of the upper Mississippi, and sent 
Lieut. Zebubon Montgomery Pike, of the army, 
to explore the country, expel British traders. 

who might be violating the laws of the United 
States, and to make treaties with the Indians. 

September 21, 1805, he encamped on what 
is now known as Pike island, at the junction 
uf the .Mississippi and Minnesota, then St. Pe- 
ter's river. Two days later he obtained, by 
treaty with the Dakota nation, a tract of land 
for a military reservation with the following 
boundaries, extending from "below the con- 
fluence of the Mississippi and St. Peters' up the 
.Mississippi to include the Falls of St. Anthony, 
extending nine miles on each side of the river." 
The United States paid two thousand dollars 
for this land. 

The reserve thus purchased was not used for. 
military purposes until February 10, 1819, at 
which time the government gave the following 
reasons for erecting a fort at this point: "To 
cause the power of the United States Govern- 
ment to be fully acknowledged by the Indians 
and settlers of the Northwest; to prevent Lord 
Selkirk, the Hudson Bay Company and others, 
from establishing trading posts on United 
States territory; to better the condition of the 
Indians, and to develop the resources of the 
country." Part of the Fifth United States In- 
fantry, commanded by Col. Henry Leaven- 
worth, was dispatched to select a site and erect 
a post. They arrived at the St. Peters' river 
in September, 1819, and camped on or near the 
spot where now stands Mendota. During the 
winter of 1819-20 the troops were terribly af- 
flicted with scurvy. Gen. Sibley, in an address 
before the Minnesota Historical Society, in 
speaking of it, says: "So sudden was the at- 
tack that soldiers apparently in good health 
when they retired at night were found dead 
in the morning. One man was relieved from 
his tour of sentinel duty and had stretched him- 
self upon a bench; when he was called four 
hours later to resume his duties he was found 

In May, 1820, the command left their can 
tonment, crossed the St. Peters' and went into 
summer camp at a spring near the old Baker 
trading house, and about two miles above the 
present site of Fort Snelling. This was called 
"('amp Coldwater." During the summer the 
men were busy in procuring logs and other 



material necessary for the work. The first site 
selected was where the present military ceme- 
tery stands, and the post was called "Fort St. 
Anthony"; but in August, 1S20, Col. Joshua 
Snelling of the Fifth United States Infantry 
arrived, and, on taking command, changed the 
site to where Fort Snelling now stands. Work 
steadily progressed until September 10, ls20, 
when the cornerstone of Fort St. Anthony was 
laid with all due ceremony. The first meas- 
ured distance that was given between this new 
post and the next one down the river, Fort 
Crawford, where Prairie du Chien now stands, 
was 204 miles. The work was steadily pushed 
forward. The buildings were made of logs, 
and were first occupied in October, 1822. 

The first steamboat to arrive at the post was 
the "Virginia," in 182:'. The first saw-mill in 
Minnesota was constructed by the troops in 
1822, and the first lumber sawed on Rum river 
was for use in building the post. The mill site 
is now included within I he corporate limits of 

The post continued to be called Fort St. An- 
thony until 1824, when, upon the recommenda- 
tion of General Scott, who inspected the Fort, 
it was named Fort Snelling, in honor of its 
founder. In 1830, stone buildings were erected 
for a four company post ; also a stone hospital 
and a stone wall, nine feet high, surrounding 
the whole post, but these improvements were 
not actually completed until after the Mexican 

The Indian title to the military reservation 
does not seem to have been etl'ectuallyacquired, 
notwithstanding the treaty of Lieutenant Pike 
made with the Indians in 1805, until the treaty 
with the Dakotas, in 1837, by which the Indian 
claim to all the lands east of the Mississippi, in- 
cluding the reservation, ceased. In 1836, be- 
fore the Indian title was finally acquired, quite 
a number of settlers located on the reservation 
on the left bank of the Mississippi. 

October 21, 1839, the President issued an 
order for their removal, and on May 0, 1840, 
some of the settlers were forcibly removed. 

In 1837 Mr. Alexander Faribault presented a 
claim for Pike island, which was based upon a 
treaty made by him with the Dakotas in 1820. 

Whether his claim was allowed, the records do 
not disclose, and it is unimportant. 

May 25, 1853, a military reservation for the 
fort was set off by the President, of seven 
thousand acres, which in the following Novem- 
ber was reduced to six thousand. 

In 1857, the Secretary of War, pursuant to 
the authority vested in him by act of Congress 
of March 3,1857, sold the Fort Snelling reserva- 
tion, excepting two small tracts, to Mr. Frank- 
lin Steele, who had long been sutler of the post, 
for the sum of ninety thousand dollars, which 
was to be paid in three installments. The first 
one of thirty thousand dollars was paid by Mr. 
Steele, July 25, 1857, and he took possession, 
the troops being withdrawn. 

The fort was sold at private sale and the 
price paid was, in my opinion, vastly more than 
it was worth, but Mr. Steele had great hopes 
for the future of that locality as a site for a 
town and was willing to risk the payment. The 
sale was made, by private contract, by Secre- 
tary Floyd, who adopted this manner because 
other reservations had been sold at public auc- 
tion, after full publication of notice to the 
world, and had brought only a few cents per 
acre. The whole transaction was in perfect 
good faith, but it was attacked in Congress, 
and an investigation ordered, which resulted in 
suspending its consummation, and Mr. Steele 
did not pay the balance due. In I860 the Civil 
War broke out and the fort was taken posses- 
sion of by the government for use in fitting out 
Minnesota troops and was held until the 
war ended. In 1808 Mr. Steele presented a 
claim against the government for rent of the 
fort and other matters relating to it, which 
amounted to more than the price he agreed to 
pay for it. 

An act of Congress was passed, May 7, 1870, 
authorizing the Secretary of War to settle the 
whole matter on principles of equity, keeping 
such reservation as was necessary for the fort. 
In pursuance of this act, a military board was 
appointed and the whole controversy was ar- 
ranged to the satisfaction of Mr. Steele and the 
government. The reservation was reduced to a 
little more than fifteen hundred acres. A grant 
of ten acres was made to the little Catholic. 



church at Mendota for a cemetery, and other 
small tracts were reserved about the Falls of 
Minnehaha and elsewhere, and all the balance 
was conveyed h> Mr. Steele, he releasing the 

government from all claims and demands. The 
action of the Secretary of War in carrying out 
this settlement was approved by the President 

in 1871. 

The fort was 01 1' the besl structures of 

the kind ever erected in the West. It was 
capable of accommodating five or six com- 
panies of infantry, was surrounded by a high 
stone wall and protected at the only exposed 
approaches by stone bastions guarded by 
cannon and musketry, its supply of water was 
obtained from a well in the parade ground 
near the sutler's store, which was sunk below 
the surface of the river. It was perfectly im- 
pregnable to any savage enemy, and in conse- 
quence was never called upon to stand a siege. 

Perched upon a prominent blurt at the con 
fluenceof the Mississippi and Minnesota rivers, 
it has witnessed the changes that have gone 
on around it for three-quarters of a century, 
and witnessed the most extraordinary trans- 
formations that have occurred in any similar 
period in the history of our country. When its 
corner stone was laid it formed the extreme 
frontier of the Northwest, with nothing but 
wild animals and wilder men within hundreds 
of miles in any direction. The frontier has re- 
ceded to the westward until it has lost itself 
in the corresponding one being pushed from 
the Pacific to the East. The Indians have lost 
their splendid freedom as lords of a Continent 
and are prisoners, cribbed upon narrow 7 reser- 
vations. The magnificent herds of buffalo that 
ranged from the British possessions to Texas 
have disappeared from the face of the earth 
and nothing remains but the white man bear- 
ing his burden, which is constantly being made 
more irksome. To I hose who have played both 
parts in the moving drama, there is much food 
for thought. 

I devote so much space to Fori Snelling be- 
cause it has always sustained the position of a 
pivotal center to Minnesota. In the infancy of 
society it radiated the refinement and elegance 
that leavened the country around. In hospital- 

ity its officers were never surpassed, and when 
danger threatened, its protecting arm assured 

safety. For many long years it was the thsi 
to wi Ironic i he Incomer to the country and will 
ever be remembered by the old settlers as a 

After the headquarters of the Department 
of the Dakota was established at St. Paul, and 
when General Sherman was in command of the 
army, he thought that the offices should be at 
tlie fort and removed them there. This caused 
the erection of the new administration build- 
ing and the beautiful line of officers' quarters 
about a mile above the old walled structure, 
and its practical abandonment, but it was s;pon 
found to be inconvenient in a business way and 
the department headquarters were restored to 
the city, where they now remain. 

Since the fort was built nearly every officer 
in the old army, and many of those who have 
followed them, have been stationed at Fort 
Snelling, and it was beloved by them all. 

The situation of the fort, now that the rail 
roads have become the reliance of all trans 
portation, both for speed and safety, is a most 
advantageous one from a military point of 
view. It is at the center of a railroad system 
that reaches all parts of the Continent, and 
troops and munitions of war can be deposited 
at any point with the utmost dispatch. It is 
believed that it will not only be retained but 


Lord Selkirk, to check whose operations 
were among the reasons given for the erection 
of Fort Snelling, was a Scotch earl who was 
very wealthy and enthusiastic on the subjecl 
of founding colonies in the Northwestern Brit- 
ish possessions, lie was a kind-hearted, but 
visionary man, and had no practical knowledge 
whatever on the subject of colonization in un- 
civilized countries. About the beginning of 
the Nineteenth Century he wrote several 
pamphlets urging the importance of colonizing 
British emigrants on British soil to prevent 
them settling in the United States. In 1S11 he 



obtained a grant of land from the Hudson Bay 
Company in the region of Lake Winnipeg, the 
Ked River of the North and the Assinaboine, 
in what is now Manitoba. 

Previous to this time the inhabitants of this 
region, besides the Indians, were Canadians, 
who had intermingled with the savages, learn- 
ing all their vices and none of their good 
traits. They were called "Gens libre," free 
people, and were very proud of the title. Mr. 
Neil, in his history of Minnesota, in describing 
them, says they were fond of 

"Vast and sudden deeds of violence, 
Adventures wild and wonders of the moment." 

The offspring of their intercourse with the 
Indian women were numerous and called 
"Bois Brules." They were a line race of hunt- 
ers, horsemen and boatmen, and possessed all 
the accomplishments of the voyageur. They 
spoke the language of both father and mother. 

In 1812 a small advance party of colonists 
arrived at the Red River of the North in about 
latitude 50 degrees north. They were, however, 
frightened away by a party of men of the 
Northwest Fur Company, dressed as Indians, 
and induced to take refuge at Pembina, in Min- 
nesota, where they spent the winter suffering 
the greatest hardships. Many died, but the 
survivors returned in the spring to the colony 
and made an effort to raise a crop, but it was a 
failure, and they again passed the winter at 
Pembina. This was the winter of 1813 - 14. 
They again returned to the colony in a very 
distressed and dilapidated condition in the 

By September, 1815, the colony, which then 
numbered about two hundred, was getting 
along quite prosperously, and its future 
seemed auspicious. It was called "Kildonan," 
after a parish in Scotland in which the colon- 
ists were born. 

The employees of the Northwest Fur Com- 
pany were, however, very restive under any- 
thing that looked like improvement and re- 
garded it as a ruse of their rival, the Hudson 
Bay Company, to break up the lucrative busi- 
ness they were enjoying in the Indian trade. 

They resorted to all kinds of measures to get 
rid of the colonists, even to attempting to in- 
cite the Indians against them, and on one occa- 
sion, by a trick, disarmed them of their brass 
field pieces and other small artillery. Many of 
the disaffected Selkirkers deserted to the quar- 
ters of the Northwest Company. These annoy- 
ances were carried to the extent of an attack 
on the house of the Governor, where four of the 
inmates were wounded, one of whom died. 
They finally agreed to leave, and were escorted 
to Lake Winnipeg, where they embarked in 
boats. Their improvements were all destroyed 
by the Northwest people. 

They were again induced to return to their 
colony lands by the Hudson Bay people, and 
did so in 1816, when they were reinforced by 
new colonists. Part of them wintered at Pem- 
bina in 1816, but returned to the Kildonan set- 
tlement in the spring. 

Lord Selkirk, hearing of the distressed con- 
dition of his colonists, sailed for New York, 
where he arrived in the fall of 1815, and 
learned they had been compelled to leave the 
settlement. He proceeded to Montreal, where 
he found some of the settlers in the greatest 
poverty, but learning that a large number of 
them still remained in the colony he sent an 
express to announce his arrival and say that he 
would be with them in the spring. The news 
was sent by a colonist named Laquimonier, but 
he was waylaid and, near Fond du Lac, bru- 
tally beaten and robbed of his dispatches. Sub- 
sequent investigation proved that this was the 
work of the Northwest Company. 

Selkirk tried to obtain military aid from the 
British authorities, but failed. He then en- 
gaged four officers and over one hundred pri- 
vates who had served in the late war with the 
United States to accompany him to the Red 
river. He was to pay them, give them lands 
and send them home if they wished to return. 
When he reached Sault Ste. Marie he heard 
that his colony had again been destroyed. War 
was raging between the Hudson Bay people 
and the Northwest Company, in which Gov- 
ernor Semple, chief governor of the factories 
and territories of the Hudson Bay Company, 
was killed. Selkirk proceeded to Fort William, 



on Lake Superior, and finally reached his set- 
tlement on the Red river. 

The colonists were compelled to pass the 
winter of 1817 in hunting in Minnesota, and 
had a hard time of it. In the spring they once 
more found their way home and planted crops, 
but they were destroyed by grasshoppers, 
which remained during the next year and ate 
up every growing thing, rendering it necessary 
that the colonists should again resort to the 
buffalo for subsistence. 

During the winter of 1819 - 20 a deputation of 
these Scotchmen came all the way to Prairie 
du Chien on snowshoes for seed wheat, a dis- 
tance of a thousand miles, and on the 15th day 
of April, 1820, left for the colony in three 
Mackinaw boats, carrying three hundred bush- 
els of wheat, one hundred bushels of oats, and 
thirty bushels of peas. Being stopped by ice 
in Lake Pepin, they planted a May pole and 
celebrated May day on the ice. They reached 
home by May of the Minnesota river with a 
short portage to Lac Traverse, the boats being 
moved on rollers, and thence down the Red 
river to Pembina, where they arrived in safety 
June 3. This trip cost Lord Selkirk about six 
thousand dollars. 

Nothing daunted by the terrible sufferings 
of his colonists and the immense expense at- 
tendant upon his enterprise, in 1820 he engaged 
Capt. R. May, who was a citizen of Berne, 
Switzerland, but in the British service, to visit 
Switzerland and get recruits for his colony. 
The Captain made the most exaggerated repre- 
sentations of the advantages to be gained by 
emigrating to the colony, and induced many 
Swiss to leave their happy and peaceful homes 
to try their fortunes in the distant, dangerous 
and inhospitable regions of Lake Winnipeg. 
They knew nothing of the hardships in store 
for them and were the least adapted to en- 
counter them of any people in the world, as 
they were mechanics, whose business had been 
the delicate work of making watches and 
clocks. They arrived in 1821, and from year to 
year, after undergoing hardships that might 
have appalled the hardiest pioneer, their spir- 
its drooped, they pined for home, and left for 
the South. At one time a party of two hun- 

dred and forty-three of them departed for the 
United States and found homes at different 
points on the banks of the .Mississippi. 

Before the eastern wave of immigration had 
ascended above Prairie du Chien, many Swiss 
had opened farms at and near St. Paul, and be- 
came the first actual settlers of the country. 
Col. John H. Stevens, in an address on the early 
history of Hennepin county,says that they were 
driven from their homes in 1836 and 1S37 by 
the military at Fort Snelling, and is very se- 
vere on the autocratic conduct of the officers of 
the fort, saying that the commanding officers 
were lords of the North, and the subordinates 
were princes. I have no doubt they did not 
underrate their authority, but I think Colonel 
Stevens must refer to the removals that were 
made of settlers on the military reservation of 
which I have before spoken. 

The subject of the Selkirk colony cannot fail 
to interest the reader, as it was the first at- 
tempt to introduce into the great Northwest 
settlers for the purposes of peaceful agricul- 
ture — everybody else who had preceded them 
having been connected with the half-savage 
business of the Indian trade; and the reason I 
have dwelt so long upon the subject is because 
these people on their second emigration fur- 
nished Minnesota with her first settlers, and, 
curiously enough, they came from the North. 

Abraham Perry was one of these Swiss refu- 
gees from the Selkirk settlement, who, with his 
wife and two children, settled at Fort Snelling 
first, then at St. Paul, and finally at Lake Jo- 
hanna. His son Charles, who came with him, 
has, while I am writing, on the 29th of July, 
1899, celebrated his golden wedding at the old 
homestead at Lake Johanna, where they have 
ever since lived. They were married by the Rt. 
Rev. A. Ravoux, who is still living in St. Paul. 
Charles Perry is the only survivor of that ill- 
fated band of Selkirkers. 


In 1835 George Catlin, an artist of some 
merit, visited Minnesota and made many 
sketches and portraits of Indians. His pub- 



lisbed statements after his departure, concern- 
ing his personal adventures, have elicited ad- 
verse criticism from the settlers of that period. 


Featherstonhaugh, an Englishman, about 
the same time, under the direction of the 
United States Government, made a slight geo- 
logical survey of the Minnesota valley, and on 
his return to England he wrote a book which 
reflected unjustly upon the gentlemen he met 
in Minnesota; but not much was thought of it, 
because, until recently, such has been the En- 
glish custom. 



In 1832 the United States sent an embassy, 
composed of thirty men, under Henry R. 
Schoolcraft, then Indian agent at Ste. Marie, to 
visit the Indians of the Northwest, and when 
advisable to make treaties with them. They 
had a guard of soldiers, a physician, an inter 
prefer, and the Rev. William T. Boutwell, a 
missionary at Leech lake. They were supplied 
with a large outfit of provisions, tobacco and 
trinkets, which were conveyed in a bateau. 
They traveled in several large bark canoes. 
They went to Fond du Lac, thence up the St. 
Louis river, portaged round the falls, thence to 
the nearest point to Sandy lake, thence up the 
Mississippi to Leech lake. While there they 
learned from the Indians that Cass lake, which 
for some time had been reputed to be the 
source of the Mississippi, was not the real 
source, and they determined to solve the prob- 
lem of where the real source was to be found, 
and what it was. 

I may say here, that in 1810, Gen. Lewis Cass, 
then Governor of the Territory of Michigan, 
had led an exploring party to the upper waters 
of the Mississippi, somewhat similar to the one 
I am now speaking of, Mr. Henry P. School- 
craft being one of them. When they reached 

what is now Cass lake, in the Mississippi 
river, they decided that it was the source of the 
gnat river, and it was named t'ass lake, in 
honor of the Governor, and was believed to be 
such until the arrival of Schoolcraft's party in 

After a search an inlet was found into Cass 
lake, flowing from the west, and they pursued 
it until the lake now called "Itasca" was 
reached. Five of the party, Lieutenant Allen, 
Mr. Schoolcraft, Dr. Houghton, Interpreter 
Johnson and Mr. Boutwell, explored the lake 
thoroughly and, finding no inlet, decided it 
must be the true source of the river. Mr. 
Schoolcraft, being desirous of giving the lake 
a name that would indicate its position as the 
true head of the river, and at the same time be 
euphonious in sound, endeavored to produce 
one; but being unable to satisfy himself, turned 
it over to Mr. Boutwell, who, being a good 
Latin scholar, wrote down the Latin words, 
"Veritas," truth, and "caput," head, and sug- 
gested that a word might be coined out of 
the combination that would answer the pur- 
pose. He then cut off the last two syllables of 
Veritas, making "Itas," and the first syllable 
of caput, making "ca," and, putting them to- 
gether, formed the word "Itasca," which in my 
judgment is a sufficiently skillful and beautiful 
literary feat to immortalize the inventor. Mr. 
Hunt well died within a few years at Stillwater, 
in Minnesota. 

Presumptuous attempts have been made to 
deprive Schoolcraft of the honor of having dis- 
covered the true source of the river, but their 
transparent absurdity has prevented their hav- 
ing obtained any credence, and to put a quietus 
on such unscrupulous pretences Mr. J. V. 
Brower, a scientific surveyor, under the aus- 
pices of the Minnesota Historical Society, has 
recently made exhaustive researches, surveys 
and maps of the region, and established beyond 
dmibt or cavil the entire authenticity of School- 
craft's discovery. Gen. James H. Baker, one* 1 
Surveyor General of the State of Minnesota, 
and a distinguished member of the same so- 
ciety, under its appointment, prepared an elab- 
orate paper on the subject, in which is col- 
lected and presented all the facts, history and 



knowledge thai exists, relating to the discov- 
ery, and conclusively destroyed all efforts to 
deprive Schoolcrafl of his laurels. 


While on the subject of (lie source of the 
.Mississippi river, T may as well speak of the 
elevations of the State above the level of the 
sea. It can lie truthfully said that Minnesota 
occupies the summit of the North American 
continent. In its most northern third, rises the 
Mississippi, which in its general course Hows 
due south to the Gulf of .Mexico. In about its 
center division, from north to south, rises the 
Red River of the North, and takes a general 
northerly direction until it empties into Lake 
Winnipeg; the St. Louis and other rivers rise 
in the same region and flow eastwardly into 
Lake Superior, which is the real source of the 
St. Lawrence, which empties into the Atlantic. 

The elevation at the source of the Mississippi 
is 1,600 feet and at the point where it leaves 
the southern boundary of the State 620 feet. 
The elevation at the source of the Red River of 
the North is the same as that of the Mississippi, 
1,600 feet, and where it leaves the State at its 
northern boundary 767 feet. The average ele- 
vation of the State is giveu at 1,275 feet, and 
its highest elevation in the Mesaba Range. 
2,200 feet, and its lowest, at Duluth, 602 feet. 


In 1836 a French savant, Mr. Jean N. Nicol- 
let, visited Minnesota for the purpose of ex- 
ploration. He was an astronomer of note and 
had received a decoration of the Legion of 
Honor, and had also been attached as professor 
to the Royal College of "Louis Le Grand." He 
arrived in Minnesota, July 2C>, 1836, bearing let- 
ters of introduction, and visited Fort Snelling, 
whence he left with a French trader, named 
Fronchet, to explore the sources of the .Missis- 
siiqii. He entered the Crow Wing river, and 
by the way of Gull river and Cull lake, he en- 
tered Leech lake. The Indians were disap- 

pointed when they found he had no presents 
for them, and that he spent the most of his 
time looking at the heavens through a tube, 
and they became unruly and troublesome. The 
Rev. Mr. Boutwell, whose mission house was 
on the lake, learning of the difficulty, came lo 
the rescue, and a very warm friendship sprang 
up between the men. No educated man who 
has not experienced the desolation of having 
been shut up among savages and rough unlet- 
tered voyageurs for a long time can appreciate 
the pleasure of meeting a cultured and refined 
gentleman so unexpectedly as Mr. Rout well 
encountered Nicollet, and especially when lie 
was able to render him valuable aid. 

From Leech lake Nicollet went to Lake 
Itasca with guides and packers. He pitched 
his tent on Schoolcraft island in the lake, 
where he occupied himself for some time in 
making astronomical observations. He con- 
tinued his explorations beyond those of School- 
craft and Lieutenant Allen, and followed up 
the rivulets that entered the lake, thoroughly 
exploring its basin or watershed. 

He returned to Fort Snelling in October and 
remained there for some time, studying Dakota. 
He became the guest of Gen. Henry H. Sibley 
at his home in Mendota for the winter. Gen- 
eral Sibley, in speaking of him, says: 

"A portion of the winter following was spent 
by him at my house and it is hardly necessary 
to state that I found in him a most instructive 
companion. His devotion to his studies was 
intense and unremitting, and I frequently ex- 
postulated with him upon his imprudence in 
thus overtasking the strength of his delicate 
frame, but without effect." 

Nicollet went to Washington after his tour 
of 1X36-7, aud was honored with a commission 
from the United States government to make 
further explorations, and John C. Fremont was 
detailed as his assistant. 

Under his new appointment Nicollet and his 
assistant went up the Missouri in a steamboat 
to Fort Pierre; thence he traveled through the 
interior of Minnesota, visiting the red pip" 
stone quarry, Devil's lake and other important 
localities. On this tour he made a map of the 



country — the first reliable and accurate one 
made, which, together with his astronomical 
observations, were invaluable to the country. 
His name has been perpetuated by giving it to 
one of Minnesota's principal counties. 


The missionary period is one full of interest 
in the history of the State of Minnesota. The 
devoted people who sacrifice all the pleasures 
and luxuries of life to spread the gospel of 
Christianity among the Indians are deserving 
of all praise, no matter whether success or fail- 
ure attends their efforts. The Dakotas and 
Chippewas were not neglected in this respect. 
The Catholics were among them at a very early 
day and strove to convert them to Christianity. 
These worthy men were generally French 
priests and daring explorers, but for some rea- 
son, whether it was want of permanent support 
or an individual desire to rove, I am unable to 
say, but they did not succeed in founding any 
missions of a lasting character among the 
Dakotas before the advent of white settle- 
ment. The devout Romanist, Shea, in his in- 
teresting history of Catholic missions, speak 
ing of the Dakotas, remarks that, "Father Me- 
nard had projected a Sioux mission; Mar- 
quette, Allouez, Druillettes, all entertained 
hopes of realizing it, and had some intercourse 
with that nation, but none of them ever suc- 
ceeded in establishing a mission." Their work, 
however, was only postponed, for at a later 
date they gained and maintained a lasting foot- 

The Protestants, however, in and after 1820, 
made permanent and successful ventures in 
this direction. After the formation of the 
American Fur Company, Mackinaw became 
the chief point of that organization. In June, 
1820, the Rev. Mr. Morse, father of the inventor 
of the telegraph, came to Mackinaw and 
preached the first sermon that was delivered in 
the Northwest. He made a report of his visit 
to the Presbyterian missionary society in New 
York, which sent out parties to explore the 

field. The Rev. W. M. Terry, with his wife, 
commenced a school at Mackinaw in 1823 and 
had great success. There were sometimes as 
many as two hundred pupils at the school, rep- 
resenting many tribes of Indians. There are 
descendants of the children who were educated 
at this school now in Minnesota who are citi- 
zens of high standing and are indebted to this 
institution for their education and position. 

In the year 1830 a Mr. Warren, who was then 
living at La Pointe, visited Mackinaw to obtain 
a missionary for his place, and not being able 
to secure an ordained minister he took back 
with him Mr. Frederick Ayre, a teacher, who, 
being pleased with the place and prospect, re- 
turned to Mackinaw, and in 1831, with the Rev. 
Sherman Hall and wife, started for La Pointe, 
where they arrived August 30, and established 
themselves as missionaries, with a school. 

The next year Mr. Ayre went to Sandy lake 
and opened another school for the children of 
voyageurs and Indians. In 1832 Mr. Boutwell, 
after his tour with Schoolcraft, took charge of 
tlic school at La Pointe, and in 1833 he removed 
to Leech lake and there established the first 
mission in Minnesota, west of the Mississippi. 

From his Leech lake mission he writes a let- 
ter in which he gives such a realistic account 
of his school and mission that one can see 
everything that is taking place, as if a pano- 
rama was passing before his eyes. He takes .1 
cheerful view of his prospects, and gives a com- 
prehensive statement of the resources of the 
country in their natural state. If space al- 
lowed, I would like to copy the whole letter; 
lint as he speaks of the wild rice in referring to 
the food supply, I will say a word about it, as 
I deem it one of Minnesota's most important 
natural resources. 

In 1857 I visited the source of the Mississippi 
with the then Indian Agent for the Chippewas, 
and traveled hundreds of miles in the upper 
river. We passed through endless fields of 
wild rice, and witnessed its harvest by the 
Chippewas, which is a most interesting and 
picturesque scene. They tie it in sheaves with 
straw before it is ripe enough to gather to 
prevent the wind from shaking out the grains, 
and when it has matured they thresh it with 



sticks into their canoes. We estimated that 
there were about one thousand families of the 
Chippewas, and that they gathered about twen- 
ty-five bushels for each family, and we saw 
that in so doing they did not make any impres- 
sion whatever on the crop, leaving thousands 
of acres of the rice to the geese and ducks. 
Our calculations then were, that more rice 
grew in Minnesota each year, without any cul- 
tivation, than was produced in South Carolina 
as one of the principal products of that State; 
and I may add that it is much more palatable 
and nutritious as a food than the white rice of 
the Orient or the South. There is no doubt 
that at some future time it will be utilized to 
the great advantage of the State. 

Mr. Boutwell's Leech lake mission was in all 
things a success. 

In 1834 the Rev. Samuel W. Tond and his 
brother, Gideon H. Pond, full of missionary en- 
thusiasm, arrived at Fort Snelling in the 
month of May. They consulted with the In- 
dian agent, Major Taliaferro, about the best 
place to establish a mission and decided upon 
Lake Calhoun, where dwelt small bands of 
Dakotas, and with their own hands erected a 
house and located. 

About the same time came the Rev. T. H. 
Williamson, M. D., under appointment from 
the American Board of Commissioners of For- 
eign Missions, to visit the Dakotas, and ascer- 
tain what could be done to introduce Christian 
instruction among them. He was reinforced by 
the Rev. J. D. Stevens, missionary, Alexander 
Huggins, farmer, and their wives, Miss Sarah 
I'oage and Miss Lucy Stevens, teachers. They 
arrived at Fort Snelling in May, 1835, and were 
hospitably received by the officers of the gar- 
rison, the Indian Agent and Mr. Sibley, then a 
young man who had recently taken charge of 
the trading post at Mendota. 

From this point Rev. Mr. Stevens and family 
proceeded to Lake Harriet in Hennepin county 
and built a suitable house. Dr. Williamson 
and wife, Mr. Huggins and wife, and Miss 
Poage went to Lac qui Parle, where they were 
welcomed by Mr. Renville, a trader at that 
point, after whom the county of Renville is 

The Rev. J. D. Stevens acted as chaplain of 
Fort Snelling in the absence of a regularly ap- 
pointed officer in that position. 

In 1S37 the mission was strengthened by the 
arrival of the Rev. Stephen R. Riggs, a grad- 
uate of Jefferson College, Pennsylvania, and 
his wife. After remaining a short time at Lake 
Harriet Mr. and Mrs. Riggs went to Lac qui 

In 1837 missionaries sent out by the Evan- 
gelical Society of Lausanne, Switzerland, ar- 
rived and located at Red Wing and Wapa- 
shaw's Villages on the Mississippi, and about 
the same time a Methodist mission was com- 
menced at Kaposia, but they were of brief 
duration and soon abandoned. 

In 183C a mission was established at Poke- 
gama, among the Chippewas, which was quite 
successful, and afterwards, in 1812 or 1813, 
missions were opened at Red Lake, Shakopee 
and other places in Minnesota. During the 
summer of 1843 Mr. Riggs commenced a mis- 
sion station at Traverse des Sioux, which at- 
tained considerable proportions and remained 
until overtaken by white settlement, about 

Mr. Riggs and Dr. Williamson also estab- 
lished a mission at the Yellow Medicine agency 
of the Sioux, in the year 1852, which was about 
the best equipped of any of them. It consisted 
of a good house for the missionaries, a large 
boarding and school house for Indian pupils, a 
neat little church, with a steeple and a bell, and 
all the other buildings necessary to a complete 
mission outfit. 

These good men adopted a new scheme of 
education and civilization, which promised to 
be very successful. They organized a govern- 
ment among the Indians, which they called the 
llazelwood Republic. To become a member of 
this civic body it was necessary that the appli- 
cant should cut off his long hair and put on 
white men's clothes, and it was also expected 
that he should become a member of the church. 
The Republic had a written Constitution, a 
president and other officers. It was in 185C, 
when I first became acquainted with this insti- 
tution, and I afterwards used its members to 
great advantage, in the rescue of captive 



women and the punishment of one of the lead 
ers of the Spirit Lake massacre, which occurred 
in the northwestern portion of Iowa, in the 
year 1857, the particulars of which I will relate 
hereafter. The name of the president was Paul 
Ma-za-cu-ta-ma-ni, or the man who shoots metal 
as he walks, and one of its prominent members 
was John Otherday, called in Sioux, An-pay- 
tu-tok-a-cha, both of whom were the best 
friends the whites had in the hour of their 
great danger in the outbreak of 1862. It was 
these two men who informed the missionaries 
and other whites at the Yellow Medicine 
agency of the impending massacre and assisted 
sixty-two of them to escape before the fatal 
blow was struck. 

What I have said proves that much good at- 
tended the work of the missionaries in the way 
of civilizing some of the Indians, but it has 
always been open to question in my mind if any 
Sioux Indian ever fully comprehended the 
basic doctrines of Christianity. I will give an 
example which had great weight in forming my 
judgment. There was among the pillars of 
the mission church at the Yellow Medicine 
agency, or as it was called in Sioux, Pajutazee, 
an Indian named Ana-wang-mani, to which the 
missionaries had prefixed the name of Simon. 
He was an exceptionally good man and promi- 
nent in all church matters. He prayed and 
exhorted and was looked upon by all interested 
as a fulfillment of the success of both the 
church and the Republic. Imagine the conster- 
nation of the worthy missionaries when one 
day he announced that a man who had killed 
his cousin some eight years ago had returned 
Prom the Missouri and was then in a neighbor- 
ing camp, and that it was his duty to kill him 
to avenge his cousin. The missionaries argued 
with him, quoted the Bible to him, prayed with 
him; in fact, exhausted every possible means to 
prevent him carrying out his purpose, but all 
to no effect. He would admit all they said, as- 
sured them that he believed everything they 
contended for, but he would always end with 
the assertion that "he killed my cousin, and I 
must kill him." This savage instinct was too 
deeply imbedded in his nature to be overcome 
by any teaching of the white man, and the re- 

sult was that he got a double-barreled shotgun 
and carried out his purpose, the consequence of 
which was to nearly destroy the church and 
the republic. He was, however, line to the 
whites all through the outbreak of lsiiU. 

When the Indians rebelled the entire mission 
outfit at Pajutazee was destroyed, which prac- 
tically put an end to missionary effort in Min- 
nesota, but did not in the least lessen the ardor 
of the missionaries. I remember meeting Dr. 
Williamson soon after the Sioux were driven 
out of the State, and supposing, of course, that 
he had given up all hope of Christianizing 
them, I asked him where he would settle, and 
what he would do. He did not hesitate a mo- 
ment, and said that he would hunt up the rem- 
nant of his people and attend to their spiritual 

Having given a general idea of the mission- 
ary efforts that were made in Minnesota, I will 
say a word about the Indians. 


The Dakotas — or, as they were afterwards 
called, the Sioux — and the Chippewas were 
splendid races of aboriginal men. The Sioux 
who occupied Minnesota were about eight 
thousand strong, men, women and children. 
They were divided into four principal bands, 
known as the M'day-wa-kon-tons, or Spirit Lake 
Villagers; the Wak-pay-ku-tays, or Leaf Shoot- 
ers, from their living in the timber; the Si-si- 
tons, and the Wak-pay-tons. There was also a 
considerable band, known as the Upper Si-si- 
tons, who occupied the extreme upper waters 
of the Minnesota river. The Chippewas num- 
bered about seven thousand eight hundred, di- 
vided as follows: At Lake Superior, whose 
agency was at La l'ointe, Wisconsin, about six- 
teen hundred and fifty; on the upper Missis 
sippi, on the east side, about three thousand 
four hundred and fifty; of Fillagers, fifteen hun- 
dred and fifty, and at Red lake, eleven hundred 
and thirty. The Sioux and Chippewas hail 
been deadly enemies as far back as anything 
was known of them and kept up continual war- 
fare. The Winnebagoes, numbering about 
fifteen hundred, were removed from the neu- 


tral ground in I own to Long Prairie in 
Minnesota, in L848, and in 1 s.~>4 were again 
removed to Blue Earth county, near the 
present site of Mankato. While Minne- 
sota was a Territory its western boundary 
extended to the Missouri river, and on that 
river, both east and wesl of it, were numerous 
wild and warlike bands of Sioux, numbering 
many thousands, although no accurate census 
of them had ever been taken. They were the 
Tetons, Yanktons, Cut heads, Yanktonais and 
others. These Missouri Indians frequently vis 
ited Minnesota. 

The proper name of these Indians is Dakota. 
and they know themselves only by that name, 
but the Chippewas of Lake Superior, in speak- 
ing of them, always called them "Nadowes- 
sioux," which in their language signifies enemy. 
The traders had a habit when speaking of any 
tribe in the presence of another, and especially 
of an enemy, to designate them by some name 
that would not be understood by the listeners, 
as they were very suspicious. When speaking 
of the Dakotas they used the last syllable of 
Nadowessioux, "Sioux," until the name at- 
tached itself to them, and they have always 
since been so called. 

Charlevoix, who visited Minnesota in 1721, in 
his history of New France, says: "The name 
Sioux that we give these Indians is entirely of 
our own making, or rather it is the last two 
syllables of the name Nadowessioux, as many 
nations call them." 

The Sioux live in tepees or circular conical 
tents supported by poles, so arranged as to 
leave an opening in the top for ventilation and 
for the escape of smoke. These were, before 
the advent of the whites, covered with dressed 
buffalo skins, but more recently with a coarse 
cotton tent cloth, which is preferable on ac- 
count of its being much lighter to transport 
from place to place, as they are almost con- 
stantly on the move, the tents being carried by 
the squaws. There is no more comfortable 
habitation than the Sioux tepee to be found 
among the dwellers in tents anywhere. A fire 
is made in the center for either warmth or 
cooking purposes. The camp kettle is sus 
pended over it, making cooking easy and 

cleanly. In the winter, when the Indian family 
settles down to remain any considerable time, 
1 bey select a river bottom where there is timber 
or chaparral, and set up the tepee; then they 
ciii i he long grass or bottom cane and stand it 
up against the outside of the lodge to the thick- 
ness of about twenty inches, and you have a 
very warm and cozy habitation. 

The wealth of the Sioux consists very largely 
in his horses, and his subsistence is the game 
of the forest and plains and the fish and wild 
rice of the lakes. Minnesota was an Indian 
paradise. It abounded in buffalo, elk, moose, 
deer, beaver, wolves, and in fact nearly all wild 
animals found in North America. It held upon 
its surface eight thousand beautiful lakes, 
alive with the finest of edible fish. It was 
dotted over with beautiful groves of the sugar 
maple, yielding quantities of delicious sugar, 
and wild rice swamps were abundant. An in- 
habitant of this region with absolute liberty, 
and nothing to do but defend it against the en- 
croachments of enemies, certainly had very 
little more to ask of his Creator. But he was 
not allowed to enjoy it in peace. A stronger 
race was on his trail, and there was nothing left 
for him but to surrender his country on the 
best terms he could make. Such has ever been 
the case from the beginning of recorded events, 
and judging from current operations there has 
been no cessation of the movement. Why was 
not the world made big enough for homes for 
all kinds and colors of men and all characters 
of civilization? 

As the white man progressed towards the 
West and came in contact with the Indians, it 
became necessary to define the territories of 
the different tribes to avoid collision between 
them and the newcomers as much as possible. 
To accomplish this end, Governor Clark of Mis 
souri and Governor Cass of Michigan, on the 
19th of August, 1825, convened at Prairie du 
Chien, a grand congress of Indians, represent- 
ing the Dakotas, Chippewas (then called Ojib- 
ways), Sauks. Foxes, Menomonies, Iowas, Win- 
nebagoes, Pottawattamies and Ottawas, and 
it was determined by treaties among them 
where the dividing lines between their coun- 
tries should be; which partition gave the Chip- 


pewas ;i large part of what is now Wisconsin 
and Minnesota, and the Dakota* lands to the 
west of them. But it soon became apparenl 
that these boundary lines between the Dakotas 
and the Chippewas would not be adhered to, 
and Governor Cass and Mr. T. L. McKenney 
were appointed commissioners to again con- 
vene the Chippewas. This time they met at 
Fond du Lac, and there, on the 5th of August, 
L826, another treaty was entered into, which, 
with the exception of the Fort Snelling treaty. 
was the first one ever made on the soil of Min- 
nesota. By this treaty the Chippewas, among 
other things, renounced all allegiance to or con- 
nection with Great Britain and acknowledged 
the authority of the United States. These 
treaties were, however, rather of a preliminary 
character, being intended more tor the purpose 
of arranging matters between the tribes than 
making concessions to the whites, although the 
whites were permitted to mine and carry away 
metals and ores from the Chippewa country by 
the treaty of Fond du Lac. 

The first important treaty made with the 
Sioux, by which the white men began to obtain 
concessions of lands from them, was on August 
29, 1837. This treaty was made at Washing! on 
through Joel R. Poinsette, and to give an idea 
of how little time and few words were spent in 
accomplishing important ends I will quote the 
first article of this treaty. 

"Article I. The chiefs and braves represent- 
ing the parties having an interest therein cede 
to the United States all their land east of the 
Mississippi river and all their islands in said 

The rest of the treaty is confined to the con- 
sideration to be paid and matters of that na- 

This treaty extinguished all the Dakota title 
in lands east of the Mississippi river in Minne- 
sota and opened the way for immigration on 
all that side of the Mississippi. Immigra- 
tion was not long in accepting the invitation, 
for between the making of the treaty in 1837, 
and the admission of the State of Wisconsin 
into the Union in 1848, there had sprung into 
existence in that State west of the St. Croix the 
towns of Stillwater, St. Anthony, St. Paul. Ma 

line, Areola and other lesser settlements, 
which were all left in .Minnesota when Wiscon- 
sin adopted the St. Croix as its western bound 
a iy. 

Most important, however, of all the treaties 
that opened up the lands of Minnesota to set- 
tlement were those of 1851, made at Traverse 
des Sioux and Mendota, by which the Sioux 
ceiled to the United States all their lands in 
Minnesota and Iowa, except a small reserva- 
tion for their habitation, situated on the upper 
waters of the Minnesota river. 

The Territory of Minnesota was organized in 
1819 and immediately presented to the world 
a very attractive field for immigration. The 
most desirable lands in the new Territory were 
on the west side of the Mississippi, but the title 
to them was still in the Indians. The whites 
could not wait until this was extinguished, but 
at once began to settle on the land lying on the 
west bank of the Mississippi, north of the north 
line of Iowa, and in the new Territory. These 
settlements extended up the Mississippi river 
as far as Saint Cloud, in what is now Stearns 
county, and extended up the Minnesota river as 
far as the mouth of the Blue Earth river, in the 
neighborhood of Mankato. These settlers were 
all trespassers on the lands of I lie Indians, but 
a little thing like that never deterred a white 
American from pushing his fortunes towards 
I he setting sun. It soon became apparent that 
the Indians must yield to the approaching tidal 
wave of set t lenient, and measures were taken 
to acquire their lands by the United States. In 
1851 Luke Lea, then commissioner of the gen- 
eral land office, and Alexander Ramsey, then 
( rovernor of the Territory of Minnesota, and ex- 
officio superintendent of Indian affairs, were 
appointed commissioners to treat with the In- 
dians at Traverse des Sioux, and after much 
feasting and talking a treaty was completed 
and signed, July 23, 1851, between the United 
States and the Sisseton and Wahpeton bands 
of Sioux, whereby these bands ceded to the 
United States a vast tract of land lying in Min- 
nesota and Iowa, and reserved for their future 
occupation a strip of land on the Upper Min- 
nesota, ten miles wide on each side id' the cen- 
ter line of the river. For this cession they were 



io be paid $1,665, I, which w;is to 1"- paid a 

part in cash 1<i liquidate debts, etc., and five 
per cent per annum on the balance tin- fifty 
years, the interest to he paid annually, partly 
in cash iiinl partly in funds tin- agriculture, 
civilization, education and in goods of various 
kinds; these payments, when completed, were 
in satisfy both principal ami interest, the |"'l 
icy and expectation of the government being 
that at the end of fiftj years the Indians would 
be civilized and self-sustaining. 

Amendments were made to iliis treaty in tin' 
Senate, and it was not fully completed and pro- 
claimed until February 24, L853. 

Al st instantly after the execution of tliis 

treaty, and on August •">. ls.11. another treaty 
was negotiated by the same commissioners 
with two other hands of Sioux in .Minnesota. 
the Meda\ wa kui tons and Wak-pay koo-tays. 

By this I real \ these ha lids ceded to the United 

States all their hinds in the T( rritory of Min- 
nesota or State of Iowa, for which they were 
to be paid $1,410,000, very much in the same 
way that was provided in I he last -named treaty 
with the Sissetons and Wak-pax Ions. This 
treaty also was amended by i hi' Senate and not 
fully perfected until February 24, 1853. Both 
of these treaties contained the provision that 
'•The laws of t he United States, prohibiting tic 
introduction and sale of spirituous liquors in 
the Indian country, shall he in full force and 
eifecl throughout the Territory hereby ceded 
and lying in Minnesota, until otherwise di- 
rected by Congress or the President of the 
United States." I mention this feature of the 
treaty because it gave rise to much litigation 
as to whether the treaty making power had au- 
thority to legislate for settlers on the ceded 
lands of the United Stales. The power was sus- 
tained. These treaties practically obliterated 
the Indian title from the lands composing- Min- 
nesota, and its extinction brings us to the ter- 
ritorial period. 


It must be kept in mind that during the per- 
iod which we have been attempting to review. 

the people who inhabited what is now Minne- 
sota wen- subject to a great many different 
governmental jurisdictions. This, however, 
did not in any way concern them, as they did 
not. as a general thing, know or care anything 
about such matters, but as it may be inter- 
esting to the retrospective explorer to be in- 
formed on the subject I will briefly present it. 
Minnesota has 1 wo sources of parentage. The 
part of it lying west of the Mississippi was part 
of the Louisiana purchase made by President 
Jefferson from Napoleon Bonaparte in 1803, 
and the part east of that river was part of 
the Northwest Territory ceded by Virginia in 
1784 to the United States. I will give the suc- 
cessive changes of political jurisdiction, begin- 
ning on the west side of the river. 

First it was part of New Spain, and Spanish. 
It was then purchased from Spain by France, 
and became French. On June 30, 1803, it he- 
came American, by purchase from France, and 
was part of the Province of Louisiana, and so 
remained until March 26, 1S04, when an act 
was passed by Congress creating the Territory 
of Orleans, which included all of the Louisiana 
purchase south of the 33d degree of north lati- 
tude. This act gave the Territory of Louisiana 
a government and called all the country north 
of it the District of Louisiana; this was to he 
governed by the Territory of Indiana, which 
had In en created in 1800, out of the Northwest 
Territory, and had its seat of government at 
Vincennes, on the Wabash. 

On June 4. 1812, the District of Louisiana 
was erected into the Territory of Missouri, 
where we remained until June 28, 1834, when 
all the public lands of the United States lying 
west of the Mississippi, north of the State of 
Missouri, and south of the British line, were, 
by act of Congress, attached to the Territory of 
Michigan; we remained under this jurisdiction 
until April 10, 1830, when the Territory of Wis- 
consin was created. This law went into effect 
July 3, 1830, and Wisconsin took in our terri- 
tory lying west of the Mississippi, and there it 
remained until June 12, 183S; then the Terri- 
tory of Iowa was created, taking us in and 
holding us until the State of Iowa was ad- 
milted into the Union, on March :',. 1S4.">. which 


left us without any government west of 1 he- 

The pari of Minnesota lying east of the Miss- 
issippi was originally part of the Northwest 
Territory. < »n May 7, 1S00, it became part of 
the Indiana Territory and remained so until 
April 26, 183G, when it became part of the Wis 
cousin Territory; it so continued until May 29, 
1848, when Wisconsin entered the Union as a 
State with the St. Croix river for its western 
boundary. By this arrangement of the western 
boundary of Wisconsin, all the territory west 
of the St. < Jroix and east of the Mississippi. like 
that west of the river, was left without any 
government at all. 

One of the curious results of the many gov- 
ernmental changes which the western part of 
Minnesota underwent is illustrated in the resi- 
dence of (Jen. Henry II. Sibley at Mendota. In 
1834. at the age of twenty two. Mr. Sibley com- 
menced his residence at Mendota. as the agent 
of the American Fur Company's establishment. 
At this point Mr. Sibley built the first private 
residence that was erected in Minnesota. It 
was a large, comfortable dwelling, constructed 
of the blue limestone found in the vicinity, 
with commodious porticos on the river front. 
The house was built in 1835-6, and was then in 
the Territory of Michigan. Mr. Sibley lived in 
it successively in Michigan, Wisconsin. Iowa 
and the Territory and State of Minnesota. He 
removed to St. Paul in the year 1862. Every 
distinguished visitor who came to Minnesota 
in the early days was entertained by Mr. Sibley 
in his hospitable old mansion, and, together 
with its genial, generous and refined propri- 
etor, it contributed much towards planting the 
seeds of those aesthetic amenities of social life 
that have so generally flourished in the later 
days of Minnesota's history, and -;iven it its 
deserved prominence among the States of the 
West. Tin- house still stands, and has been 
occupied at different times since its founder 
abandoned it. as a < 'atholic institution of some 
kind and an artist's summer school. The word 
Mendota is Sioux, and means the meeting of 
tin- water's. 

It was the admission of Wisconsin into the 
Union in 1848 that brought about the organiza- 

tion of i he Territory of Minnesota. The peculiar 
situation in which all the people residing wesi 
of the Si. Croix found themselves set them to 
devising ways and means to obtain some kind 
of government to live under. It was a de- 
batable question whether the remnant of Wis 
cousin which was left over when the State was 
admit teil carried with ii the Territorial govern- 
ment, or whether if was a in man's land, and 
different views were entertained on the sub- 
ject. The question was somewhat embarrassed 
by the fact that the Territorial Governor, Gov- 
ernor Dodge, had been elected to the Senate 
of the United States from the new State, and 
i he Territorial secretary. Mr. John Catlin, who 
would have become Governor ex-officio when a 
vacancy occurred in the office of Governor, re- 
sided in Madison, and the delegate to Congress, 
Mr. John II. Tweedy, had resigned, so even if 
the Territorial government had in law survived 
there seemed to be no one to represent and ad- 
minister it. 

There was no lack of ability among the in- 
habitants of the abandoned remnant of Wis 
consin. In St. Paul dwelt Henry M. Rice, Louis 
Roberts, J. W. Simpson, A. L. Larpenteur, 
David Lambert, Henry Jackson, Vetal Guerin, 
David Herbert. Oliver Rosseau, Andre Cod 
trey. Joseph Rondo, James R. Clewell, Edward 
I'helan. William <1. Carter anil many others. 
In Stillwater, and on the St. Croix, were Mor- 
ton S. Wilkinson. Henry L. Moss. John Mc- 
Kusick, Joseph R. Brown and others. In Men- 
dota resided Henry II. Sibley. In St. Anthony, 
William R. Marshall; at Fori Snelling, Frank- 
lin Steele. I could name many others, but the 
above is a representative list. It will be ob- 
served that many of them are French. 

An initial meeting was held in St. Paul, in 
duly of 1848, at Henry Jackson's trading house, 
to consider the matter, which was undoubtedly 
the first public meeting ever held in Minnesota. 
( )n 1 he 5th of August, in the same year, a simi- 
lar meeting was held in Stillwater, and out of 
these meetings grew a call for a convention to 
lie held at Stillwater. August 26, which was 
held accordingly. There were present about 
sixty delegates. 

At this meeting a letter from Hon. John Cat- 



lin, the secretary of Wisconsin Territory, was 
read, giving it as his opinion that the Terri- 
torial government of Wisconsin still existed, 
and that if a delegate to Congress was elected 
he would he admitted to a seat. 

A memorial to Congress was prepared, set- 
ting forth the peculiar situation in which the 
people of the remnant found themselves and 
praying relief in the organization of a Terri- 
torial government. 

During the session of this convention there 
was a verhal agreement entered into hetween 
the members to the effect that when the new 
Territory was organized the capital should be 
at St. Paul, the penitentiary at Stillwater, the 
university at St. Anthony, and the delegate to 
Congress should be taken from Mendota. I 
have had reason to assert publicly this fact on 
former occasions, and so far as it relates to the 
university and the penitentiary my statement 
was questioned by Minnesota's greatest his- 
torian, Rev. Edward D. Neill, in a published 
article, signed "Iconoclast," but I sustained my 
position by letters from surviving members of 
the convention, which I published, and to 
which no answer was ever made. The same 
statement can be found in William's History of 
St. Paul, published in 1876, at page 182. 

The result of this convention was the selec- 
tion of Henry H. Sibley as its agent or dele- 
gate, to proceed to Washington and present the 
memorial and resolutions to the United States 
authorities. It was, curiously enough, stipu- 
lated that the delegate should pay his own ex- 

Shortly after this event the Hon. John H. 
Tweedy, who was the regularly elected dele- 
gate to Congress from the Territory of Wiscon- 
sin, no doubt supposing his official career was 
terminated, resigned his position, and Mr. John 
Catlin, claiming to be the Governor of the Ter- 
ritory, came to Stillwater, and issued a procla- 
mation, October 9, 1848, ordering a special elec- 
tion to fill the vacancy caused by the resigna- 
tion of Delegate Tweedy. The election was 
held, October 30. Mr. Henry H. Sibley and Mr. 
Henry M. Rice became candidates, neither car- 
ing very much about the result, and Mr. Sibley 
was elected. There was much doubt enter- 

tained as to the delegate being allowed to take 
his seat, but in November he proceeded to 
Washington and was admitted, after consid- 
erable discussion. 

March 3, 1849, the delegate succeeded in 
passing an act organizing the Territory of Min- 
nesota, the boundaries of which embraced all 
the territory between the western boundary of 
Wisconsin and the Mississippi river, and also 
all that was left unappropriated on the admis- 
sion of the State of Iowa, which carried our 
western boundary to the Missouri river, and 
included within our limits, a large part of what 
is now North and South Dakota. 

The passage of this act was the first step 
in the creation of Minnesota. No part of the 
country had ever before borne that name. The 
word is composed of two Sioux words, "Minne," 
which means water, and "Sota," which means 
the condition of the sky when fleecy white 
clouds are seen floating slowly and quietly over 
it. It has been translated "skytinted," giving 
to the word Minnesota the meaning of sky- 
tinted water. The name originated in the fact 
that in the early days the river now called Min- 
nesota used to rise very rapidly in the spring 
and there was constantly a caving in of the 
banks, which disturbed its otherwise pellucid 
waters, and gave them the appearance of the 
sky when covered with the light clouds I have 
mentioned. The similarity was heightened by 
the current keeping the disturbing element 
constantly in motion. There is a town just 
above St. Peter, called Kasota, which means 
cloudy sky — not stormy or threatening, but a 
sky dotted with fleecy white clouds. The best 
conception of this word can be found by pour- 
ing a few drops of milk into a glass of clear 
water and observing the cloudy disturbance. 

The principal river in the Territory was then 
called the St. Peter's river, but the name was 
changed to the Minnesota. 


An act organizing a territory simply creates 
a government for its inhabitants, limiting and 
regulating its powers, executive, legislative 


and judicial, and in our country they resemble 
each other in all essential features. But the 
organic act of Minnesota contained one provis- 
ion never before found in any that preceded it. 
It had been customary to donate to the Terri- 
tory and future State one section of land in 
each surveyed township for school purposes, 
and section sixteen had been selected as the 
one, but in the Minnesota act the donation was 
doubled, and sections sixteen and thirty-six in 
each township were reserved for the schools, 
which amounted to one-eighteenth of all the 
lands in the Territory, and when it is under- 
stood that the State, as now constituted, con- 
tains 84,287 square miles, or about 53,943,379 
acres of land, it will be seen that the grant was 
princely in extent and incalculable in value. 
No other State in the Union has been endowed 
with such a magnificent educational founda- 
tion. I may except Texas, which came into the 
Union, not as a part of the United States pub- 
lic domain, but as an independent republic, 
owning all its lands, amounting to 237,504 
square miles, or 152,002,560 acres — a vast em- 
pire in itself. I remember hearing a distin- 
guished Senator, in the course of the debate 
on its admission into the Union, describe its 
immensity by saying, "A pigeon could not fly 
across it in a week." 

It affords every citizen of Minnesota great 
pride to know that, under all phases and condi- 
tions of our Territory and State, whether in 
prosperity or adversity, the school fund has 
always been held sacred, and neither extrava- 
gance, neglect nor peculation has ever assailed 
it, but it has been husbanded with jealous care 
from time to time since the first dollar was real- 
ized from it until the present, and has accumu- 
lated until the principal is estimated at $20,- 
000,000. The State Auditor, in his last report 
of it, says: 

"The extent of the school land grant should 
ultimately be about 3.000,000 acres, and as the 
average price of this land heretofore sold is 
about $5.96 per acre, the amount of principal 
alone should yield the school fund not less 
than $17,000,000. To this must be added the 
amount received from sales of timber, and for 
lease and royalty of mineral lands, which will 

not be less than $3,000,000 more. It is not prob- 
able that the average sale price of this land 
will be reduced in the future, but it may in- 
crease, especially in view of the improved 
method of sale inaugurated by the new land 

The general method of administering the 
school fund is, to invest the proceeds arising 
from the sale of the lands, and distribute the in- 
terest among the counties of the State accord- 
ing to the number of children attending school; 
the principal always to remain untouched and 

Generous grants of land have also been made 
for a State university, amounting to 92,558 
acres. Also for an agricultural college to the 
extent of 100,000 acres, which two funds have 
been consolidated, and together they have ac- 
cumulated to the sum of $1,159,790.73, all of 
which is securely invested. 

The State has also been endowed with 500,- 
000 acres of land for internal improvements, 
and all its lands falling within the designa- 
tion of swamp lands. An act of Congress, of 
February 26, 1857, also gave it ten sections of 
land for the purpose of completing public 
buildings at the seat of government, and all 
the salt springs, not to exceed twelve, in the 
State, with six sections of land to each spring, 
in all seventy-two sections. The twelve salt 
springs have all been discovered and lo- 
cated, and the lands selected. The salt 
spring lands have been transferred to the re- 
gents of the University, to be held in trust 
to pay the cost of a geological and natural his- 
tory survey of the State. It is estimated that 
the salt spring lands will produce, on the same 
valuation as the school lands, the sum of $300,- 
000. Large sums will also be gained by the 
State from the sale of timber stumpage and 
the products of its mineral lands. Some idea 
of the magnitude of the fund to be derived 
from the mineral lands of the State may be 
learned from the report of the State Auditor 
for the year 1896, in which he says that dur- 
ing the years 1895-6 there has been received 
from and under all mineral leases, contracts 
and royalties, $170,128.83. 

It will be seen from this statement that the 



educational interests of Minnesota are largely 
provided for without resort to direct taxation, 
although up to the present time that means 
of revenue has, to some extent, been utilized 
to meet the expenses of the grand system pre- 
vailing throughout the State. 


The organization of the Territory was com- 
pleted by the appointment of Alexander Ram- 
sey, of Pennsylvania, as Governor; Aaron 
Goodrich as Chief Justice, and David Cooper 
and Bradley B. Meeker as Associate Justices, 
C. K. Smith as Secretary, Joshua L. Taylor as 
Marshal, and Henry L. Moss as District At- 

May 27, 1849, the Governor and his family 
arrived in St. Paul, but there being no suitable 
accommodations for them, they became the 
guests of Honorable Henry H. Sibley at Men- 
dota, whose hospitality, as usual, was never 
failing, and for several weeks there resided the 
four men who have been perhaps more prom- 
inent in the development of the State than any 
others, Henry H. Sibley, Alexander Ramsey, 
Henry M. Rice and Franklin Steele, all of 
whom have been honored by having important 
counties named after them and by being chosen 
to fill high places of honor and trust. 

The Governor soon returned to the capital, 
and on the 1st of June, 1849, issued a proc- 
lamation declaring the Territory dulj organ- 
ized. June 11, he issued a second proclama- 
tion, dividing the Territory into three Judicial 
Districts. The County of St. Croix, which was 
one of the discarded counties of Wisconsin, 
and embraced the present county of Ramsey, 
was made the First District. The Second was 
composed of the county of La Pointe (another 
of the Wisconsin counties) and the region 
north and west of the Mississippi river, and 
north of the Minnesota, and on a line running 
due west from the headwaters of the Minne- 
sota to the Missouri. The country west of the 
Mississippi and south of the Minnesota formed 
the Third District. The Chief Justice was as- 

signed to the First, Meeker to the Second and 
Cooper to the Third, and courts were ordered 
held in each district as follows: At Stillwater, 
in the First District, on the second Monday; 
at the Falls of St. Anthony on the third Mon 
day, and at Mendota on the fourth Monday in 

A census was taken of the inhabitants of the 
Territory in pursuance of the requirements of 
the organic act, with the following result : I 
give here the details of the census, as it is in- 
teresting to know what inhabited places there 
were in the Territory at this time, as well as 
the number of inhabitants. 

Total in 
Names of Places. habitants. 

Stillwater 609 

Lake St. Croix 211 

Marine Mills 173 

St. Paul 840 

Little Canada and St. Anthony 571 

Crow Wing and Long Prairie 350 

( )sakis Rapids 133 

Falls of St. Croix 16 

Snake River 82 

La Pointe County 22 

Crow Wing 174 

Big Stone Lake and Lac qui Parle 68 

Little Rock 35 

Prairieville 22 

Oak Grove 23 

Black Dog Village 18 

Crow Wing, East Side 70 

Mendota 122 

Red Wing Village 33 

Wabasha and Root River 114 

Fort Snelling 38 

Soldiers, women and children in Forts. . . 317 

Pembina .' 637 

.Missouri River 85 

Total 4,764 

On the 7th of July the Governor issued a 
proclamation dividing the Territory into seven 
council districts, and ordering an election for 
a delegate to Congress, nine councillors and 
eighteen representatives to constitute the first 
Territorial Legislature, to be held on the 1st of 
August. At this electioD Henry II. Sibley was 
again chosen delegate to Congress. 




The courts were held in pursuance of the 
Governors' proclamation, the first one conven- 
ing at Stillwater. But before I relate what 
there occurred I will mention an attempt that 
was made by Judge Irwin, one of the Terri- 
torial Judges of Wisconsin, to hold a term in 
St. Croix county, in 1842. Joseph R, Brown, 
of whom I shall speak hereafter, as one of the 
brightest of Minnesota's early settlers, came to 
Fort Snelling as a fifer boy in the regiment 
that founded and built the fort in 1819, was 
discharged from the army about 182(i, and had 
become clerk of the courts in St. Croix county. 
He had procured the Legislature of Wisconsin 
to order a court in his county for some reason 
only known to himself, and in 1842 Judge Ir- 
win came up to hold it. He arrived at Fort 
Snelling and found himself in a country which 
indicated that disputes were more frequently 
settled with tomahawks than by the principles 
of the common law. The officers of the fort 
could give him no information, but in his wan- 
derings he found Mr. Norman W. Kittson, who 
had a trading house near the Falls of Minne- 
haha. Kittson knew Clerk Brown, who was 
then living on the St. Croix, near where Still- 
water now stands, and furnishing the Judge a 
horse, directed him how to find his clerk. After 
a ride of more than twenty miles Brown \v;is 
discovered, but no preparations had been made 
for a court. The Judge took the first boat 
down the river a disgusted and angry man. 

After the lapse of five years from this futile 
attempt the first court actually held within the 
bounds of Minnesota was presided over by 
Judge Dunn, then Chief Justice of the Terri- 
tory of Wisconsin. The court convened at Still- 
water in June, 1847, and is remembered not 
only as the first court ever held in Minnesota, 
but on account of the trial of an Indian chief 
named ''Wind," who was indicted for murder. 
Samuel J. Crawford, of Mineral roint, was ap- 
pointed prosecuting attorney for the term, and 
Ben C. Eastman, of Plattville, defended the 
prisoner. "Wind" was acquitted. This was 
the first jury trial in Minnesota. 

It should be stated that Henry H. Sibley 

was in fact the first judicial officer who ever 
exercised the functions of a court in Minne- 
sota. While living at St. Peters (Mendota) he 
was commissioned a justice of the peace in 
18.35 or 1836 by Governor Chambers, of Iowa, 
with a jurisdiction extending from twenty 
miles south of Prairie du Chien to the British 
boundary on the north, to the White river on 
the west and the Mississippi on the east. His 
prisoners could only be committed to Prairie 
du Chien. Boundary lines were very dimly de- 
fined in those days, and minor magistrates 
were in no danger of being overruled by supe- 
rior courts, and tradition asserts that the writs 
of Sibley's court often extended far over into 
Wisconsin and other jurisdictions. One case 
is recalled which will serve as an illustration. 
A man named I'halen was charged with having 
murdered a sergeant in the United States Ar- 
my in Wisconsin. He was arrested under a 
warrant from Justice Sibley's Iowa court, ex- 
amined and committed to Prairie du Chien, and 
no questions asked. Lake Phalen, from which 
the City of St. Paul derives part of its water 
supply, is named after this prisoner. Whatever 
jurisdictional irregularities Justice Sibley may 
have indulged in it is safe to say that no injus- 
tice ever resulted from any decision of his. 

The first courthouse that was erected within 
the present limits of Minnesota was at Still- 
water, in the year 1847. A private subscription 
was taken up and f 1,200 was contributed. This 
sum was supplemented by a sufficient amount 
to complete the structure from the treasury of 
St. Croix county. It was perched on the top 
of one of the high bluffs in that town, and 
much private and judicial blasphemy has been 
expended by exhausted litigants and judges in 
climbing to its lofty pinnacle. I held a term 
in it ten years after its completion. 

This courthouse fell within the First Judi- 
cial District of the Territory of Minnesota un- 
der the division made by Governor Ramsey, 
and the first court under his proclamation was 
held within its walls, beginning the second 
Monday of August, 1849. It was presided over 
by Chief Justice Goodrich, assisted by Judge 
Cooper, the term lasting one week. There 
were thirty-five cases on the calendar. The 



grand jury returned thirty indictments, one 
for assault with intent to maim, one for per- 
jury, four for selling liquor to the Indians and 
four for keeping gambling houses. Only one 
of these indictments was tried at this term, 
and the accused, Mr. William D. Phillips, be- 
ing a prominent member of the bar, and there 
being a good deal of fun in it, I will give a brief 
history of the trial and the defendant. 

Mr. Phillips was a native of Maryland and 
came to St. Paul in 1848. He was the first dis- 
trict attorney of the county of Kamsey. He 
became quite prominent as a lawyer and poli- 
tician,' and tradition has handed down many 
interesting anecdotes concerning him. The in- 
dictment charged him with assault with intent 
to maim. In an altercation with a man he had 
drawn a pistol on him, and his defense was 
that the pistol was not loaded. The witness 
for the prosecution swore that it was, and 
added that he could see the load. The prisoner, 
as I he law then was, was not allowed to testify 
in his own behalf. He was convicted and fined 
$25. He was very indignant at the result, and 
explained the assertion of the witness, that he 
could see the load, in this way: He said he 
had been electioneering for Mr. Henry M. Rice, 
and from the uncertainty of getting his meals 
in such an unsettled country he carried crack- 
ers and cheese in the same pocket with his pis- 
tol, a crumb of which had gotten into the muz- 
zle, and the fellow was so scared when he. 
looked at the pistol that he thought it was 
loaded to the muzzle. 

Another anecdote which is related of him 
shows that he fully understood the funda- 
mental principle which underlies success in the 
practice of law — that of always charging for 
services performed. Mr. Henry M. Rice had 
presented him with a lot in St. Paul, upon 
which to build an office, and when he presented 
his next bill to Mr. Rice there was in it a 
charge of four dollars for drawing the deed. 

The Territorial courts, as originally consti- 
tuted, being composed of only three judges, the 
trial terms were held by single judges, and the 
Supreme Court by all three sitting in bank 
where they would review each other's decisions 
on appeal. 

When the State was admitted into the Union 
the judiciary was made to consist of a Chief 
Justice and two Associate Justices, who con- 
stituted the Supreme Court, with a jurisdiction 
exclusively appellate and a District Judge for 
each district. As the State has grown in pop- 
ulation and business the Supreme Court judges 
have been increased to five and the judicial dis- 
tricts to eighteen in number, two of which, the 
Second and the Fourth, have six judges each; 
the Eleventh three; the First and Seventh two 
each, and the remainder one each. 

The practice adopted by the Territorial Leg- 
islature was generally similar to that of the 
New York code, with such differences as were 
necessary to conform it to a very new country. 
From a residence in the Territory and State 
of forty-six years, nearly all of which has been 
spent either in practice at the bar or as a judge 
on the bench, I take pride in saying that the 
judiciary of Minnesota, in all its branches, both 
Territorial and State, has, during its fifty years 
of existence, equaled in ability, learning and 
integrity that of any State in the West, which 
is well attested by the seventy-one well filled 
volumes of its reported decisions. 

Nearly all of the old lawyers of Minnesota 
were admitted to practice at the first term held 
at Stillwater, among whom were Morton S. 
Wilkinson. Henry L. Moss, Edmund Rice, Lo- 
renzo A. Babcock, Alexander Wilkin, Bushrod 
W. Lott and many others. Of the whole list 
Mr. Moss is the sole survivor. 


The first Legislature convened at St. Paul 
<in Monday, the 3d of September, 1849, in the 
Central House, which, for the occasion, served 
for both capitol and hotel. The quarters were 
limited, but the Legislature was small. The 
Council had nine members and the House of 
Representatives eighteen. The usual officers 
were elected, and on Tuesday afternoon both 
heiises assembled in the dining room of the 
hotel. Prayer was offered by the Rev. E. D. 
Mill, and Governor Ramsey delivered his mes- 
sage, which was well received both at home 
and abroad. 



It may be interesting to give the names of 
the men constituting this body and the places 
of their nativity. The Councillors were: 

James S. Norris Maine. 

Samuel Burkleo Delaware. 

William H. Forbes Montreal. 

James McBoal Pennsylvania. 

David B. Loomis Connecticut. 

John Rollins Maine. 

David Olmsted Vermont. 

William Sturgis Upper Canada. 

Martin McLeod Montreal. 

The Members of the House were: 
Joseph W. Furber. . .New Hampshire. 

James Wells New Jersey. 

M. S. Wilkinson New York. 

Sylvanus Trask New York. 

Mahlon Black Ohio. 

Benjamin W. Bronson Michigan. 

Henry Jackson Virginia. 

John J. Duvey New York. 

Parsons K. Johnson Vermont. 

Henry F. Setzer Missouri. 

William R. Marshall Missouri. 

William Dugas Lower Canada. 

Jeremiah Russell Lower Canada. 

L. A. Babcock Vermont. 

Thomas A. Holmes Pennsylvania. 

Allen Morrison Pennsylvania. 

Alexis Bailly Michigan. 

Gideon H. Pond Connecticut. 

David Olmstead was elected president of the 
council, with Joseph R. Brown as secretary. 
In the House Joseph W. Furber was elected 
speaker and W. D. Phillips clerk. 

Many of these men became very prominent 
in the subsequent history of the State, and it is 
both curious and interesting to note the varied 
sources of their nativity, which shows that 
they were all of that peculiar and picturesque 
class known as the American pioneer. 

The work of the first Legislature was not ex- 
tensive, yet it performed some acts of historical 
interest. It created eight counties, named as 
follows: Itasca, Wabashaw, Dakota, Wahnah- 
tah, Mankato, Pembina, Washington, Ramsey 
and Benton. The spelling of some of these 
names has since been changed. 

A very deep interest was manifested in the 
school system. A joint resolution was passed 
ordering a slab of red pipestone from the fa- 
mous quarry to be sent to the Washington 
Monument association, which was done, and 
now represents Minnesota in that lofty monu 
ment at the National Capital. 

This was done at the suggestion of Henry 
H. Sibley, who furnished the stone. It will be 
remembered that I have referred to the visit 
of George Catlin, the artist, to Minnesota in 
1835, and that his report was unreliable. 
Among other things, he says that he was the 
first white man who had visited this quarry, 
and induced geologists to name the pipestone 
"Catlinite." Mr. Sibley, in his communication 
to the Legislature presenting this slab, in an- 
swer to this pretension, says: 

"In conclusion, I would beg leave to state 
that a late geological work of high authority 
by Dr. Jackson designates this formation as 
< 'atlinite upon the erroneous supposition that 
Mr. George Catlin was the first white man who 
had ever visited that region; whereas it is no- 
torious that many whites had been there and 
examined the quarry long before he came to 
the country. The designation, therefore, is 
clearly improper and unjust. The Sioux term 
for the stone is Eyan-sha (red stone), by which 
I conceive it should be known and classified." 

In my opinion the greatest achievement of 
the first Legislature was the incorporation of 
the Historical Society of Minnesota. It estab- 
lished beyond question that we had citizens, 
at that early day, of thought and culture. One 
would naturally suppose that the first legisla- 
tive body of an extreme frontier territory 
Mould be engaged principally with saw logs, 
peltries, town-sites and other things material; 
but in this instance we find an expression of 
the highest intellectual prevision — the desire 
to record historical events for posterity, even 
before their happening; and what affords even 
greater satisfaction to the present citizens of 
Minnesota is that from the conception of this 
grand idea there have never been men wanting 
to appreciate its advantages and carry it out. 
As a result our State now possesses its greatest 
intellectual and moral treasure in a library of 
historical knowledge of sixty-three thousand 


volumes, which is steadily increasing, a val- 
uable museum of curiosities and a gallery of 
historical paintings. 

This Legislature recommended a device for 
a great seal. It represented an Indian family 
with lodge and canoe, encamped, a single. white 
man visiting them, and receiving from them 
the calumet of peace. The design did not meet 
with general approval, and nothing came of it. 
The next winter Governor Ramsey and the 
delegate to Congress prepared a seal for the 
Territory, the design of which was the Falls 
of St. Anthony in the distance, a farmer plow- 
ing land, his gun and powder horn leaning 
against a newly-cut stump, a mounted Indian, 
surprised at the sight of the plow, lance in 
hand, fleeing toward the setting sun, with the 
Latin motto, "Quae sursum volo videre,'' I wish 
to see what is above. A blunder was made by 
the engraver in substituting the word "Quo" 
for "Quae" in the motto, which destroyed its 
meaning. Some time after it was changed to 
the French motto, "L'Etoile du Nord,'' Star of 
the North, and thus remains until the present 

While speaking of seals I will state that the 
seal of the Supreme Court was established 
when the first term of the court convened in 
1858. The design adopted was a female figure 
representing the Goddess of Liberty holding 
the evenly balanced scales of justice in one 
hand and a sword in the other, with the some- 
what hackneyed motto, "Fiat justitia ruat 
coelum," let justice be done if the heavens fall. 
I remember that soon after it appeared some 
one asked one of the judges what the new 
motto meant, and he jocularly answered, 
"Those who fie at justice will rue it when we 
seal 'em." 

The seal was changed to the same device as 
that of the State, with the same motto and the 
words, "Seal of the Supreme Court, State of 


When the first Legislature convened the 
Governor, on the second day of the session — 
September 4, 1849 — delivered his message. It 

was a well-timed document, and admirably ex- 
pressed to attract attention to the new Terri- 
tory. After congratulating the members upon 
the enviable position they occupied as pioneers 
of a great prospective civilization, which would 
carry the American name and American insti- 
tutions, by the force of superior intelligence, 
labor and energy, to untold results, he, among 
other things, said: 

"I would advise you, therefore, that your 
legislation should be such as will guard equal- 
ly the rights of labor and the rights of prop- 
erty, without running into ultraisms on either 
hand; as will recognize no social distinctions 
except those which merit and knowledge, re- 
ligion and morals unavoidably create; as will 
suppress crime, encourage virtue; give free 
scope to enterprise and industry; as will 
promptly and without delay administer to and 
supply all the legitimate wants of the people — 
laws, in a word, in the proclamation of which 
will be kept steadily in view the truth, that 
this Territory is designed to be a great State, 
rivaling in population, wealth and energy her 
sisters of the Union, and that consequently all 
laws not merely local in their objects should 
be framed for the future as well as the pres- 
ent. * * * * 

"Our Territory, judging from the experience 
of the few months since public attention was 
called to its many advantages, will settle rap- 
idly. Nature has done much for us. Our pro- 
ductive soil and salubrious climate will bring 
thousands of immigrants within our borders; 
it is of the utmost moment that the foundation 
of our legislation should be healthful and solid. 
A knowledge of this fact will encourage tens 
of thousands of others to settle in our midst, 
and it may not be long ere we may with truth 
be recognized throughout the political and the 
moral world as indeed the 'Polar Star' of the 
republican galaxy. * * * * 

"No portion of the earth's surface perhaps 
combines so many favorable features for the 
settler as this Territory; watered by the two 
greatest rivers of our continent, the Missouri 
sweeping its entire western border, the Missis 
sippi and Lake Superior making its eastern 
frontier, and whilst the States of Wiscon- 
sin and Iowa limit us on the south the 
possessions of the Hudson Bay Company 
present the only barrier to our domain 
on the extreme north; in all embracing an 
area of lGG.OOO square miles, a country 
sufficiently extensive to admit of the erec- 
tion of four States of the largest class, each 



enjoying; in abundance most of the elements of 
future greatness. Its soil is of the most pro- 
ductive character, yet our northern latitude 
saves us from malaria and death, which in 
other climes are so often attendant on a liberal 
soil. Our people, under the healthful and brac- 
ing influences of this northern climate, will 
never sink into littleness, but continue to pos- 
sess the vigor and the energy to make the most 
of their natural advantages." 

This message, while not in the least exag- 
gerating the actual situation, was well calcu- 
lated to attract immigration to this region. It 
was written in a year of great activity in that 
line. Gold had been discovered in California, 
and the thoughts of the pioneer were attracted 
in that direction, and it needed extraordinary 
attractions to divert the stream to any other 
point. It was extensively quoted in the eastern 
papers, and much commented upon, and suc- 
ceeded beyond all expectations in awakening- 
interest in the Northwest. It was particularly 
attractive in Maine, where the people were ex- 
perienced in lumbering, and many of them 
nocked to the valley of the St. Croix and the 
Falls of St. Anthony and inaugurated the lum- 
bering business which has since grown to such 
immense proportions. The St. Croix, the Rum 
and the upper Mississippi rivers, with their 
tributaries, soon responded to the music of the 
woodsman's axe. Saw mills were erected, and 
Minnesota was soon recognized among the 
great lumber producing regions. 

Although immigration continued to be quite 
rapid during the years 1850 - 54,it was not until 
about the year 1S55 that it acquired a volume 
that was particularly noticeable. The reader 
must remember that Minnesota was on the ex- 
treme border of America and that it repre- 
sented to the immigrant only those attractions 
incident to a new territory possessing the gen- 
eral advantages of good climate, good soil and 
good government as far as developed. There 
was no gold, no silver, or other special induce- 
ments. The only way of reaching it was by 
land on wheels, or by the navigable rivers. 
There was not a railroad west of Chicago. To 
give an idea of the rush that came in 1855 I 
quote from the History of St. Paul by J. Fletch- 

er Williams, for many years secretary of the 
Minnesota Historical Society, published in 
1870. Speaking of the immigration of 1855, he 

says : 

"Navigation opened on April 17, the old 
favorite, 'War Eagle.' leading the van with 
eigb.1 hundred and fourteen passengers. The 
papers chronicled the immigration that spring- 
as unprecedented. Seven boats arrived in one 
day, each having brought to Minnesota from 
two hundred to six hundred passengers. Most 
of these came through Saint Paul and diverged 
hence to other parts of the Territory. It was 
estimated by the packet company that they 
brought thirty thousand immigrants into Min- 
nesota that season. Certainly 1855, '56 and '57 
were the three great years of immigration in 
our Territorial days. Nothing like it has ever 
been seen." 

In the early fifties the Mississippi up to and 
even for a long distance above the Falls of SI. 
Anthony was navigable for steamboats. A 
fine boat, the "Ans. Northrup," once pene- 
trated as far as the Falls of Pokegama, where 
she was dismantled and her machinery trans- 
ported to the Ked River of the North, and four 
or five boats regularly navigated the stream 
above the falls. 

The Minnesota river, during all the period 
of our early history, and far into the sixties, 
was navigable for large steamers up to Man- 
kato, and in one instance a steamboat carrying 
a large cargo of Indian goods was taken by 
Culver and Farrington, Indian traders, as far 
as the Yellow Medicine river and into that 
river, so that the goods were delivered at the 
agency situated a few miles above its mouth. 
I mention this fact because a wonderful change 
has taken place in the watercourses and lakes 
of the State in the past twenty odd years, 
which I propose to account for on the only the- 
ory that seems to me to meet the conditions. 
Up to about twenty years ago, as soon as the 
ice went out of the Minnesota river in the 
spring, it would rise until it overran its banks 
and covered (lie bottoms for miles on each side 
of its channel, and would continue capable of 
carrying large steamers until late in August. 
Since that time it has rarely been out of its 



banks, and navigation of its waters has en- 
tirely ceased. The same phenomenon is ob- 
servable in relation to many of our lakes; hun- 
dreds of I lie smaller ones have entirely dried 
u]}. and most of the larger ones have become re- 
duced in depth several feet. The rainfall has 
not been lessened, but if anything has in- 
creased. My explanation of the change is, that 
in the advance of civilization the water sheds 
or basins of these rivers and lakes having been 
plowed up, the rainfall which formerly found 
its way quickly into the streams and lakes over 
the hard natural surface is now absorbed into 
the soft and receptive ground, and is returned 
by evaporation. This change is generally at- 
tributed to the destruction of forests, but in 
this case that cause has not progressed suffi- 
ciently to have produced the result, and our 
si reams do not rise in mountains. 

The trend of immigration toward Minnesota 
encouraged the organization of transportation 
companies by boat and stage for passengers 
and freight, and by 185G it was one of the 
liveliest communities to be found anywhere, 
and curious as it may seem, this era of pros- 
perity was the cause of Minnesota's first great 

The object of the immigrant is, always, the 
betterment of his condition. He leaves 
old communities, where competition in all 
branches of industry is great, in the hope of 
"getting in on the ground floor," as we used to 
say 7 , when he arrived in a new country, and 
every American, and in fact everybody else, 
wants to get rich by head work instead of hand 
work, if he can. The bulk of the immigration 
that first came to Minnesota remained in the 
cities; there was no agriculture worthy of the 
name. I may say that we had nothing at all to 
sell, and everything we needed, to buy. I can 
remember that as late as 1853, and even after, 
we imported hay in bales from Dubuque to 
feed the horses of St. Paul when there were 
millions of tons of it growing in the Minnesota 
v Hey, within a few miles of the city. 

In the progress of emigration to the West the 
Territories have always presented the greatest 
attractions. The settler expects to have a bet- 
ter choice of lands, and at original government 

prices. Society and politics are both in the 
formative condition, and very few emigrants 
omit the latter consideration from their hopes 
and expectations. In fact political preferment 
is a leading motive with many of them. 

Under the influence of this great rush of 
immigration it was very natural that the pre- 
vailing idea should be that lands would greatly 
increase in value in the near future, and every- 
body became a speculator. Towns and cities 
sprang into existence like mushrooms in a 
night. Scarcely any one was to be seen without 
a town-site map in his hands, the advantages 
and beauties of which fictitious metropolis 
he was ready to present in the most elo- 
quent terms. Everything useful was neglected, 
and speculation was rampant. There were no 
banks of issue, and all the money that was in 
the country was borrowed in the East. In or- 
der to make borrowing easy, the law placed no 
restrictions on the rate of interest, and the 
usual terms were three per cent per month, 
with the condition that if the principal was 
not paid at maturity the interest should be in- 
creased to five per cent per month. Every- 
body was in debt on these ruinous terms, 
which, of course, could not last long before the 
inevitable explosion. The price of lands, and 
especially town lots, increased rapidly, and at- 
tained fabulous rates; in fact some real prop- 
erty in St. Paul sold in 1856 for more money 
than it has brought at any time since. 


The bubble burst by the announcement of 
the failure of the Ohio Life Insurance and 
Trust Company, which reached St. Paul Au- 
gust 24, 1857. The failure of this financial in- 
stitution precipitated a panic all over the coun- 
try. It happened just on the recurrence of the 
twenty year period which has marked the pe- 
cuniary disasters of the country, beginning 
with 1837. Its effects on Minnesota were ex- 
tremely disastrous. The eastern creditors de- 
manded their money, and the Minnesota debt- 
ors paid as long as a dollar remained in the 
country, when all means of borrowing more 
being cut off a most remarkable condition of 



things resulted. Cities like St. Paul and St. 
Anthony, having a population of several thou- 
sands each, were absolutely without money to 
carry on the necessary commercial functions. 
A temporary remedy was soon discovered, by 
every merchant and shopkeeper issuing tickets 
marked "good for one dollar at my store," and 
every fractional part of a dollar down to five 
cents. This device tided the people for a while, 
but scarcely any business establishment in the 
Territory weathered the storm, and many peo- 
ple who had considered themselves beyond the 
chance of disaster were left without resources 
of any kind and hopelessly bankrupt. The dis- 
tress was great and universal, but it was 
bravely met, and finally overcome. 

Dreadful as this affliction was to almost 
every one in the Territory, it turned out to be 
a blessing in disguise. It compelled the people 
to abandon speculation and seek honest labor 
in the cultivation of the soil and the develop- 
ment of the splendid resources that generous 
nature had bestowed upon the country. Farms 
were opened by the thousands, everybody went 
to work, and in ten or a dozen years Minnesota 
had a surplus of forty millions of bushels of 
wheat with which to supply the hungry world. 


All the lands of Minnesota were the property 
of the United States, and title to them could 
only be obtained through the regular methods 
of pre-emption, town-site entry, public sales or 
private entries. One event occurred on August 
14, 1848, which illustrates so clearly the way 
in which western men protect their rights that 
I will relate it. The recognized price of public 
lands was one dollar and a quarter per acre, 
and all pioneer settlers were willing to pay 
that sum, but when a public sale was made 
any one could bid whatever he was willing to 
pay. Under the administration of President 
Polk a public sale of lands was ordered to be 
made at the land office at St. Croix Falls of 
lands lying partly in Minnesota and partly in 
Wisconsin. The lands advertised for sale in- 
cluded those embraced in St. Paul and St. An- 
thony. The settlers selected Henry H. Sibley 

as their trustee to buy their lands for them, 
to be conveyed to them subsequently. It was 
a high offense under the United States laws 
to do any act that would tend to prevent per- 
sons bidding at the sales. Mr. Sibley appeared 
at the sale, and bid off every tract of land that 
was occupied by an actual settler at the price 
of $1.25 per acre. The General, in a paper he 
read before the Historical Society, says of this 

"I was selected by the actual settlers to bid 
off portions of the land for them, and when 
the hour for business arrived my seat was uni- 
versally surrounded by a number of men with 
huge bludgeons. What was meant by the pro- 
ceeding I could, of course, only surmise, but I 
would not have envied the fate of the individ- 
ual who would have ventured to bid against 

It has always been assumed in the far West, 
and I think justly, that the pioneers who first 
settle the land and give it value should enjoy 
every advantage that flows from such priority, 
and the violation of laws that impede such op- 
portunity is a very venial offense. So univer- 
sal was the confidence reposed in Mr. Sibley 
that many of the French settlers, the title to 
whose lands became vested in him by his pur- 
chase at this sale, insisted that they should re- 
main in him, and he found it quite difficult in 
many cases to get them to accept deeds from 


Although the first message of the Governor 
went a great way in introducing Minnesota to 
the world, she was particularly fortunate in 
the establishment of her first newspapers. The 
Stillwater convention of 1S4S, of which I have 
spoken, first suggested to Dr. A. Randall, who 
was an attache of Dr. Owen's geological corps, 
then engaged in a survey of this region by or- 
der of the government, the necessity of a news- 
paper for the new Territory. He was possess 1 
of the means and enterprise to accomplish the 
then rather difficult undertaking, and was 
promised ample support by leading men of the 
Territory. He returned to his home in Cincin- 



nati in the fall of 1848, intending to purchase 
the plant and atari the paper that year, but the 
navigation of the rivers closed earlier than 
usual, and he was foiled in his attempt. He, 
however, set up his press in Cincinnati, and 
got out a number or two of his paper there. It 
was then called the "Minnesota Register," and 
appeared as of the date of April 27, 1849, and 
as printed in Saint Paul. It was in fact printed 
in Cincinnati about two weeks earlier. It con- 
tained valuable articles from the pens of Henry 
H. Sibley and Henry M. Rice. These articles, 
added to Dr. Randall's extensive knowledge of 
the country, made the first issue a great local 
success. It was the first Minnesota paper ever 
published, and bears date just one day ahead 
of the Pioneer, subsequently published by 
James M. Goodhue, which was actually printed 
in the Territory. Dr. Randall did not carry out 
his intention, but was caught in the California 
vortex, and did not return to Minnesota. 

James M. Goodhue, of Lancaster, Wisconsin, 
who was editing the Wisconsin Herald, when 
he heard of the organization of the new Terri- 
tory, immediately decided to start a paper in 
St. Paul, and as soon as navigation opened in 
the spring of 1849 he came up with his press 
and type. He met with many difficulties and 
obstructions, necessarily incident to such a 
venture in a new place, but he succeeded in is- 
suing the first number of his paper April 28, 
1849. His first inclination was to call his paper 
the "Epistle of St. Paul," but on sober reflec- 
tion he was convinced that the name might 
shock the religious sensibilities of the com- 
munity, especially as he did not possess many 
of the attributes of our patron saint, and he de- 
rided to call it "The Minnesota Pioneer." 

In his first issue he speaks of his establish- 
ment of that day as follows: "We print and 
issue this number of the Pioneer in a building 
through which out-of-doors is visible by more 
than five hundred apertures; and as for our 
type, it is not safe from being pied on the gal- 
leys by the wind." The rest can be imagined. 

Mr. Goodhue was just the man to be the ed- 
itor of the first paper of a frontier territory. 
He was energetic, enterprising, brilliant, bold 
and belligerent. He conducted the Pioneer 

with great success and advantage to the Ter- 
ritory until the year 1851, when he published 
an article on Judge Cooper, censuring him for 
absenteeism, which is a very good specimen of 
the editorial style of that day. He called the 
Judge "a sot," "a brute," "an ass," "a profli- 
gate vagabond," and closed his article in the 
following language: "Feeling some resent- 
ment for the wrongs our Territory has so long 
suffered by these men, pressing upon us like a 
dispeusation of wrath — a judgment — a curse — 
a plague, unequaled since Egypt went lousey, 
we sat down to write this article with some 
bitterness, but our very gall is honey to what 
they deserve." 

In those fighting days such an article could 
not fail to produce a personal collision. A 
brother of Judge Cooper resented the attack, 
and in the encounter between them Goodhue 
was badly stabbed and Cooper was shot. 
Neither wound proved fatal at the time, but it 
was always asserted by the friends of each 
combatant, and generally believed, that they 
both died from the effect of these wounds. 

The original Minnesota Pioneer still lives in 
the Pioneer Press of to-day, which is published 
iu St. Paul. It has been continued under sev- 
eral names and edited by different men, but 
has never been extinguished or lost its relation 
of lineal descent from the original Pioneer. 

Nothing tends to show the phenomenal 
growth of Minnesota more than the fact that 
this first newspaper, issued in 1849, has been 
followed by the publication of five hundred and 
seventy-nine papers, which is the number now 
issued in the State according to the last offi- 
cial list obtainable. They appear daily, weekly 
and monthly, in nearly all written languages, 
English, French, German, Swedish, Norwe- 
gian, Danish, Bohemian, and one in Icelandic, 
published in Lyon county, Minnesota. 


With the first great increase in immigration 
business was necessarily enlarged, and banking 
facilities became a necessity. Dr. Charles W. 
Borup, a Danish gentleman who was engaged 



in the fur trade at Lake Superior as an agent 
for the American Fur Company, and Mr. 

Charles IT. < takes, a native of Vermont, came 
t<> Saint Paul and established a bank in 1853. 
They were brothers-in-law, having married sis- 
ters. They did a private banking business un- 
der the name of Borup & (takes, which adapted 
itself to the needs of the community, including 
real estate, and almost any other kind of ven- 
ture that offered. The house of Borup & (takes 
was the first banking establishment in Minne- 
sota, and weathered all the financial storms 
that swept over the Territory in its early his- 
tory. They were followed by Truman M. 
Smith, hut he went down in the panic of 1857- 
58. Then came Bid well's Exchange Bank, fol- 
lowed by C. H. Parker and A. Vance Brown. 
Mackubin & Edgerton opened a hank in 1854, 
which was the ancestor of the present Second 
National Bank, and always legitimate. I think 
Erastus S. Edgerton may justly be said to have 
been the most successful banker of all that 
were early engaged in the business. An enu- 
meration of the banks and bankers which suc- 
ceeded each other in these early times would 
be more appropriate in a narrative of the local- 
ities where they operated than in a general 
history of the State. It is sufficient to say that 
nearly if not all of them succumbed to the 
financial disasters in 1857-58, and there was 
no banking worthy of the name until the pas- 
sage of the banking law of July 20, 1858. But 
this act was a mere makeshift to meet a finan- 
cial emergency, and it was not based upon 
sound financial principles. It allowed the or- 
ganization of hanks and the issue of circulating 
bank notes upon securities that were capable 
of being fraudulently over-valued by misrepre- 
sentation, and, as a matter of course, advan- 
tage was taken of the laxity of the provisions 
of the law, and securities which had no intrin- 
sic value in tact, were made available as the 
foundation of bank issues, with the inevitable 
result of disaster. 

Another method of furnishing the commu- 
nity with a circulating medium was resorted 
lo by a law of July 2:'., 1858. The State Aud- 
itor was authorized to issue his warrant for 
any indebtedness which the State owed to any 

person in small sums, and the warrants were 
made lo resemble bank notes, and bore twelve 
per cent interest. The credit of the State was 
not sufficiently well established in I lie public 
confidence lo make these warrants, which were 
known as "State scrip," worth much over six- 
ty-five or seventy cents on the dollar. They 
were taken by the money-changers at that val- 
uation, and when the State made its first loan 
of $250,000 they were all redeemed in g.dd at 
par, wiih interest at twelve per cent. 

In this uncertain way the financial interests 
of the Territory were cared for until the break- 
ing out of the Civil War and the establishment 
of the National and State systems, which still 


Another evidence of the growth of the Stale 
may be found in the fact that at the present 
time the State has within its limits banks in 
good standing as follows: Slate banks, one 
hundred and seventy-two in number, with a 
paid in capital stock of $6,73(i,80(t, and sixty- 
seven National banks with a capital stock paid 
in of |11,220,0()0. This statement does not in- 
clude either the surplus or the undivided prof- 
its of these banks, nor the capital employed 
by private banking concerns which do not fall 
under the supervision of the State, which lat- 
ter item can safely 1 stimated at #2,000,000. 


The first legitimate business of the Territory 
was the fur trade and the carrying business 
resulting therefrom. Prioi to the year 1842 
the Northwestern Fur Company occupied the 
territory which is now Minnesota. In 1S42 it 
sold out to, and was merged into, the American 
Fur Company, which was owned by I'. Choteau 
& Company. This company had trading stations 
ai Prairie du Chien and Mendota, Henry II. 
Sibley being their chief factor at the latter. The 
goods imported into the Red river settlements 
and the furs exported therefrom all came and 
went through the difficult and circuitous route 
by way of Hudson bay. This route was only 
navigable for about two months in the year on 
account of the ice. The catch of furs and buf- 



fain robes in thai region was practically mo- 
nopolized by the Hudson Bay Company. The 
American Fur Company soon became well es- 
tablished in the Northwest. In 1844 this com- 
pany sent Mr. Norman \V. Kittson from the 
"Mendota outfit" to establish a trading post at 
Pembina, just south of the British possessions, 
with the design of diverting some of the fur 
trade of that region in the direction of the nav- 
igable waters of the Mississippi. The com- 
pany, through Mr. Kittson, invested some 
$2,000 in furs at Pembina and had them trans- 
ported to Mendota in six Pembina carts, which 
returned loaded with merchandise of the char- 
acter needed by I lie people of that distant re- 
gion. This venture was the beginning of the 
fur trade with the Red River country, but did 
not prove a financial success. It entailed a loss 
of about fGOO, and similar results attended the 
next two years' operations, but the trade in- 
creased, notwithstanding the desperate efforts 
of the Hudson Pay Company to obstruct it. 
This company had enjoyed a monopoly of the 
trade without any outside interference for so 
long that it looked upon this new enterprise 
as a direct attack on its vested rights. But 
Mr. Kittson had faith in being able in the near 
future to work up a paying trade, and he per- 
severed. By the year 1850 the business had so 
far increased as to involve a consumption of 
goods to the extent of $10,000, with a return of 
furs to the amount of $15,000. Five years later 
the goods sent to Pembina amounted in value 
to $24,000 and the return of furs to $40,000. 
In 1851 the firm of Forbes & Kittson was or- 
ganized and also the "St. Paul outfit," to 
carry on the supply business. When St. Paul 
became of some importance, in 1849, the ter- 
minus and supply depot was removed to that 
point, and the trade rapidly increased in mag- 
nitude, making St. Paul one of the largest fur 
markets in America, second only to St. Louis. 
The trade of the latter city consisted mostly of 
buffalo robes, which was always regarded as a 
distinct branch of the business in contrast with 
that of fine furs. In the early days the Indians 
and a few professional trappers were about all 
who caught fur animals, but as the country 
became more settled the squatters added to 

their incomes by such trapping as their envi- 
ronment afforded. This increased the market 
at St. Paul by the addition of all Minnesota, 
which then included both of the Dakotas and 
Northern Wisconsin. 

The extent and value of this trade can bet- 
ter be understood by a statement of the in- 
crease of the number id' carts engaged in it be- 
tween 1S44 and 1858. In the first year men- 
tioned six carts performed all the required 
service, and in 1858 six hundred carts came 
from Pembina to St. Paul. After the year 1858 
the number of carts engaged in the traffic fell 
off, as a steamer had been put in operation on 
the Red river. This reduced the land transpor- 
tation to 216 miles, which had formerly been 
lis miles — J. C. & H. C. Burbank having estab- 
lished a line of freight trains connecting with 
the steamer. In 1867, when the St. Paul and 
Pacific Railroad reached St. Cloud, the cara- 
vans of carts ceased their annual visits t;> St. 
Paul. St. Cloud then became the terminus of 
the traffic until the increase of freight lines 
and the completion of the Northern Pacific 
Railroad to the Red river drove these most 
primitive of all transportation vehicles out of 
business. Another cause of the decrease in the 
fur trade was the imposition of a duty of 
t wenty the per cent on all dressed skins, which 
included buffalo robes, and from that time on 
robes that formerly came to St. Paul from the 
British possessions were diverted to Montreal. 

The extent and value of this trade to Minne- 
sota, which was then in its infancy, can easily 
be judged by a brief statement of its growth. 
in 1S44 il amounted to $1,400 and in 1863 to 
$250,000. All the money paid out for these 
furs, and large sums besides, would be ex- 
pended in St. Paul for merchandise in the 
shape of groceries liquors, dry goods, blankets, 
household utensils, guns and ammunition, and 
in fact every article demanded by the needs of 
a primitive people. Even threshers and mow- 
ers were included, which were taken apart and 
loaded on the return carts. This trade was the 
pioneer of the great commercial activity which 
now prevails. 

1 caniioi permit this opportunity to pass 
without describing the Bed river cart, and the 



picturesque people who used it, as their like 
will never be seen again. The inhabitants of 
the Pembina country were principally Chip- 
pewa half-breeds, with an occasional white 
man — prominently Joseph Rolette, of whom I 
shall hereafter speak, as the man who vetoed 
the capital removal bill, by running away with 
it iu 1857. Their principal business was hunt- 
ing (he buffalo in connection with small farm- 
ing, and defending themselves against the in- 
vasions of their hereditary enemies, the Sioux. 
They were a bold, free race, skilled in the arts 
of war, fine horsemen and good fighters. 

The Red river cart was a home invention. It 
was made entirely of wood and rawhide. It 
moved upon two wheels, of about a diameter 
of five feet six inches, with shafts for one ani- 
mal, horse or ox, generally the latter. The 
wheels were without tires, and their tread 
about three and a half or four inches wide. 
They would carry a load of six to eight hun- 
dred pounds, which would be protected by can- 
vas covers. They were especially adapted to 
the condition of the country, which was largely 
interspersed with swamps and sloughs, which 
were impassable for any other character of ve- 
hicle. Their lightness, the width of the sur- 
face presented by the wheel and the careful 
steps of the educated animal which drew them, 
enabled them to go where anything else would 
Hounder. The trail which they left upon the 
prairie was deeply cut, and remained for many 
years after they were abandoned. 

When a brigade of them was ready to leave 
Pembina for St. Paul it would be manned by 
one driver for four carts, the train being 
arranged in single file with each animal 
tied to the cart before it, so that one driver 
could attend to that number of carts. Their 
speed was about fifteen miles a day, which 
made the trip last about a month. When 
night overtook them they formed a circular 
corral with their carts, the shafts pointing in- 
ward, with the camp in the center, which made 
a strong fort in case of attack. The animals 
were allowed to graze on the outside, but were 
carefully watched to prevent a stampede. 
When they reached St. Paul they went into 
camp near some lake, and were a great source 

of interest to all the new comers. During their 
stay the town would be thronged with the men, 
who were dressed in varicolored costumes, al- 
ways including the sasli of Pembina, a beaut i 
ful girdle, giving them a most picturesque ap- 
pearance. The only truthful representation of 
these curious people that has been preserved 
is found in two full length portraits of Joe 
Rollette, one in the gallery of the Minnesota 
Historical Society and the other on the walls 
of the Minnesota Club in St. Paul, both of 
which are the gifts of a very dear friend of the 

During the progress of this peculiar traffic 
many people not connected with the estab- 
lished fur companies engaged in the Indian 
trade, prominently the firm of Culver & Far- 
rington, Louis Roberts and Nathan Myrick. I 
remember that Mr. John Farrington, of the 
above named firm, made an improvement in the 
construction of the Red river cart, by putting 
an iron box in the hub of the wheel, which 
prevented the loud squeaking noise they for- 
merly made, and so facilitated their movements 
that they carried a thousand pounds as easily 
as they had before carried eight hundred. 

The early fur trade in the Northwest, car- 
ried on by canoes and these rails, was very 
appropriately called by one of our first his- 
torians of Minnesota "The heroic age of Amer- 
ican commerce." 


One of the principal sources of subsistence 
of these frontier people in their long journeys 
through uninhabited regions was pemmican. 
This food was especially adapted to extreme 
northern countries, where, in the winter, it 
was sometimes impossible to make fires to cook 
with, and the means of transportation was by 
dog-trains, as it was equally good for man and 
beast. It was invented among the Hudson 
Bay people many years ago, and undoubtedly 
from necessity. It was made in this way: The 
meat of the buffalo, without the fat, was thor- 
oughly boiled and then picked into shreds or 
very small pieces. A sack was made of buffalo 



skin, with the hair on the outside, which would 
hold about ninety pounds of meat. A hole was 
then dug iu the ground of sufficient size to hold 
the sack. Ii was filled with the meat thus pre- 
pared, which was packed and pounded until it 
was as hard as it could be made. A kettle of 
boiling hot buffalo fat, in a fluid state, was 
then pound into it, until it was thoroughly 
permeated, every interstice from center to cir- 
cumference being filled, until it became a solid 
mass, perfectly impervious to the air, and as 
well preserved against decomposition as if it 
had been enclosed in an hermetically sealed 
glass jar. This made a most nutritious pre- 
paration of animal food, all ready for use 
by both man and dog. An ana lysis of this com- 
pound proved it to possess more nutriment to 
the pound weight than any other substance 
ever manufactured, and with a winter camp 
appetite it was a very palatable dish. Its great 
superiority over any other kind of food was 
the fact that it required no preparation and its 




With the increase of trade and business nat- 
urally came the need of greater transportation 
facilities, and the men to furnish I hem were 
not wanting. John C. Burbank, of St. Paul, 
may be said to have been the pioneer in that 
line, although several minor lines of stages 
and ventures in (he livery business preceded 
his efforts. The firms of Willoughby & Powers, 
Allen & Chase, M. < >. Walker & Company (of 
Chicago) and others were early engaged in this 
work. In 1854 the Northwestern Express Com- 
pany was organized by Burbank & Whitney, 
and in 1856 Captain Russell Blakeley suc- 
ceeded Mr. Whitney, and the express business 
became well established in Minnesota. In 
1858-59 Mr. Burbank got the mail contract 
down the river, and established an express line 
from St. Paul to Galena, in connection with 
the American Express Company, whose lines 
extended to Galena as its western terminus. 
Steamboats were used in summer and stages 
in winter. In the fall of 1859 the Minnesota 
Stage Company was formed, by a consolida- 

tion of the Burbank interests with those of 
Allen & Chase, and the line extended up the 
Mississippi to Saint Anthony and Crow Wiiij;-. 
Other lines and interests were purchased and 
united, and in the spring of 1800 Col. John L. 
Merriam became a member of the firm, and for 
more than seven years Messrs. Burbank. 
Blakeley & Merriam constituted the firm and 
carried on the express and stage business in 
Minnesota. The business increased rapidly, 
and in 1865 this firm worked over seven hun- 
dred horses and employed two hundred men. 

During this staging period the railroads 
from the East centered in Chicago, and grad- 
ually reached the Mississippi river from that 
point ; first at Rock Island, next at Dunleith, 
opposite Dubuque, then at Prairie du Cliien. 
next at Prairie La Crosse, each advance carry- 
ing them nearer Minnesota. The Prairie du 
Cliien extension was carried across the river 
at McGregor in Iowa, and thence up through 
Iowa and Southern Minnesota to Minneapolis 
and Saint Paul. In 1872 the Saint Paul and 
Chicago railroad was finished from St. Paul 
down the west bank of the Mississippi to Wi- 
nona, and was purchased by the Milwaukee 
and St. Paul Company, and by that company 
was, in 1873, extended still further down the 
river to La Crescent, opposite LaCrosse, which 
completed the connection with the east 
era trains. This road was popularly known as 
the "River road." Various other railroads were 
soon completed, covering the needs of the set- 
tled pari of the State, and the principal stage 
lines either withdrew to the westward or gave 
up their business. 

The growth in the carrying line has since 
been immense throughout the State, and may 
be judged when I say that there are now five 
strong daily lines to Chicago: The Burling- 
ton, the Omaha, the Milwaukee, the Wiscon- 
sin Central and the Chicago-Great Western, 
ami three transcontinental lines departing 
daily for the Pacific coast, the Northern Pa- 
cific, the Cieat Northern and the Sault Ste. 
Marie, connecting with the Canadian Pacific. 
Besides these prominent trains there are innu- 
merable lesser ones connecting with nearly 
every part of the State. More passenger trains 



arrive at, and depart from the St. Paul Union 
Depot than at any other point in the State. 
They aggregate one hundred and four in and 
the same number out every day. Many — per- 
haps the most — of these trains also go to Min- 
neapolis. The freight trains passing these 
points are, of course, less regular in their move- 
ments than the scheduled passenger trains, 
but their number is great and their cargoes of 
incalculable value. 


A large portion of Minnesota is covered with 
exceptionally fine timber. The northern sec- 
tion, traversed by the Mississippi and its nu- 
merous branches, the St. Croix, the St. Louis 
and other streams, was covered with a growth 
of white and Norway pine of great value, and 
a large area of its central western portion with 
hard timber. At a very early day in the history 
of our State these forests attracted the atten- 
tion of lumbermen from different parts of the 
country, principally from Maine, who erected 
sawmills at the Falls of St. Anthony, Si ill- 
water and other points, and began the cutting 
of logs to supply them. Nearly all the streams 
were navigable for logs, or were easily made 
so, and thus one of the great industries of the 
State had its beginning. Quite an amount of 
lumber was manufactured at Minneapolis in 
the fifties, but no official record of the amounts 
was kept until 1870. An estimate of the 
standing pine in the State was made by the 
United States government for the census of 
1880, which was designed to include all the 
standing pine on the streams leading into the 
.Mississippi, the Rainy Lake river, the St. Croix 
and the head of Lake Superior; in fact, the 
whole State. The estimate was 10,000,000,000 
feet. When this estimate was made it was ac- 
cepted by the best informed lumbermen as ap- 
proximately correct. The mills at Minneapolis 
and above, in the St. Croix valley, and in what 
was called the Duluth district, were cutting 
about 500,000,000 feet a year. It was expected 
Ilia I there would be a gradual increase in the 
consumption of lumber made by Minnesota 
mills, and it was therefore estimated that in 

about fifteen years all the white pine in the 
State would be cut into lumber and sold, but 
such has not proved to be the case, although 
the production has rapidly increased, as was 
expected. But this difference between the es- 
timate and the result is not of much conse- 
quence, as there is nothing more unreliable 
than an estimate of standing timber, and es- 
pecially is such the case when covering a large 
area of country. Since 1880 the production of 
lumber in the State has increased from year to 
year, until it is at the present time fully 1,629,- 
110,000 feet of pine logs every year. The cut 
made by the Minneapolis mills alone in 1898 
was 469,701,000 feet, with a corresponding 
amount of laths and shingles. But this pace 
cannot lie kept up much longer, and apprehen- 
sions of the entire destruction of the forests of 
the State are becoming quite prevalent among 
the people. These fears have resulted in the 
organization of associations for the promotion 
of scientific forestry and the establishment of 
large forest reserves near the headwaters of 
our streams, which are to serve also the pur- 
pose of national parks. In assigning a cause 
for I he lowering of our streams, and the dry- 
ing up of many of our lakes, in a former part 
of this work, I attribute it to the plowing up 
of their valleys and watersheds, and not to the 
destruction of the forests, because I do not 
think that the latter reason has sufficiently 
progressed to produce the result, although it 
is well known that the destruction of growing 
limber about the headwaters of streams oper- 
ates disastrously upon the volume of their wa- 
ters and the regularity of its How. Minnesota 
is the best watered State in the Union, and 
every precaution should be taken to maintain 
this advantage. From the extent of the in- 
terest displayed in the direction of forest re- 
serves, and their scientific administration, we 
have every reason to hope for speedy and final 
success. The State and Interstate Parks al- 
ready established will be noticed hereafter. 


The growth of the religious element of a new 
country is always one of its interesting fea- 



tures, and I will endeavor to give a short 
account of the progress made in this line in 
Minnesota from the mission period, which was 
directed more particularly to the Christianizing 
of the Indians. I will begin with the first 
structure ever erected in the State designed 
for religious purposes. It was a very small 
beginning for the prodigious results that have 
followed it. I speak of the little log "Chapel 
of Saint Paul," built by the Reverend Lucian 
Galtier, in October, 1841, in what is now the 
city of Saint Paul. 

Father Galtier was a French priest of the 
Church of Rome. He was sent by the eccle- 
siastic authorities of Dubuque to the Upper 
Mississippi country, and arrived at Fort Snell- 
ing in April, 1840, and settled at St. Peters 
(now Mendota), where he soon tired of inaction, 
and sought a larger field among the settlers 
who had found homes further down the river, 
in the neighborhood of the present St. Paul. 
He decided that he could facilitate his labors 
by erecting a church at some point accessible 
to his parishioners. Here he found Joseph 
Rondo, Edward Phelan, Vetal Guerin, Pierre 
Bottineau, the Gervais brothers, and a few 
others. The settlers encouraged the idea of 
building a church, and a question of much im- 
portance arose as to where it should be placed. 
I will let the good father tell his own story as 
to the selection of a site. In an account of this 
matter, which he prepared for Bishop Grace 
in 1864, he says: 

"Three different points were offered, one 
called La Pointe Basse, or Point La Claire 
(now Pig's Eye), but I objected because that lo- 
cality was the very extreme end of the new 
settlement, and, in high water, was exposed 
to inundation. The idea of building a church 
which might at any day be swept down the 
river to St. Louis did not please me. Two miles 
and a half further up on his elevated claim 
(now the southern point of Dayton's Bluff) Mr. 
Charles Mouseau offered me an acre of his 
ground, but the place did not suit my purpose. 
I was truly looking ahead, thinking of the fu- 
ture as well as the present. Steamboats could 
not stop there; the bank was too steep, the 
place on the summit of the hill too restricted, 
and communication difficult with the other 
parts of the settlement up and down the river. 

"After mature reflection I resolved to put up 
the church at the nearest possible point to the 
cave (meaning the celebrated Carver's rave un- 
der Dayton's bluff), because it would be more 
convenient for me to cross the river there when 
(•(lining from St. Peters, and because it would 
be also the nearest point to the head of navi- 
gation outside of the reservation line. Mr. B. 
Gervais and Mr. Vetal Guerin, two good, quiet 
fanners, had the only spot which appeared 
likely to answer, the purpose. They consented 
jointly to give me the ground necessary for a 
church site, a garden and a small graveyard. 
I accepted the extreme eastern part of Mr. 
VetaFs claim and the extreme west of Mr. 
Gervais'. Accordingly, in the month of Octo- 
ber, 1841, logs were prepared and a church 
erected, so poor that it well reminded one of 
the stable of Bethlehem. It was destined, how 
ever, to be the nucleus of a great city. On the 
first day of November, in the same year, I 
blessed the new basilica and dedicated it to St. 
Paul, the apostle of nations. I expressed a 
wish at the same time that the settlement 
would be known by the same name, and my de- 
sire was obtained. I had, previously to this 
time, fixed my residence at St. Peters, and as 
the name of Paul is generally connected with 
that of Peter, and the gentiles being well rep- 
resented at the new place in the persons of In- 
dians, I called it St. Paul. The name, 'Saint 
Paul,' applied to a town or city seemed appro- 
priate. The monosyllable is short, sounds well, 
and is understood by all denominations of 
Christians. When Mr. Vetal was married I 
published the bans as those of a resident of St. 
Paul. A Mr. Jackson put up a store, and a 
grocery was opened at the foot of Gervais' 
claim. This soon brought steamboats to land 
there. Thenceforth the place was known as 
'Saint Paul Landing,' and later on as Saint 

The chapel was a small log structure, one 
story high, one door, aud no windows in front, 
with two windows on each side and one in the 
rear end. It had on the front gable end a 
large wooden cross, which projected above the 
peak of the roof some six or eight feet. It oc- 
cupied a conspicuous position on the top of the 
high bluff overlooking the Mississippi, some 
six or eight hundred feet below the point where 
the Wabasha street bridge now spans the river, 
I think between Minnesota and Cedar streets. 
The region thus named was formerly known 
by the appellation of "Pig's Eye." The State 



owes Father Galtier a debt of gratitude for 
having changed it, as it seems impossible that 
the capital city could ever have attained its 
present majestic proportions, numerous and 
cultivated population, and many other advan- 
tages and attractions under the handicap of 
such a name. 

In the first New Year's address ever printed 
in Minnesota, on January 1, 1850, supposed to 
be by Editor Goodhue, the following lines ap- 

"Pig's Eye, converted thou shalt be, like Saul: 
Arise, and be, henceforth, SAINT PAUL." 

Father Galtier died February 21, 1SGG. 

The Chapel of Saint Paul, after having been 
the first to greet all newcomers by way of 
the Mississippi for fifteen years, was taken 
down in 1856. 

The next representative of the Catholic 
Church to come to Minnesota was the Rever- 
end Augnstin Ravoux, who arrived in the fall 
of 1811. He went up the St. Peter's river to 
Traverse des Sioux, where he commenced the 
study of the Sioux language. Soon after he 
went to Little Rock, on the Saint Peter's, and 
thence to Lac qui Parle. After the removal 
of Father Galtier to Keokuk, in Iowa, he had 
under his charge Mendota, St. Paul, Lake 
Pepin and St. Croix until the second day of 
July, 1851, when the Right Reverend Bishop 
Cretin came to St. Paul and assumed charge 
of church matters in Minnesota. Father Ra- 
voux is still living in Saint Paul, at the ad- 
\ anced age of eighty-four years. His venerable 
and priestly form may often be seen upon the 
streets, in excellent health. 

At the time of the coining of Father Galtier 
the country on the east side of the Mississippi 
in what is now Minnesota was under the direct 
jurisdiction of the Bishop of Milwaukee, and 
the part lying west of the river was in the dio- 
cese of Dubuque. 

The growth of the church kept up with the 
rapid settlement of the country. In August, 
L859, the Rt. Rev. Thomas L. Grace succeeded 
Bishop Cretin as Bishop of Saint Paul, and was 
himself succeeded by the Rt. Rev. John Ire- 
land, in July, 1881. So important had Minne- 
sota become to the Catholic Church in America 

that in May of 1888 the See of St. Paul was 
raised to metropolitan dignity and Archbishop 
Ireland was made its first Archbishop, which 
high office he now holds. 

I will not attempt even a short biography of 
Archbishop Ireland, as a somewhat extended 
sketch appears elsewhere iii this volume. His 
fame is world-wide; he is a churchman, states- 
man, diplomat, orator, citizen and patriot, in 
each of which capacities he excels. He has 
carried the fame of Miunesota to all parts of 
the world where the church is known, and has 
demonstrated to the Pope in Rome, to the Cath- 
olics in France, and to the Protestants in Amer- 
ica that there can be perfect consistency and 
harmony between Catholicism and Republican 
government. A history of Minnesota without 
a fitting tribute to Archbishop John Ireland 
would be incomplete indeed. 

The representatives of the Protestant faith 
have not been behind their Catholic brethren 
in providing religious facilities for their adher- 
ent s. They followed immigration closely, and 
sometimes accompanied it. Scarcely would an 
aggregation of people congregate at any one 
point in sufficient numbers to gain the name 
of a village, or a settlement, before a minister 
would be called and a church erected. The 
church went hand in hand with the school- 
house, and in many instances one building 
answered for both purposes. There came Luth- 
erans from Germany and Scandinavia, Episco- 
palians, Methodists, Presbyterians, Congrega- 
tionalists, Calvinists, Universalists, Unitarians 
and every sect into which Protestantism is di- 
vided from New England and other eastern 
States. They all found room and encourage- 
ment, and dwelt in harmony. I can safely say 
that few western States have been peopled by 
such law abiding, industrious, moral and reli- 
gious inhabitants as were the first settlers of 
Minnesota. There was nothing to attract the 
ruffianly element, no gold, silver, or other 
mines; the chief industry being peaceful agri- 
culture. So free from all disturbing or dan- 
gerous elements did we consider our Territory 
that I have on several occasions taken a wagon 
loaded with specie amounting to nearly one 
hundred thousand dollars from Saint Paul to 



the Indian agencies at the Redwood and Yel- 
low Medicine rivers, a distance of two hundred 
miles, through a very sparsely settled country, 
without any guard, except myself and driver, 
with possibly an Indian picked up on the road, 
when I was entitled to a squad of dragoons 
for the asking. 

In the early days the Episcopal Church in 
Minnesota was within the diocese of Wiscon- 
sin, and its functions administered by the ven- 
erable Bishop Kemper, who occasionally made 
us a visit, but in 185!) the church had expanded 
to such an extent that the State was organized 
into a separate diocese, and the Rev. Henry B. 
Whipple, then rector of a church in Chicago, 
was elected Bishop of Minnesota, and still re- 
tains that high office. Bishop Whipple, by his 
energy, learning, goodness and universal pop- 
ularity, has built up his church in this State 
to a standard surpassed by none in the respect 
in which it is held and the influence for good 
which it exerts. The official duties of the Bish- 
op have been so enlarged by the growth of his 
church as to necessitate the appointment of a 
Bishop coadjutor to assist him in their per- 
formance; which latter office is filled by the 
Rev. Mahlon N. Gilbert, who is especially well 
qualified for the position. 

It would be impossible, in a brief history like 
this, to go very deeply or particularly into the 
growth of the religious element of the State. A 
general presentation of the subject in two 
grand divisions, Catholic and Protestant, is 
enough. Suffice it to say that every sect and 
subdivision of the latter has its representative 
in the State, with the one exception of Mormon- 
ism, if that can be classified as a Protestant 
church. There are enough of them to recall 
the answer of the French traveler in America, 
when asked of his opinion of the Americans. 
He said: "They are a most remarkable people; 
they have invented three hundred religions and 
only one sauce." No matter how their creeds 
may be criticised their joint efforts, Catholic 
and Protestant, have filled the State with reli- 
gious, charitable, benevolent and educational 
institutions to an extent rarely witnessed out 
of it, so that if a Minnesotan goes wrong he 
can blame no one but himself. 


In the year 1857, on the third of March, the 
Congress of the United States made an exten- 
sive grant of lands to the Territory to aid in 
the construction of railroads. It consisted of 
every alternate section of land designated by 
odd numbers for six sections in width on each 
side of the roads specified, and their branches. 
The grant mapped out a complete system of 
roads for the Territory, and provided that the 
land granted for each road should be applied 
exclusively to such road and no other purpose 
whatever. The lines designated in the grant- 
ing act were as follows: 

From Stillwater, by the way of St. Paul and 
Si. Anthony, to a point between the foot of Big 
SI one lake and the mouth of the Sioux Wood 
river, with a branch, via St. Cloud and Crow 
Wing, to the navigable waters of the Red River 
of the North, at such point as the Legislature 
of the Territory may determine. 

From Saint Paul and from Saint Anthony 
via Minneapolis to a convenient point of junc- 
tion west of the Mississippi to the southern 
boundary of the Territory in the direction of 
the mouth of the Big Sioux river, with a 
branch via Faribault to the north line of the 
State of Iowa, west of range sixteen. 

From Winona via St. Peter to a point on the 
Big Sioux river south of the Forty-fifth parallel 
of North Latitude. 

Also from La Crescent via Target Lake, up 
the valley of the Root river, to a point east 
of range seventeen. 

The Territory or future State was author- 
ized to sell one hundred and twenty sections of 
this land whenever twenty continuous miles of 
any of the roads or branches was completed; 
the land so sold to be contiguous to the com- 
pleted road. The right of way or roadbed of 
any of the subsidized roads was also granted 
through any of the government lands. The 
roads were all to be completed within ten 
years, and if any of them were not finished by 
that time the lands applicable to the unfinished 
portions were to revert to the government. The 
lands granted by this act amounted to about 
1.500,01)0 acres. An act was subsequently 



passed on March second, 1865, increasing the 
grant to ten sections to the mile. Various other 
grants were made at different times, but they 
do not bear upon the subject I am about to 

This grant came at a time of great financial 
depression, and when the Territory was about 
to change its dependent condition for that of a 
sovereign State in the Union. It was greeted 
as a means of relief that might lift the Terri- 
tory out of its financial troubles, and insure 
its immediate prosperity. The people did not 
take into consideration the fact that the lands 
embraced in the grant, although as good as any 
in the world, were remote from the habitation 
of man, lying in a country absolutely bankrupt, 
and possessed no present value whatever. Nor 
did they consider that the whole country was 
laboring under such financial depression that 
all public enterprises were paralyzed, but such 
was, unfortunately, the monetary and business 

February 23, 1857, an act had passed the 
Congress of the United States authorizing the 
people of Minnesota to form a Constitution 
preparatory to becoming a State in- the Union. 
Gen. Willis A. Gorman, who was then Gov- 
ernor of the Territory, called a special session 
of the Legislature to take into consideration 
measures to carry out the land grant and en- 
abling acts. The extra session convened on 
April 27. In the meantime Governor Gor- 
man's term of office had expired, and Samuel 
Medary, of Ohio, had been appointed as his 
successor, and had assumed the duties of his 
office. He opened the extra session with an ap- 
propriate message. The extra session ad- 
journed on the 23rd of May, and in accordance 
with the provisions of the enabling' act of Con- 
gress an election was held on the first Monday 
in June for delegates to a Constitutional Con- 
vention, which was to assemble at the capitol 
on the second Monday in July. The ('(institu- 
tional Convention is an event in the history of 
Minnesota sufficiently important and unique to 
entitle it to special treatment, which will be 
given hereafter. 

An act was passed at the extra session May 
19, 1857, by which the grant of lands made to 

the Territory was formally accepted "upon the 
terms, conditions and restrictions" contained 
in the granting act. 

On the 22nd of May, at the extra session, 
an act was passed to execute the trust created 
by the Land Grant Act, by which a number of 
railroad companies were incorporated to con- 
struct roads on the lines indicated by the act of 
Congress, and to aid in the building of these 
roads, and the lands applicable to each was 
granted to it. The companies were to receive 
title to the lands as the construction pro- 
gressed, as provided in the granting act. They 
also had conferred upon them powers to issue 
bonds in the discretion of the directors, and to 
mortgage their roads and franchises to secure 

These railroad companies were organized 
upon the hope that the aid extended to them 
by the grants of land would enable them to 
raise money sufficient to build their roads. 
They had nothing of their own, and no security 
but the roads and lands upon which to nego- 
tiate loans. The times, and the novel idea of 
building railroads in unpeopled countries were 
all against them, and, of course, nothing could 
be done. 

The Constitutional Convention met and 
framed an instrument for the fundamental law 
of the new State which was very conservative, 
and, among other things, contained the follow- 
ing clause, which was enacted in Section Five 
of Article Nine: "For the purpose of defray- 
ing extraordinary expenses the State may con- 
tract debts, but such debts shall never, in the 
aggregate, exceed two hundred and fifty thou- 
sand dollars.'' And another clause found in 
Section Ten, which is as follows: "The credit 
of the State shall never be given or loaned in 
aid of any individual, association or corpora- 

It was the intention of the framers of the 
Constitution to prevent the Legislature from 
ever using the credit or funds of the State in 
aid of any private enterprise, and these pro- 
visions effectually accomplished that end. 

The people were deeply disappointed when 
they became convinced that the roads could 
not be built with the aid that Congress had ex- 

4 6 


tended, and as this work was also looked upon 
as the only hope of financial relief the ease be- 
came a desperate one, which could only he rem- 
edied by the most extreme measures. The pro- 
moters of the railroads soon discovered one, in 
an amendment of the section of theConstitution 
which prohibited the credit of the State being 
given or loaned to anyone, and at the first ses- 
sion of the first Legislature, which convened 
on December third, 1857, an act was passed 
proposing such amendment to be submitted to 
the people for ratification. The importance of 
this amendment and its effect and conse- 
quences upon the future of the State demands 
that I give it nearly in full. It changed section 
ten as it was originally passed, and made it 
read as follows: 

"SECTION 10. The credit of the State shall 
never be given or loaned in aid of any indi- 
vidual, association or corporation, except that 
for the purpose of expediting the construction 
of the lines of railroads, in aid of which the 
Congress of the United States has granted 
lands to the Territory of Minnesota, the Gov- 
ernor shall cause to lie issued and delivered to 
each of the companies in which said grants are 
vested by the Legislative Assembly of Minne- 
sota the special bonds of the State, bearing 
an interest of seven per cent per annum, pay- 
able semi-annually in the city of New York 
as a loan of public credit, to an amount not 
exceeding twelve hundred and fifty thousand 
dollars, or an aggregate amount to all of said 
companies not exceeding five millions of dol- 
lars, in manner following, to-wit." 

The amendment then prescribed that when- 
ever ten miles of railroad was graded so as to 
be ready for the superstructure it should re- 
ceive |100,000 of the bonds, and when fen miles 
should be completed, with thecals running, the 
company so completing should receive another 
$100,000 of the bonds, until each company had 
received its quota. The bonds were to be de- 
nominated "State Railroad Bonds," for the 
payment of which the faith and credit of the 
State was to be pledged. The railroad com- 
panies were to pay the principal and interest 
of the bonds, and to secure such payment they 
were to pledge the net profits of their respect- 
ive roads, and to convey to the State the first 

two hundred and forty sections of land they 
leech id; and to deliver to the State treasurer 
an amount of their first mortgage bonds equal 
to the amount of bonds received by them from 
the State, and mortgage to the State their 
roads and franchises. This was all the security 
the companies could give, hut the underlying 
difficulty was, that it had no value whatever. 
There were no roads, no net, or other profits. 
The lands had no value whatever except such 
as lay in the future, which was dependent on 
the construction of the roads and the settle- 
ment of the country. The bonds of the com- 
panies, of course, possessed only such value as 
the property they represented, which was noth- 
ing, and the mortgages were of the same char- 
acter. The whole scheme was based upon 
hopes, to which the slightest application of 
sober reasoning would have pronounced im- 
possible of fulfillment. But the country was 
hungry and willing to seize upon anything that 
offered a semblance or shadow of relief. 

The proposed amendment was to be sub 
mitted to the people for adoption or rejection 
at an election to be held April 15, 1S58. In or- 
der to fully comprehend the condition of the 
public mind, it should be known that the Con- 
stitution, with all the safeguards that I have 
mentioned, had only been in force since Octo- 
ber 13th, 1857, a period of about six months. 
and had been carried by a vote of 30,055 for, to 
571 against its adoption. 

The campaign preceding the election was a 
very active one. The railroad people flooded 
the State with speakers, documents, pictures, 
glee clubs singing songs of the delights of "Rid- 
ing on the rail," and every conceivable artifice 
was resorted to to carry the amendment. It 
was carried by a vote of 25, 02:: in favor of its 
passage to 0.7.'!:! against. 

To give an idea of the intense feeling thai 
was exhibited in this election it is only neces- 
sary to state that at the city of Winona there 
were 1,102 votes cast in favor of the amend- 
ment and only one vote against it. This nega- 
tive vote, to his eternal honor be it said, was 
cast by Thomas Wilson, afterwards Chief Jus- 
tice of the State, and now a resident of St. 



In the execution of the requirements of the 
iimendment the railroad companies claimed 
that they could issue first mortgage bonds on 
their properties to an indefinite amount and 
exchange them with the State for its bonds, 
bond for bond, but the Governor, who was Hon. 
Henry H. Sibley, construed the amendment to 
mean that the first mortgage bonds of the com- 
panies which the State was to receive must be 
an exclusive first lien on the lands and fran- 
chises of the company. He therefore declined 
to issue the bonds of the State unless his views 
were adopted. The Minnesota and Pacific 
Railroad company, one of the land grant cor- 
porations, applied to the Supreme Court of the 
State for a writ of mandamus to compel the 
Governor to issue the bonds. The case was 
heard and two members of the court, holding 
the views of the applicants, the w 7 rit was is- 
sued. I was a member of the court at that 
time, but entertaining opposite views from the 
majority, I filed a dissenting opinion. Any 
one sufficiently interested in the question can 
find the case reported in Volume Two, of the 
Minnesota Reports, at page thirteen. This 
decision was only to be advisory, as the courts 
have no power to coerce the Executive. 

The railroad companies entered into con- 
tracts for grading their roads, and a sufficient 
amount of grading was done to entitle them to 
about $2,300,000 of the bonds, which were is- 
sued accordingly, and went into the hands of 
the contractors to pay for the work done. It, 
however, soon became apparent that no com- 
pleted railroad would ever result from this 
scheme, even if the whole five million of bonds 
were issued. What should have been known 
before was made clear when any of these Stale 
bonds were put on the market. The credit of 
the State was worthless, and the bonds were 
valueless. The people became as anxious to 
shake off the incubus of debt they had imposed 
upon their infant State as they had been to 
rush into it. 

Governor Sibley, in his message delivered to 
the second Legislature in December, 1S59, said, 
in speaking of this issue of bonds: "I regret 
to be obliged to state that the measure has 
proved a failure, and has by no means accom- 

plished what was hoped for it, either in provid- 
ing means for the issue of a safe currency or 
of aiding the companies in the completion of 
tlic roads." 

At the election held on November 6, 18G0, 
the Constitution was again amended, by ex- 
punging from it the amendment of 1858, au- 
thorizing the issue of the State Railroad Bonds 
and prohibiting any further issue of them. An 
amendment was also made to Section II. of 
Article IX. of the Constitution, at the same 
time, by providing that no law levying a tax, 
or making any other provisions for the pay- 
ment of interest or principal of the bonds al- 
ready issued, should take effect or be in force 
until it had been submitted to the people and 
adopted by a majority of the electors. 

It was very proper to prohibit the issuance 
of any more of the bonds, but the provision 
requiring a vote of the people before those 
already out could be paid was practically repu- 
diation, and the State labored under that dam- 
aging stigma for over twenty years. Attempts 
were made to obtain the sanction of the people 
for the payment of these bonds, but they were 
defeated, until it became unpleasant to admit 
that one was a resident of Minnesota. When- 
ever the name of Minnesota was heard on the 
floor of Congress as an applicant for favors, 
or even for justice, it was met by the charge 
of repudiation. This was an era in our history 
very much to be regretted, but the State grew 
steadily in material wealth. 

On March 2, 1881, the Legislature passed 
an act the general purpose of which was to 
adjust, with the consent of the holders, the 
outstanding bonds, at the rate of fifty cents on 
the dollar, and contained the curious provision 
that the Supreme Court should decide whether 
it must first be submitted to the people in order 
to be valid or not, and if the Supreme Court 
should not so decide, then an equal number of 
the Judges of the District Court should act. 
The Supreme Court Judges declined to act, and 
the Governor called upon the District Court 
Judges to assume the duty. Before any action 
was taken by the latter the Attorney General 
applied to the Supreme Court for a writ of pro- 
hibition to prevent them from taking any ac- 

4 8 


tion. The case was most elaborately discussed, 
and the opinion of the Supreme Court was de- 
livered by Chief Justice Gilullan, which is 
most exhaustive and convincing. The Court 
holds that the ad of 1881 is void by conferring 
upon the judiciary legislative power, and that 
the amendment to the Constitution providing 
that no bonds should be paid unless the law 
authorizing such payment was first submitted 
to and adopted by the people was void, as be- 
ing repugnant to the clause in the Constitution 
of the United States that no State shall pass 
any law impairing the obligation of contracts. 
With these impediments to a just settlement 
of this question removed, the State was at lib- 
erty to make such arrangements with its bond 
creditors as was satisfactory. John S. Pills- 
bury was Governor of the State at that time. 
He was a man of superior intelligence and un- 
bending integrity, and had always been in fa- 
vor of paying the bonds and removing the 
stain from the honor of the State; finding his 
hands free, it did not take him long to arrange 
the whole matter satisfactorily, and to the ap- 
proval of all the parties interested. The debt 
was paid by the issue of new bonds at the rate 
of fifty per cent of the principal and interest 
of the outstanding ones, and the surrender of 
the latter. This adjustment ended a transac- 
tion that was conceived and executed in folly, 
and was only prevented from eventuating in 
crime by the persistent efforts of our most hon- 
orable and thoughtful citizens throughout the 
State. The transaction has often been called 
by those who advocated repudiation, "An old 
Territorial fraud," but there was nothing in it 
but a bad bargain, made under the extraordi- 
nary pressure of financial difficulties. 


To the State was restored all the lands and 
franchises of the various companies by means 
of foreclosure, and on March 8,18(il,was passed 
an act to facilitate the construction of the Min- 
nesota and Pacific railroad, by which act the 

old railroad was rehabilitated, and required to 
construct and put in operation its road from 
St. Paul to St. Anthony on or before the first 
day of January, 1802. The company was re- 
quired to deposit with the Governor $10,000 as 
an earnest of good faith. Work was soon com- 
menced, and the first ten miles constructed as 
required. This was the first railroad ever built 
and operated in Minnesota. The first locomo 
tive engine was brought up the river on a 
barge and landed at the St. Paul end of the 
track in the latter part of October, 1861. This 
pioneer locomotive was called the "William 
Crooks" after a distinguished civil engineer of 
that name, who was very active and instru- 
mental in the building of the road. The first ten 
miles of road cost more energy and brain work 
than all the rest of the vast system that has 
succeeded it. It was the initial step in what is 
now known as the Great Northern Railway, a 
road that spans the continent from St. Paul to 
the Pacific, and reflects upon its enterprising 
builders all the credit due to the pioneer. 

It was not long before the Northern Pacific 
Railroad company was incorporated by act of 
Congress, passed on July 2, 18G4. This road 
was to extend from the head of Lake Superior 
to Puget sound on a line north of the forty- 
fifth degree of North Latitude, with a branch 
via the valley of the Columbia river to Port- 
land, Oregon. The company had a grant of 
twenty alternate sections in the States through 
which it passed. It was commenced shortly 
after iis incorporation, but met with financial 
disaster, and was sold under foreclosure of a 
mortgage, and underwent many trials and trib- 
ulations, until it was finally completed Sep 
tember 8, 1883, and has been in successful 
operation ever since. As the Northern Pacific 
has its eastern terminus and general offices in 
St. Paul, it is essentially a Minnesota road. 
The same may be said of the Great Northern, 
although both are transcontinental roads. 

From the small beginning of railroad con- 
struction in 1802 has grown thirty-seven dis- 
tinct railroad corporations, operating in the 
State of Minnesota six thousand and sixty-two 
and sixty-nine one-hundredths miles of main 
tracks, according to the official reports of 1898, 



with quite a substantial addition in course of 
construction. These various lines cover and 
render accessible nearly every city, town and 
village in the State. 

The method of taxation adopted by the State 
of railroad property is a very wise and just one. 
It imposes a tax of three per cent upon the 
gross earnings of the roads, which, in 1890, 
yielded the comfortable sum of $1,037,194.40, 
the gross earnings of all amounting to |36,- 
918,741.71. This plan of taxation gives the 
State a direct interest in the prosperity of the 
roads, as its taxes are increased when business 
is good, and the roads are relieved from op- 
pressive taxation in time of business depres- 

The grading which was done, and for which 
the bonds of the State were issued, was, as a 
general thing, utilized in the final construction 
of the roads. 


In 1842 the country north of Iowa and west 
of the Mississippi as far north as the Little 
Rapids, on the Minnesota river, was occupied 
by the M'-de-wa-kon-ton and Wak-pe-ku-ta 
bands of Sioux. The Wak-pe-ku-ta band was 
at war with the Sacs and Foxes, and was un- 
der the leadership of two principal chiefs 
named Wam-di-sapa, the Black Eagle, and Ta- 
sa-gi. Wam-di-sapa and his band were a law- 
less, predatory set, whose depredations pro- 
longed the war with the Sacs and Foxes, and 
finally separated him and his band from the 
Wak-pe-ku-tas. They moved west towards the 
Missouri and occupied the valley of the Ver- 
million river, and so thorough was the separa- 
tion that the band was not regarded as part 
of the Wak-pe-ku-ta when the latter, together 
with the M'-de-wa-kon-tons made their treaty 
with the government at Mendota in 1851. 

By 1857 all that remained of Wan-di-sapa's 
straggling band was about ten or fifteen lodges 
under the chieftainship of Ink-pa-du-ta, or 
"Scarlet Point," or "Red End." They had 
planted near Spirit Lake, which lies partly in 
Dickinson county, Iowa, and partly in Jackson 

county, Minnesota, prior to 1857, and ranged 
the country from there to the Missouri, and 
were considered a bad lot of vagabonds. 

Between 1855 and 1857 a small settlement 
had sprung up about forty miles south of Spir- 
it Lake, on the In-yan-yan-ke or Rock river. 

In the spring of 185C Hon. William Free- 
born, of Red Wing (after whom the county of 
Freeborn, in this Slate, is called), had pro- 
jected a settlement at Spirit Lake which, by 
the next spring, contained six or seven houses, 
with as many families. 

About the same time another settlement was 
started some ten or fifteen miles north of Spirit 
Lake, on the headwaters of the Des Moines, 
and a town laid out which was called Spring- 
field. In the spring of 1857 there were two 
stores and several families at this place. 

These settlements were on the extreme fron- 
tier and very much isolated. There was noth- 
ing to the west of them until you reached the 
Rocky mountains, and the nearest settlements 
on the north and northeast were on the Minne- 
sota and Watonwan rivers, while to the south 
lay the small settlement on the Rock river, 
about forty miles distant. All these settle- 
ments, although on ceded lands, were actually 
in the heart of the Indian country, and abso- 
lutely unprotected and defenseless. 

In 1857 I was United States Indian agent 
for the Sioux of the Mississippi, but had lived 
on the frontier long enough before to have ac- 
quired a general knowledge of Ink-pa-du-ta's 
reputation and his whereabouts. I was sta- 
tioned on the Redwood and Yellow Medicine 
rivers, near where they empty into the Minne- 
sota, and about eighty miles from Spirit Lake. 

Early in March, 1857, Ink-pa-du-ta's band 
were hunting in the neighborhood of the set- 
tlement on the Rock river, and one of them was 
bitten by a dog belonging to a white man. The 
Indian killed the dog. The owner of the dog 
assaulted the Indian and beat him severely. 
The white men then went in a body to the camp 
of the Indians and disarmed them. The arms 
were either returned to them or they obtained 
others, I have never ascertained which. They 
were probably given back to them on condition 
that they should leave, as they at once came 



north to Spirit Lake, where they must have 
arrived about the Gth or 7th of March. 
They proceeded at once to massacre the set- 
tlers, and killed all the men they found there, 
together with some women, and carried into 
captivity four women, three of whom were 
married and one single. Their names were 
Mrs. Noble, Mrs. Marble, Mrs. Thatcher and 
Miss < Jardner. They came north to the Spring- 
field settlement, where they killed all the peo- 
ple they found. The total number killed at 
both places was forty-two. 

I was the first person to receive notice of 
this affair. On the 9th of March a Mr. Morris 
Markham, who had been absent from the Spirit 
Lake settlement for some time, returned, and 
found all the people dead or missing. Seeing 
signs of Indians, he took it for granted that 
they had perpetrated the outrage. He at once 
went to Springfield and reported what he had 
seen. Some of the people fled, but others re- 
mained and lost their lives in consequence. It 
lias always been my opinion that, being in the 
habit of trading with these Indians occasion- 
ally, they did not believe they stood in any dan- 
ger; and what is equally probable, they may 
not have believed the report. Every one who 
has lived in an Indian country knows how fre- 
quently startling rumors are in circulation, 
and how often they prove unfounded. 

The people of Springfield sent the news to 
me by two young men, who came on foot 
through the deep snow. The story was corrob- 
orated in a way that convinced me that it was 
true. They arrived on the 18th of March, com- 
pletely worn out and snow-blind. I at once 
made a requisition on Colonel Alexander, com- 
manding at Fort Ridgely, for troops. There 
wire at the fort five or six companies of the 
Tenth United States Infantry, and the Colonel 
promptly ordered Capt. Barnard E. Bee, of 
Company A, to proceed with his company to 
the scene of the trouble. The country between 
the fort and Spirit Lake was uninhabited, and 
the distance from eighty to one hundred miles. 
I furnished two experienced guides from 
among my Sioux half-breeds. They took a 
pony and a light traineau, put on their snow- 
shoes, and were ready to go anywhere. Not 

so with the soldiers, how r ever. They were 
equipped in about the same manner as they 
would have been in campaigning in Florida, 
their only transportation being heavy wheeled 
army wagons, drawn by six mules. It soon be- 
came apparent that the outfit could not move 
straight to the objective point, and it became 
necessary to follow a trail down the Minnesota 
In Mankato and up the Watonwan in the di- 
rection of the lake, which was reached after 
one of the most arduous marches ever made 
by troops, on which for many miles the sol- 
diers had to march ahead of the mules to break 
a road for them. The Indians, as we expected, 
were gone. A short pursuit was made, but the 
guides pronounced the campfires of the Indians 
several days old, and it was abandoned. The 
dead were buried, and after a short stay the 
soldiers returned to the fort. 

When this affair became known throughout 
the Territory it caused great consternation and 
apprehension, most of the settlers supposing it 
was the work of the Sioux nation. Many of the 
most exposed abandoned their homes tem- 
porarily. Their fears, however, were allayed 
by an explanation which I published in the 

I at once began to devise plans for the rescue 
of the white women. I knew that any hostile 
demonstration would result in their murder. 
While thinking the matter out an event oc- 
curred that opened the way to a solution. A 
party of my Indians had been hunting on the 
Big Simix river, and having learned that Ink- 
pa du-ta was encamped at Lake Chan-pta-ya- 
tan-ka, and that he had some white women 
prisoners, two young brothers visited the camp 
and succeeded in purchasing Mrs. Marble, and 
brought her into the Yellow Medicine Agency 
and delivered her to the missionaries, who 
turned her over to me. I received her on the 
21st of March, and learned that two of the oth- 
er captives were still alive. Of course, my first 
object was to rescue the survivors, and to en- 
courage the Indians to make the attempt I 
paid the brothers who had brought in Mrs. 
Marble five hundred dollars each. I could raise 
only five hundred dollars at the agency, and 
to make up the deficiency I resorted to a meth- 



od, then novel, but which has since become 
quite general. I issued a bond, which, al- 
though done without authority, met with a 
better fate than many that have followed it — 
it was paid at maturity. 

As it was the first bond ever issued in what 
is now Minnesota, the two Dakotas, Montana, 
and, I may add, the whole Northwest, it may 
lie interesting to give it in full: 

"I, Stephen R. Riggs, missionary among 
the Sioux Indians, and I, Charles E. Flan- 
drau. United States Indian Agent for the 
Sioux, being satisfied that Mak-piya-ka-ho-ton 
and Si-ha-ho-ta, two Sioux Indians, have per- 
formed a valuable service to the Territory of 
Minnesota and humanity by rescuing from cap- 
tivity Mrs. Margaret Ann Marble, and deliver- 
ing her to the Sioux Agent, and being further 
satisfied that the rescue of the two remaining 
white women who are now in captivity among 
Ink-pa-du-ta's band of Indians depends very 
much on the liberality shown towards the said 
Indians who have rescued Mrs. Marble, and 
having full confidence in the humanity and lib- 
erality of the Territory of Minnesota, through 
its government and citizens, have this day paid 
to said two above named Indians the sum of 
five hundred dollars in money, and do hereby 
pledge to said two Indians that the further 
sum of five hundred dollars will be paid to 
them by the Territory of Minnesota, or its cit- 
izens, within three months from the date 

"Dated May 22, 1857. at Pa-ju-ta-zi-zi, M. T. 
"Stephen R. Riggs, 
"Missionary, A. B. C. F. M. 
"Chas.' E. Flandrau, 
"U. S. Indian Agent for Sioux." 

I immediately called for volunteers to res- 
cue the remaining two women, and soon had 
my choice. I selected Paul Ma-za-ku-ta-ma-ni, 
the president of the Hazelwood Republic, An- 
pe-tu-tok-cha, or John Otherday, and Che-tan- 
ma-za, or the Iron Hawk. I gave them a large 
outfit of horses, wagons, calicos, trinkets of all 
kinds, and a general assortment of things that 
tempt the savage. They started on the 23rd 
of May from the Yellow Medicine agency on 
their important and dangerous mission. I did 
not expect them to return before the middle of 
June, and immediately commenced prepara- 
tions to punish the marauders. I went to the 

foil, and, together with Colonel Alexander, we 
laid a plan to attack Ink-pa-du-ta's camp with 
l lie entire garrison and utterly annihilate 
them, which we would undoubtedly have ac- 
complished had not an unexpected event frus- 
trated our plans. Of course, we could not 
move on the Indians until my expedition had 
returned with the captives, as that would have 
been certain death to them. And just about 
the time we were anxiously expecting them a 
couple of steamboats arrived at the fort with 
peremptory orders for the whole garrison to 
embark for Utah to join Gen. Albert Sydnej 
Johnston's expedition against the Mormons, 
and that was the last I saw of the Tenth for 
ten years. 

My expedition found that Mrs. Thatcher and 
Mrs. Noble had been killed, but succeeded in 
bringing in Jliss Gardner, who was forwarded 
to me at St. Paul, and by me formally delivered 
to Governor Medary June 23, 1857. She 
was afterwards married, and is now a widow, 
Mrs. Abbie Gardner Sharpe, and resides in the 
house from which she was abducted by the sav- 
ages forty-two years ago. I paid the Indians 
who rescued her four hundred dollars each for 
their services. The Territory made an appro- 
priation on the 15th of May, 1857, of |10,000 
to rescue the captives, but as there were no 
telegraphs or other speedy means of communi- 
cation the work was all done before the news 
of the appropriation reached the border. My 
outlay, however, was all refunded from this 
appropriation. I afterwards succeeded, with a 
squad of soldiers and citizens, in killing one 
of Ink-pa-du-ta's sons, who had taken an active 
part in the massacre, and that ended the first 
serious Indian trouble that Minnesota was af- 
flicted with. 



By the end of the year 185G the Territory of 
Minnesota had attained such growth and 
wealth that the question of becoming a State 
within the Union began to attract attention. It 
was urged by the government at Washington 
that we were amply capable of taking care of 
ourselves, and sufficiently wealthy to pay our 


expenses, and statehood was pressed upon us 
from that quarter. There was another potent 
influence at work at home. We had several 
prominent gentlemen who were convinced thai 
their services were needed in the Senate of the 
United States, and that their presence there 
would strengthen and adorn that body, and 
as no positive opposition was developed the 
Congress of the United States, on the 26th 
of February, 1857, passed an act authorizing 
the Territory to form a State government. It 
prescribed the same boundaries for the State 
that we now have, although there had been a 
large number of people who had advocated an 
east and west division of the Territory, on a 
line a little north of the forty-fifth parallel 
of north latitude. It provided for a conven- 
tion to frame the Constitution of the new 
State, winch was to be composed of two dele- 
gates for each member of the Territorial Leg- 
islature, to be elected in the representative 
districts on the first Monday in June, 1857. The 
convention was to be held at the capital of the 
Territory on the second Monday of July fol- 
lowing. It submitted to the Convention five 
propositions to be answered, which, if ac- 
cepted, were to become obligatory on the 
United States and the State of Minnesota. 
They were in substance as follows: 

First — Whether sections sixteen and thirty- 
six in each township should be granted to the 
Slate for the use of schools. 

Second — Whether seventy two sections of 
land should be set aside for the use and sup- 
port of a State university. 

Third — Whether ten sections should be 
granted to the State in aid of public buildings. 

Fourth — Whether all salt springs in the 
Slate, not exceeding twelve, witli six sections 
of land to each, should be granted to the State. 

Fifth — Whether five per centum of the net 
proceeds of the sales of all the public lands 
lying within the State which should be sold 
after its admission should lie paid to the State 
for the purpose of roads and internal improve- 

All the five propositions, if accepted, were to 
be on the condition, to be expressed in the Con- 
stitution or an irrevocable ordinance, that the 
State should never interfere with the primary 

disposal of the soil within the State by the 
United States, or with any regulations Con- 
gress should make for securing title to said 
lands in bona fide purchasers thereof, and that 
no tax should be imposed on lands belonging 
to the United States, and that non-resident 
proprietors should never be taxed higher than 

These propositions were all accepted, rati- 
fied and confirmed by Section III. of Article 
II. of the Constitution. 

The election for delegates took place as pro- 
vided for, and on the day set for the conven 
tion to meet nearly all of them had assembled 
at the capital. Great anxiety was manifested 
by both the Democrats and the Republicans to 
capture the organization of the convention. 
Neither party had a majority of all the mem- 
bers present, but there were a number of con- 
tested seats on both sides, of which both con- 
testant and contestee were present, and these 
duplicates being counted, were sufficient to 
give each party an apparent majority. It was 
obvious that a determined fight for the organ- 
ization was imminent. The convention was to 
meet in the House of Representatives, and to 
gain an advantage the Republicans took pos- 
session of the hall the night before the opening- 
day, so as to be the first on hand in the morn- 
ing. The Democrats, on learning of this move, 
held a caucus to decide upon a plan of action. 
Precedents and authorities were looked up, 
and two fundamental points decided upon. It 
was discovered that the Secretary of the Ter- 
ritory was the proper party to call the con- 
vention to order, and as Mr. Charles L. Chase 
was the Secretary, and also a Democratic dele- 
gate, he was chosen to make the call. It was 
further found that when no hour was desig- 
nated for the meeting of a parliamentary body 
that noon of the day appointed was the time. 
I'.eiiig armed with these points, the Democrats 
decided to wait until noon and then march 
into the hall in a body with Delegate Chase at 
their head, and as soon as he reached the chair 
he was to spring into it and call the conven- 
tion to order. General Gorman was immediate- 
ly to move an adjournment until the next day 
at twelve o'clock M., which motion was to be 



put by the chair, the Democrats feeling sure 
that the Republicans, being taken by surprise, 
would rote no, while the Democrats would all 
vote aye, and thus commit more than a major- 
ity of the whole to the organization under Mr. 
Chase On reaching the chair Mr. Chase im- 
mediately sprang into it and called the con- 
vention to order. General Gorman moved the 
adjournment, which was put by the chair. All 
the Democrats loudly voted in the affirmative 
and the Republicans in the negative. The mo- 
tion was declared carried, and the Democrats 
solemnly marched out of the hall. 

The above is the Democratic version of the 
event. The Republicans, however, claim that 
•John W. North reached the chair first and 
called the convention to order, and that as the 
Republicans had a majority of the members 
present, the organization made under his call 
was the only regular one. Nothing can be de- 
termined as to which is the true story from 
the records kept of the two bodies, because 
they are each made up to show strict regular- 
ity, and as it is utterly immaterial in any sub- 
stantial point of view I will not venture any 
opinion, although I was one of the actors in 
the drama, or farce, as the reader may see fit 
to regard it. 

The Republicans remained in the hall and 
formed a Constitution to suit themselves, sit- 
ting until August 29, just forty-seven days. 
The Democrats, on the next day after their ad- 
journment, at twelve o'clock M., went in a body 
to the door of the House of Representatives, 
where they were met by Secretary and Dele- 
gate Chase, who said to them: "Gentlemen, 
the hall to which the delegates adjourned yes 
terday is now occupied by a meeting of citizens 
of the Territory, who refuse to give possession 
to the Constitutional Convention." 

General Gorman then said: "I move the con- 
vention adjourn to the council chamber." The 
motion was carried, and the delegates accord- 
ingly repaired to the council chamber in the 
west wing of the capitol, where Mr. Chase 
called the convention to order. Each branch 
of the convention elected its officers. The Re- 
publicans chose St. A. D. Balcombe for their 
president and the Democrats selected Hon. 

Henry H. Sibley. Doth bodies worked dili- 
gently on a Constitution, and each succeeded 
in making one so much like the other that, 
after sober reflection, it was decided thai I lie 
State could be admitted under either, and if 
both were sent to Congress that body would 
reject them for irregularity. So, towards the 
end of the long session a compromise was ar- 
rived at by the formation of a joint committee 
from each convention, who were to evolve a 
Constitution out of the two for submission to 
the people; the result of which, after many 
sessions and some fisticuffs, was the instrument 
under which the Stale was finally admitted. 

A very curious complication resulted from 
two provisions in the Constitution. In seel ion 
five of the schedule it was provided that "All 
Territorial officers, civil and military, now 
holding their offices under the authority of the 
United States or of the Territory of Minnesota, 
shall continue to hold and exercise their re- 
spective offices until they shall be superseded 
by the authority of the State," and section six 
provided that "The first session of the Legisla- 
ture of the State of Minnesota shall commence 
on the first Wednesday of December next, etc" 

These provisions were made under the sup- 
position that the Slate would be admitted as 
soon as the Constitution would be laid before 
Congress, which it was presumed would be 
long before the date fixed for the holding of 
the first Stale Legislature, but such did not 
turn out to be the case. The election was held 
as provided for on the 13th day of October, 
1857, for the adoption or rejection of the Con- 
stitution, and for the election of all the Stale 
officers, members of Congress and of the Legis- 
lature. The Constitution was adopted by a 
vote of 36,240 for and TOO against, and the 
whole Democratic State ticket was also chosen. 
And to be sure not to lose full representation 
in Congress, three members of the House of 
Representatives were also chosen, who were all 

The Constitution was duly presented to Con- 
gress, and admission for the State demanded. 
Much to the disappointment of our people, all 
kinds and characters of objections were raised 
to our admission; one of which I remember 



was, thai as the term of office of the State Sen- 
ators was fixed at two years, and as there was 
nothing said about the term of the members 
of the House, they wen- elected for life, and 
consequently the government created was not 
Republican. Alexander Stevens, of Georgia, 
seriously combatted this position in a learned 
constitutional argument, in which he proved 
that a Slate had absolute control of the sub- 
ject, and could fix the term of all its officers 
for life if it so preferred, and that Congress 
had no right to interfere. Many other equally 
frivolous points were made against our admis- 
sion, which were debated until the 11th day of 
.May, 1858, when the Federal doors were 
opened and Minnesota became a State. The 
ad admitting the State cut down the Congres- 
sional representation to two. The three gen- 
tlemen who had been elected to these positions 
were compelled to determine who would re- 
main and who should surrender. History has 
not recorded how the decision was made, 
whether by cutting cards, tossing a coin, or in 
some other way, but the result was that 
George L. Becker was counted out and W. W. 
Phelps and James M. Cavanaugh took the 

It was always thought at home that the long 
delay in our admission was not from any dis- 
inclination to let us in, but because the House 
was quite evenly divided politically between 
the Democrats and the Republicans, and there 
being a contested seat from Ohio, between Mr. 
Valandingham and Mr. Lew Campbell, it was 
feared by the Republicans that if Minnesota 
came in with three Democratic members it 
might turn the scale in favor of Valanding- 

This delay created a very perplexing condi- 
tion of things. The State Legislature elected 
under the Constitution met on the first 
Wednesday of December before the Constitu- 
tion was recognized by Congress, and while the 
Territorial government was in full force. It 
passed a book full of laws, all of which were 
State laws approved by a Territorial Governor. 
Perhaps in some countries it would have been 
difficult to harmonize such irregularities, but 
our courts were quite up to the emergency 

and straightened them all out the Hist time the 
question was raised, and the laws so passed 
have served their purpose up to the present 

The first Governor of the State was Henry 
H. Sibley, a Democrat. He served his term of 
two years, and the State has never elected a 
Democrat to that office since, unless the choice 
of Honorable John bind in 1898 may be so 


At the eighth session of the Legislative As- 
sembly of the Territory, which convened on 
January 7, 1857, a bill was introduced, the 
purpose of which was the removal of the seat 
of government from Saint Paul to Saint Peter, 
a small village which had recently come into 
existence on the Minnesota river about one 
hundred miles above its mouth. There could 
be no reason for such action except interested 
speculation, as the capitol was already built in 
Saint Paul, and it was much more accessible 
and in every way more convenient than it 
would be at St. Peter, but the movement had 
sufficient personal and political force behind 
ii to insure its success, and an act was passed 
making such removal. But it was destined to 
meet with unexpected obstacles before it be- 
came a law. When it passed the House it was 
sent to the council, where it only received one 
majority, eight voting for and seven against 
it. It was on the 27th of February sent to the 
enrolling committee for final enrollment. It 
happened that Councillor Joseph Rolette, from 
Pembina, was chairman of this committee, and 
a great friend of Saint Paul. Mr. Rolette de- 
cided he would veto the bill in a way not 
known tn parliamentary law, so he put it in his 
pocket and disappeared. On the 28th, not 
being in his seat, and the bill being missing, a 
councillor offered a resolution that a copy of 
it be obtained from Mr. Wales, the second in 
order on the committee. A call of the council 
was then ordered, and Mr, Rolette not beinj> in 
his seat, the serjeant-at-arms was sent out 
to bring him in, but not being able to find him, 
he so reported. A motion was then made to 



dispense with the call, but by the rules it re- 
quired a two-third vote of fifteen members, 
and in the absence of Mr. Rolette only fourteen 
were present. It takes as many to make two- 
thirds of fourteen as it does (o make two-thirds 
of fifteen, and the bill had only nine friends. 
During the pendency of a call no business 
could be transacted, and a serious dilemma 
confronted the capital removers, but nothing 
daunted, Mr. l.alcombe made a long argument 
to prove that nine was two-thirds of fourteen. 
Mr. Brisbin, who was president of the council 
and a graduate of Yale, pronounced the mo- 
tion lost, saying to the mover, who was also a 
graduate of Yale: "Mr. Balcombe, we never 
figured that way at Yale." This situation pro- 
duced a deadlock and no business could be 
transacted. The session terminated on the 
fifth day of March by its own limitation. The 
sergeant-at arms made daily reports concern- 
ing the whereabouts of the absentee, some- 
times locating him on a dog-train, rapidly mov- 
ing towards Pembina, sometimes giving a 
rumor of his assassination, but never produc- 
ing him. Matters remained in this condition 
until the end of the term, and the bill was lost. 
It was disclosed afterwards that Rolette had 
carefully deposited the bill in the vault of Tru- 
man M. Smith's bank and had passed the time 
in the upper story of the Fuller House, where 
his friends made him very comfortable. Some 
ineffectual efforts have been made since to 
remove the capital to Minneapolis and else- 
where, but the treaty, made by the pioneers in 
1849, locating it at St. Paul, is still in force. 


One of the provisions of the enabling act 
was, that in the event of the Constitutional 
Convention deciding in favor of the immediate 
admission of the proposed State into the 
Union, a census should be taken with a view 
of ascertaining the number of representatives 
in Congress to which the State would be en- 
titled. This was accordingly done in Septem- 
ber, 1857, and the population was found to be 


The first visitation of grasshoppers came in 
1857, and did considerable damage to the crops 
in Stearns and other counties. Relief was 
asked from St. Paul for the suffering poor, and 
notwithstanding the people of the capital city 
were in the depths of poverty, from the finan- 
cial panic produced by over-speculation, they 
responded liberally. The grasshoppers of this 
year did not deposit their eggs, but disap- 
peared after eating up everything that came 
within their reach. The State was not troubled 
with them again until the year 1873, when they 
came in large flights and settled down in the 
western part of the State. They did much dam- 
age to I lie crops and deposited their eggs in thi 
soil, where they hatched out in the spring and 
greatly increased their number. They made 
sad havoc with the crops of 1874 and occupied 
a larger part of the State than in the previous 
year. They again deposited their eggs and ap- 
peared in the spring of 1S75 in increased num- 
bers. This was continued in 187G, when the 
situation became so alarming that Governor 
John S. Pillsbury issued a proclamation ad- 
dressed to the States and Territories which 
had suffered most from the insects, to meet him 
by delegates at Omaha to concert measures fin- 
united protection. A convention was held and 
Governor Pillsbury was made its president. 
The subject was thoroughly discussed and a 
memorial to Congress was prepared and 
adopted, asking for scientific investigation of 
the subject and a suggestion of preventative 

Many appeals for relief came from the af- 
flicted regions and much aid was extended. 
Governor Pillsbury was a big-hearted, sympa- 
thetic man, and fearing the sufferers might not 
be well cared for he traveled among them per- 
sonally, incognito, and dispensed large sums 
from his private funds. 

In 1877 the Governor, in his message to the 
Legislature, treated the subject exhaustively, 
and appropriations were made to relieve the 
settlers in the devastated regions. In the early 
spring of 1877 the religious bodies and people 
of the State asked the Governor to issue a 



proclamation appointing a day of fasting and 
prayer, asking Divine protection, and exhort- 
ing the people to greater humility and a new 
consecration in the service of a merciful 
Father. The Governor, being of Puritan 
origin, and a faithful believer of Divine agen- 
cies in this world's affairs, issued an eloquent 
appeal to the people to observe a day named as 
one of fasting and prayer for deliverance from 
i he grasshoppers. The suggestion was quite 
generally acted upon, but the proclamation 
naturally excited much criticism and some ridi- 
cule. However, curious at it may seem, the 
grasshoppers, even before the day appointed 
for prayer arrived, began to disappear.and in a 
short time not one remained to show they had 
ever been iii the State. They left in a body; no 
one seemed to know exactly when they went, 
and no one knew anything about where they 
went, as they were never heard of again on any 
part of the Continent. The only news we ever 
had from them came from ships crossing tin- 
Atlantic westward bound, which reported hav- 
ing passed through large areas of floating in- 
sects. They must have met a western gale when 
well up in the air and have been blown out 
into the sea and destroyed. The people of Min- 
nesota did not expend much time or trouble to 
find out what had become of them. 

The crop of 1S77 was abundant, and particu- 
larly so in the region which had been most 
seriously blighted by the pests. 

Before the final proclamation of Governor 
Pillsbury every source of ingenuity had been 
exhausted in devising plans for the destruction 
of the grasshoppers. Ditches were dug around 
the fields of grain and ropes drawn over the 
grain to drive the hoppers into them, with the 
purpose of covering them with earth. Instru- 
ments called "hopperdozers" were invented, 
which had receptacles filled with hot tar, and 
were driven over the ground to catch them as 
Hies are caught with tanglefoot paper, and 
many millions of them were destroyed in this 
way. but it was abiut as effectual as fighting a 
Northwestern blizzard with a lady's fan, and 
they were all abandoned as useless and power- 
less lo cope with the scourge. Nothing proved 
effectual but the Governor's proclamation, and 

all the old settlers called it "Pillsbury's Best," 
which was the name of the celebrated brand of 
flour made at the Governor's mills. 

Frofessor N. II. Winchell, the State <jeolo- 
gist, in his geological and natural history re- 
port, presents a map which, by red lines, shows 
the encroachments of the grasshoppers for the 
years lS73-74-75-7C>. To gain an idea of the 
extent of the country covered by them up to 
1S77 draw a line on a State map from the Bed 
River of the North about six miles north of 
Moorhead in Clay county, in a southeasterly 
direction through Becker, Wadena, Todd and 
Morrison counties, crossing the Mississippi 
river near the northern line of Benton county, 
continuing down the east side of the Missis- 
sippi through Benton. Sherburne and Anoka 
counties, there re-crossing the Mississippi and 
proceeding south on the west side of the river 
to the south line of the State in Mower county. 
All the country lying south and west of this 
line was for several years devastated by the 
grasshoppers to the extent that no crops could 
be raised. It became for a time a question 
whether the people or the insects would con- 
quer the State. 


During the Territorial times there were a few 
volunteer militia companies in St. Paul, con- 
spicuously the Pioneer Guard, an infantry com- 
pany, which, from its excellent organization 
and discipline, became a source of supply of 
officers when regiments were being raised for 
the Civil War. To have been a member of that 
company was worth at least a captain's com- 
mission in the volunteer army, and many offi- 
cers of much higher rank were chosen from its 

There was also a company of cavalry at St. 
Paul, commanded by Capt. -lames Starkey, 
called the "St. Paul Light Cavalry." Also the 
"Shields Guards," commanded by Capt. John 
O'Gorman. There may have been others, but I 
do not remember them. The services of the 
Pioneer Guards and the cavalry company were 
called into requisition on two occasions, once 



in 1857 and again in 1859. During the summer 
of 1857 the settlers near Cambridge and Sun- 
rise complained that the Chippewas were very 
troublesome. Governor Medary ordered Cap- 
tain Starkey to take part of his company and 
arrest the Indians who were committing 
depredations, and send the remainder of them 
to their reservation. The Captain took twenty 
men, and on August 24, 1857, started for the 
.scene of the trouble. On the 28th he overtook 
some six or seven Indians, and in their attempt 
to escape a collision occurred, in which a young 
man, a member of Starkey's company, named 
Frank Donnelly, was instantly killed. The 
troops succeeded in killing one of the Indians, 
wounding another and capturing four more, 
when they returned to St. Paul, bringing with 
them the dead, wounded and prisoners. The 
dead were buried, the wounded healed and the 
prisoners discharged by Judge Nelson on a 
writ of habeas corpus. 

The general sentiment of the community was 
that the expedition was unnecessary and 
should never have been made. This affair was 
facetiously called the "Corn-stalk War." 


In the fall of 1858 a man named Wallace was 
killed in Wright county. Oscar F. Jackson 
was tried for the murder in the spring of 1859 
and acquitted by a jury. Public sentiment was 
against him and he was warned to leave 
I lie county. He did not heed the admonition 
and on April 25 a mob assembled and hung 
Jackson to the gable end of Wallace's cabin. 
Governor Sibley offered a reward for the con- 
viction of any of the lynchers. Shortly after- 
wards, one Emery Moore was arrested as being 
implicated in the affair. He was taken to 
Wright county for trial and at once rescued by 
a mob. The Governor sent three companies of 
the militia to Monticello to arrest the offend- 
ers and preserve order, the Pioneer Guards 
being among them. This force, aided by a few 
special officers of the law. arrested eleven of 
the lynchers and rescuers and turned them 
over to the civil authorities, and on the 11th of 

August, 1859, having completed their mission, 
returned to St. Paul. As there was no war or 
bloodshed of any kind connected with this ex- 
pedition it was called the "Wright County 

Governor Sibley, having somewhat of a mili- 
tary tendency, appointed as his adjutant gen- 
eral Alexander C. Jones, who was a graduate 
of the Virginia Military Academy and captain 
of the Pioneer Guards. Under this administra- 
tion a very complete militia bill was passed on 
the 12th day of August, 1858. Minnesota from 
that time on had a very efficient militia system, 
until the establishment of the National Guard, 
which made some changes in its general char- 
acter, supposed to be for the better. 


Nothing of any special importance occurred 
during the years 1859 and 1860 in Minnesota. 
The State continued to grow in population and 
wealth at an extraordinary pace, but in a quiet 
and unobtrusive way. The politics of the Na- 
tion had been for some time much disturbed 
between the North and the South on the ques- 
tion of slavery, and threats of secession from 
the Union made by the slave-holding States. 
The election of Abraham Lincoln to the Presi- 
dency of the United States in 1800 precipitated 
the impending revolution, and on the 14th 
of April, 1861, Fort Sumter, in the har- 
bor of Charleston, South Carolina, was 
fired upon by the revolutionists, which meant 
war between the two sections of the country. 
I will only relate such events in connection 
with the Civil War which followed as are espe- 
cially connected with Minnesota. 

When the news of the firing upon Fort Sum 
ter reached Washington, Alexander Ramsey, 
then Governor of Minnesota, was in that city. 
He immediately called on the President of the 
United States and tendered the services of the 
people of Minnesota in defense of the Republic, 
thus giving to the State the enviable position 
of being the first to come to the front. The 
offer of a regiment was accepted, and the Gov- 



ernor sent a dispatch to Lieutenant Governor 
Ignatius Donnelly, who, on the 16th of April, 
issued a proclamation giving notice that volun- 
teers would be received at St. Paul for one regi- 
ment of infantry composed of ten companies, 
each of sixty-four privates, one captain, two 
lieutenants, four sergeants, four corporals and 
one bugler, and that the volunteer companies 
already organized, upon complying with these 
requirements as to the numbers and officers, 
would be entitled to be first received. 

Immediately following this announcement, 
which, of course, meant war, great enthusiasm 
was manifested all over the State. Public 
meetings were held in all the cities; almost 
every man capable of doing soldier duty 
wanted to go, and those who were unable, for 
any reason, to go in person subscribed funds 
for the support of the families of those who 
volunteered. The only difficulty the authori- 
ties met with was an excess of men over those 
needed. There were a good many Southerners 
residing in the State, who were naturally con- 
trolled in their sentiments by their geograph- 
ical affinities, but they behaved very well and 
caused no trouble. They either entered the 
service of the South or held their peace. I can 
recall but one instance of a Northern man who 
had breathed the free air of Minnesota going 
over to the South, and the atrocity of his case 
was aggravated by the fact that he was an offi- 
cer in the United States army. I speak of Major 
Pemberton, who, at the breaking out of the 
war, was stationed at Fort Ridgely in this 
State, in command of a battery of artillery. He 
was ordered to Washington to aid in the de- 
fense of the capital, but before reaching his 
destination resigned his commission and ten- 
dered his sword to the enemy. I think he was 
a citizen of Pennsylvania. It was he who sur- 
rendered Vicksburg to the United States army, 
July 4, 1863. 

The first company raised under the call of 
the State was made up of young men of St. 
Paul and commanded by William H. Acker, 
who had been Adjutant General of the State. 
He was wounded at the first battle of Bull Run 
and killed at the battle of Shiloh, as captain of 
a company of the Sixteenth Regular Infantry. 

Other companies quickly followed in tendering 
their services. 

On the last Monday in April a camp for the 
first regiment was opened at Fort Snelling, and 
( 'apt. Anderson D. Nelson of the United States 
army mustered the regiment into the service. 
On the 27th of April John B. Sanborn, then Ad- 
jutant General of the State, in behalf of the 
Governor, issued the following order: "The 
Commander-in-chief expresses his gratification 
at the prompt response to the call of the Presi- 
dent of the United States upon the militia of 
Minnesota, and his regret that under the pres- 
ent requisition for only ten companies it is not 
possible to accept the services of all the com- 
panies offered." 

The order then enumerates the ten com- 
panies which have been accepted, and instructs 
them to report at Fort Snelling, and recom- 
mends that the companies not accepted main- 
tain their organization and perfect their drill, 
and that patriotic citizens throughout the 
State continue to enroll themselves and- be 
ready for any emergency. 

The Governor, on May ?>, sent a telegram to 
the President, offering a second regiment. 

The magnitude of the rebellion becoming 
rapidly manifest at Washington, the Secretary 
of War, Mr. Cameron, on the 7th of May, sent 
the following telegram to Governor Ramsey: 
"It is decidedly preferable that all the regi- 
ments from your State, not already actually 
sent forward, should be mustered into the serv- 
ice for three years, or during the war. If any 
persons belonging to the regiments already 
mustered for three months, but not yet actually 
sent forward, should be unwilling to serve for 
three years, or during the war, could not their 
places be filled by others willing to serve?" 

A great deal of correspondence passed be- 
tween Lieutenant Governor Donnelly at St. 
Paul and Governor Ramsey at Washington 
over the matter, which resulted in the First 
Minnesota Regiment being mustered into the 
service of the United States for three years, 
or during the war, on the 11th day of May, 
1861. Willis A. Gorman, second Governor of 
the Territory, was appointed colonel of the 
First. The Colonel was a veteran of the Mex 



ican War. The regiment when first mustered 
in was without uniform, except that some of 
the companies had red shirts and some blue, 
but there was no regularity whatever. This 
was of small consequence, as the material of 
the regiment was probably the best ever col- 
lected into one body. It included companies 
of lumbermen, accustomed to camp life and 
enured to hardships; men of splendid physique, 
experts with the axe; men who could make 
a road through a forest or swamp, build a 
bridge over a stream, run a steamboat, repair 
a railroad or perform any of the duties that 
are thrust upon an army on the march and 
in the field. There are no men in the world so 
well equipped naturally and without special 
preparation for the life of a soldier, as the 
American of the West. He is perfectly famil- 
iar with the use of firearms. From his varied 
experience he possesses more than an average 
intelligence. His courage goes without say- 
ing, and, to sum him up, he is the most all- 
around handy man on earth. 

< >n May 25th the ladies of Saint Paul pre- 
sented the regiment with a handsome set of 
silk colors. The presentation was made at the 
State Capitol by Mrs. Ramsey, the wife of the 
Governor. The speech was made on behalf of 
the ladies by Captain Stansbuiy. of Hie United 
States Army, and responded to by Colonel Gor- 
man in a manner fitting the occasion. 

On the 21st of June the regiment, having 
been ordered to Washington, embarked on the 
steamers "Northern Belle" and "War Eagle" 
at Fort Snelling for their journey. Before leav- 
ing the Fort the chaplain, Rev. Edward D. 
Neill, delivered a most impressive address, con- 
cluding as follows: 

"Soldiers: If you would be obedient to God 
you must honor him who has been ordained to 
lead you forth. Your colonel's will must be 
your will. If. like the Roman centurion, he 
says 'Go,' you must go. If he says 'Come,' come 
you must. God grant you all the Hebrew's en- 
during faith, and you will be sure to have the 
Hebrew's valor. Now with the Hebrew's bene- 
diction, I close. 

The Lord bless you and keep you. The Lord 
make his face shine upon you and be gracious 

to you. The Lord lift up his countenance upon 
you and give you peace. Amen." 

The peace the good chaplain asked the Lord 
to give to the regiment was that peace which 
Hows from duty well performed, and a con- 
science free from self-censure. Judging from 
the excellent record made by that regiment, it 
enjoyed this kind of peace to the fullest extent, 
but it had as little of the other kind of peace as 
any regiment in the service. 

The regiment reached Washington early in 
duly and went into camp near Alexandria in 
Virginia. It took part in the first battle of the 
war, at Bull Run, and from there to the end of 
the war was engaged in many battles, always 
with credit to itself and honor to its State. It 
was conspicuously brave and useful at the 
great conflict at Gettysburg, and the service it 
there performed made its fame world-wide. In 
what I say of the First Regiment, I must not be 
understood to lessen the fame of the other ten 
regiments and other organizations that Minne- 
sota sent to the war, all of which, with the ex- 
ception of the Third, made for themselves rec- 
ords of gallantry and soldierly conduct, which 
Minnesota will ever hold in the highest esteem. 
But the First, probably because it was the first, 
and certainly because of its superb career, will 
always be the pet and especial pride of the 

The misfortunes of the Third Regiment will 
be spoken of separately. 

The first conception of the rebellion by the 
authorities in Washington was that it could be 
suppressed in a short time; but they had left 
out of the estimate the fact that they had to 
dial with Americans, who can always be 
counted on for a stubborn fight when they de- 
cide to have one. And as the magnitude of the 
war impressed itself upon the government, con- 
tinuous calls for troops were made, to all of 
which Minnesota responded promptly, until she 
had in the field the following military organiza- 

Eleven full regiments of infantry. 
The first and second companies of sharp- 



One regiment of mounted rangers, recruited 
for the Indian War. 

The Second Regiment of cavalry. 

Hatcke's Independent Battalion of Cavalry 
for Indian War. 

Brackett's Battalion of cavalry. 

One regiment of heavy artillery. 

The First, Second and Third Batteries of 
Light Artillery. 

There were embraced in these twenty-one 
military organizations 22,070 officers and men 
who were withdrawn from the forces of civil 
industry and remained away for several years. 
Yet, notwithstanding Ibis abnormal drain on 
the industrial resources of so young a State, to 
which must be added the exhaustive effects of 
the Indian War, which broke out within her 
borders in 1862, and lasted several years, Min- 
nesota continued to grow in population and 
wealth throughout it all, and came out of these 
war afflictions strengthened and invigorated. 


Recruiting for the Third Regiment com- 
menced earlj' in the fall of 1861, and was com- 
pleted by the 15th of November, on which day 
it consisted of nine hundred and one men all 
told, including officers. On the 17th of Novem- 
ber, 1861, it embarked at Fort Snelling for its 
destination in the South, on the steamboats 
Northern Belle, City Belle and Frank Steele. 
It landed at St. Raul and marched through the 
city, exciting the admiration of the people, it 
being an unusually fine aggregation of men. It 
embarked on the same day and departed for 
the South, carrying with it the good wishes and 
hopes of every citizen of the State. It was 
then commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Smith, 
and afterwards by Col. Henry C. Lester, who 
was promoted to its command from a captaincy 
in the First, and joined his regiment at Shep- 
ardsville. Colonel Lester was a man of pre- 
possessing appearance, handsome, well-in- 
formed, modest and attractive. He soon 
brought his regiment up to a high standard of 
drill and discipline, and especially devoted 

himself to its appearance for cleanliness and 
deportment, so that his regiment became re- 
markable in these particulars. By the 12th of 
July the Third became brigaded with the Ninth 
Michigan, the Eighth and Twenty-third Ken- 
tucky, forming the Twenty-third Brigade under 
Col. W. W. Duffield of the Ninth Michigan, and 
was stationed at Murfreesboro in Tennessee. 
For two months Colonel Duffield had been ab- 
sent, and the brigade and other forces at Mur- 
freesboro had been commanded by Colonel Les- 
ter. A day or two before the 13th Colonel Duf- 
field had returned and resumed command of 
the brigade, and Lester was again in direct 
command of his regiment. In describing the 
situation at Murfreesboro on the 13th of July, 
1861, Gen. C. C. Andrews, the author of the 
History of the Third Regiment, in the State 
War Book, at page 152, says: 

"The force of enlisted men fit for duty at 
Murfreesboro was fully one thousand. Forest 
reported that the whole number of enlisted 
men captured, taken to McMinnville and pa- 
roled, was between 1,100 and 1,200. Our forces, 
however, were separated. There were five com- 
panies, two hundred and fifty strong, of the 
Ninth Michigan in camp three-fourths of a mile 
east of the town, on the Liberty turnpike 
(another company of the Ninth Michigan, forty- 
two strong, occupied the Court House as a pro- 
vost guard); near the camp of the Ninth Michi- 
gan were eighty men of the Seventh Pennsyl- 
vania < !avalry under Major Seibert. also eighty- 
one men of the Fourth Kentucky Cavalry 
under Captain Chilson. More than a mile dis- 
tant, on the other side of the town, on undu- 
lating rocky and shaded ground near Stone 
river, were nine companies of the Third Minne- 
sota, live hundred strong. Near it also, two 
sections — four guns — of Hewitt's Kentucky 
Field Artillery with sixty-four men for duty. 
Forty-five men of Company C, Third Regiment, 
under Lieutenant Grumiuons, had gone the 
afternoon of July 12th as the guard on a sup 
plv train to Shelbvville, and had not returned 
on' the 13th." 

Murfreesboro was on the Nashville & Chat- 
tanooga railroad. It was a well-built town 
around a square, in the center of which was the 
couri house. There were in the t >\\n valuable 
military stores. 

July 13, at daybreak, news arrived at Mur 



freesboro that the Rebel general, Forest, was 
about to make an attack on the place, which 
news was verified by General Forest capturing 
the picket guard and dashing into the town 
soon after the news arrived, with a mounted 
force of 1,500 men. A part of this force charged 
upon the camp of the Seventh Pennsylvania, 
then re-formed and charged upon the Nintb 
Michigan infantry, which made a gallant de- 
fense and repulsed the enemy's repeated 
charges, suffering a loss of eleven killed and 
eighty-nine wounded. The enemy suffered 
considerable loss, including a colonel killed, up 
to about noon, when the Ninth Michigan sur- 
rendered. General Crittenden was captured in 
his quarters about eight o'clock. Almost simul- 
taneous with the first attack, a part of Forest's 
force moved toward the Third Minnesota, 
which had sprung up at the first sound of the 
firing, formed into line, Colonel Lester in com- 
mand, and with two guns of Hewitt's Battery 
on each flank, marched in the direction of Mur- 
freesboro. It had not gone more than an eighth 
of a mile when about three hundred of the 
enemy appeared, approaching on a gallop. 
They were moving in some disorder, and ap- 
peared to fall back when the Third Regiment 
came in sight. The latter was at once brought 
forward into line and the guns of Hewitt's Bat- 
tery opened fire. The enemy retired out of 
sight, and the Third advanced to a command- 
ing position in the edge of some timber. A 
continuous fire was kept up by the guns of 
Hewitt's Battery, with considerable effect upon 
the enemy. Up to this time the only ground of 
discontent that had ever existed in this regi- 
ment was that it had never had an opportunity 
to fight. Probably no regiment was ever more 
eager to fight in battle than this one. Yet 
while it was there in line of battle from day- 
light until about noon, impatiently waiting for 
the approach of the enemy, or what was better, 
to be led against him, he was assailing an in- 
ferior force of our troops and destroying valu- 
able commissary and quartermaster's stores in 
town, which our troops were, of course, in 
honor bound to protect. The regiment was 
kept standing or lying motionless hour after 
hour, even while plainly seeing the smoke ris- 

ing from the burning depot of the United 
States supplies. While this was going on 
Colonel Lester sat upon his horse and different 
officers went to him and entreated him to 
march the regiment into town. The only re- 
sponse he gave was, "We will see." The enemy 
made several ineffectual attempts to charge 
the line held by the Third, but were driven off 
with loss, which only increased the ardor of 
the men to get at them. The enemy attacked 
the camp of the Third, which was guarded by 
only a few convalescents, teamsters and cooks, 
and met with a stubborn resistance, but finally 
succeeded in taking it and burning the tents 
and property of the officers, after which they 
hastily abandoned it. The firing at the camp 
was distinctly heard by the Third Regiment, 
and Captain Hoyt of Company B asked permis- 
sion to take his company to protect the camp, 
but was refused. While the regiment was in 
this waiting position, having at least five hun- 
dred effective men, plenty of ammunition, and 
burning with anxiety to get at the enemy, a 
white flag appeared over the crest of a hill, 
which proved to be a request for Colonel Lester 
to go into Murfreesboro for a consultation with 
Colonel Duffield. General Forest carefully dis- 
played his men along the path by which Col- 
onel Lester was to go in a manner so as to im- 
press the Colonel with the idea that he had a 
much larger force than really existed, and in 
his demand for surrender he stated that if not 
acceded to the whole command would be put 
to the sword, as he could not control his men. 
This was an old trick of Forest's, which he 
played successfully on other occasions. From 
what is known, he had not over one thousand 
men with which he could have engaged the 
Third that day. 

When Colonel Lester returned to his regi- 
ment his mind was fully made up to surrender; 
a consultation was held with the officers of the 
regiment, and a vote taken on the question, 
which resulted in a majority being in favor of 
fighting and against surrender, but the matter 
was re-opened and re-argued by the Colonel, 
and after some of the officers who opposed sur- 
render had left the council and gone to their 
companies, another vote was taken, which re- 



suited in favor of the surrender. The officers 
who, on this final vote, were against surrender 
were Lieutenant Colonel Griggs and Captains 
Andrews and Hoyt. Those who voted in favor 
of surrender were Captains Webster, Gurnee, 
Preston, Clay and Mills of the Third Regiment, 
and Captain Hewitt of the Kentucky Battery. 

On December 1, an order was made dismiss- 
ing from the service the five captains of the 
Third who voted to surrender the regiment, 
which order was subsequently revoked as to 
Captain Webster. 

The conduct of Colonel Lester on this occa- 
sion has been accounted for on various theories. 
Before this he had been immensely popular 
with his regiment and also at home in Minne- 
sota, and his prospects were most brilliant. It 
is hard to believe that he was actuated by cow- 
ardice, and harder to conceive him guilty of 
disloyalty to his country. An explanation of 
his actions which obtained circulation in Min- 
nesota was that he had fallen in love with a 
Rebel woman, who exercised such influence 
and control over him, as to completely hypno- 
tize his will. I have always been a convert to 
that theory, knowing the man as well as I did, 
and have settled the question as the French 
would, by saying "Cherchez la femme." 

General Buell characterized the surrender in 
general orders as one of the most disgraceful 
examples in the history of wars. 

What a magnificent opportunity was pre- 
sented to some officer of that regiment to im- 
mortalize himself by shooting the Colonel 
through the head while he was ignominiously 
dallying with the question of surrender, and 
calling upon the men to follow him against the 
enemy. There can be very little doubt that 
such a movement would have resulted in vic- 
tory, as the men were in splendid condition 
physically, thoroughly well armed and dying to 
wipe out the disgrace their Colonel had in- 
flicted upon them. Of course, the man who 
should inaugurate such a movement must win, 
or die in the attempt, but in America death 
with honor is infinitely preferable to life with 
a suspicion of cowardice, as all who partici- 
pated in this surrender were well aware. 

The officers were all held as prisoners of war 

and the men paroled on condition of not fight- 
ing against the Confederacy during the contin- 
uance of the war. The Indian War of 1862 
broke out in Minnesota very shortly after the 
surrender, and the men of the Third were 
brought to the State for service against the 
Indians. They participated in the campaign of 
1862 and following expeditions. For a full and 
detailed account of the surrender of the Third 
consult the history of that regiment in the vol- 
ume issued by the Stale, railed "Minnesota in 
the Civil and Indian Wars." 

It would please the historian to omit this 
subject entirely did truth permit; but he finds 
ample solace in the fact that this is the only 
blot to be found in the long record of brilliant 
and glorious deeds that compose the military 
history of Minnesota. 

A general summary will show that Minne- 
sota did her whole duty in the Civil War, and 
that her extreme youth was in no way a draw- 
back to her performance. She furnished to the 
war in all her military organizations a grand 
total of 22,970 men. Of this number, six hun- 
dred and seven were killed in battle and 1,G47 
died of disease, making a contribution of 2,254 
lives to the cause of the Union, on the part of 

Our State was honored by the promotion 
fi'om her various organizations of the following 
general officers: 

C. P. Adams, Brevet Brigadier General. 

C. C. Andrews, Brigadier and Brevet Major 

John T. Averill, Brevet Brigadier General. 

James H. Baker, Brevet Brigadier General. 

Theodore E. Barret, Brevet Brigadier Gen- 

Judson W. Bishop, Brevet Brigadier Gen- 

William Colville, Brevet Brigadier General. 

Napoleon J. T. Dana, Brevet Brigadier Gen- 

Alonzo J. Edgerton, Brevet Brigadier Gen- 

Willis A. Gorman, Brevet Brigadier General. 

Lucius F. Hubbard. Brevet Brigadier Gen- 

Samuel P. Jennison, Brigadier General. 

William Le Due, Brigadier General. 

William R. Marshall, Brigadier General. 



Robert B. McLaren, Brigadier General. 

Stephen Miller, Brigadier General. 

John B. Sanborn, Brigadier and Brevet 
Major General. 

Henry H. Sibley, Brigadier and Brevet Major 

Minor T. Thomas, Brevet Brigadier General. 

John E. Tourtellotte, Brevet Brigadier Gen- 

Horatio P. Van Cleve, Brevet Brigadier Gen- 

George N. Morgan, Brevet Brigadier Gen- 


In 1S62 there were in the State of Minnesota 
four principal bands of Sioux Indians. The 
Me-de-wa-kon-toiis, and Wak-pa-koo-tas, and 
the Si-si-tons and Wak-pay-tons. The first two 
bands were known as the Lower Sioux and the 
last two as the Upper Sioux. These designa- 
tions arose from the fact that in the sale of 
their lands to the United Slates by the treaties 
of 1851, the lands of the Lower Sioux were sit- 
uated in the southern part of the State, and 
those of the upper bands in the northern part, 
and when a reservation was set apart for their 
future occupation on the upper waters of the 
Minnesota river they were similarly located 
1 hereon. Their reservation consisted of a strip 
of land ten miles wide on each side of the Min- 
nesota river, beginning at a point a few miles 
below Fort Ridgely and extending to the head- 
waters of the river. The reservation of the 
lower bands extended up to the Yellow Medi- 
cine river; that of the upper bands included all 
above the last named river. An agent was ap- 
pointed to administer the affairs of these In- 
dians, whose agencies were established at Red- 
wood for the lower, and at Yellow Medicine for 
the upper bands. At these agencies the annui- 
ties were regularly paid to the Indians, and so 
continued from the making of the treaties to 
the year 1802. These bands were wild, very 
little progress having been made in their civili- 
zation, the very nature of the situation pre- 
venting very much advance in that line. The 
whole country to the north and west of their 

reservation was an open, wild region, extend- 
ing to the Rocky mountains, inhabited only by 
the buffalo, which animals ranged in vast herds 
from British Columbia to Texas. The buffalo 
was the chief subsistence of the Indians, who 
naturally frequented their ranges, and only 
came to the agencies when expecting their pay- 
ments. When they did come, and the money 
and goods were not ready for them, which was 
frequently the case, they suffered great incon- 
venience and were forced to incur debt with the 
white traders for their subsistence, all of which 
tended to create bad feelings between them 
and the whites. The Indian saw that he had 
yielded a splendid domain to the whites, and 
that they were rapidly occupying it. They 
could not help seeing that the whites were 
pushing them gradually — I may say rapidly— 
out of their ancestral possessions and towards 
the West, which know ledge naturally created 
a hostile feeling towards the whites. The 
Sioux were a brave people, and the young fight- 
ing men were always making comparisons be- 
tween themselves and the whites, and banter- 
ing each other as to whether they were or were 
not afraid of them. I made a study of these 
people for several years, having had them in 
charge as their agent, and I think understood 
their feelings and standing towards the whites 
as well as any one. Much has been said and 
written about the immediate cause of the out- 
break of 18G2, but I do not believe that any- 
thing can be assigned out of the general course 
of events that will account for the trouble. De- 
lay, as usual, had occurred in the arrival of the 
money for the payment which was due in July, 
1862. The war was in full force with the South, 
and the Indians saw that Minnesota was send- 
ing thousands of men out of the State to fight 
the battles of the Union. Major Thomas Gal- 
luaith was their agent in the summer of 1862, 
and being desirous of contributing to the vol- 
unteer forces of the government he raised a 
company of half-breeds on the reservation and 
started with them for Fort Snelling, the gen- 
eral rendezvous, to have them mustered into 
service. It was very natural that the Indians 
who were seeking trouble should look upon this 
movement as a sign of weakness on the part of 



the government, and reason that if the United 
Slates could not conquer its enemy without 
their assistance it must be in serious difficul- 
ties. Various things of similar character con- 
tributed to create a feeling among the Indians 
that it was a good time to recover their coun- 
try, redress all their grievances and reestab- 
lish themselves as buds of the land. They had 
ambitious leaders; Little Crow was the princi- 
pal instigator of war on the whites. He was a 
man of greater parts than any Indian in the 
tribe. I had used him on many trying occa- 
sions as the captain of my body-guard, and my 
ambassador to negotiate with other tribes, and 
always found him equal to any emergency, but 
on this occasion his ambition ran away with 
his judgment and led him to fatal results. With 
all these influences at work, it took but a spark 
to fire the magazine, and that spark was struck 
on the 17th day of August, 1862. 

A small party of Indians were at Acton, on 
August 17, and got into a petty controversy 
with a settler about some eggs, which created 
a difference of opinion among them as to what 
they should do, some advocating one course 
and some another. The controversy led to one 
Indian saying that the other was afraid of the 
white man. to resent which, and to prove his 
bravery, he killed the settler, and the whole 
family was massacred. When these Indians 
reached the agency and related their bloody 
work, those who wanted trouble seized upon 
the opportunity and insisted that the only way 
• ml of the difficulty was to kill all the whites, 
and on the morning of the IStli of August the 
bloody work began. 

It is proper to say here that some of the In- 
dians who were connected with the mission- 
aries, conspicuously An-pay-tu-tok a-cha, or 
John Otherday, and Paul Ma-za-ku-ta-ma-ni, 
the president of the Hazelwood Republic, of 
which I have spoken, having learned of the 
intention of the Indians, informed the mission- 
aries on the night of the 17th, who, to the num- 
ber of about sixty, fled eastward to Hutchin- 
son, in McLeod county, and escaped. The next 
morning, being the 1 si h of August, the Indians 
commenced the massacre of the whites, and 
made clean work of all at the agencies. They 

then separated into small squads of from five 
to ten and spread over the country to the south, 
easl and southeast, attacking the settlers in 
detail at their homes and continued this work 
during all of the 18th and part of the 19th of 
August until they had murdered in cold blood 
quite one thousand people — men, women and 
children. The way the work was conducted 
was as follows: The party of Indians would 
call at the house of a settler and the Indians 
being well known, this would cause no alarm. 
They would await a good opportunity and 
shoot the man of the family, then butcher the 
women and children, and, after carrying off 
everything that they thought valuable to them, 
they would burn the house, proceed to the 
next homestead and repeat the performance. 
Occasionally some one would escape and 
spread the news of the massacre to the neigh- 
bors, and all who could would flee to some 
place of refuge. 

The news of the outbreak reached Fort 
Ridgely, which was situated about thirteen 
miles down the Minnesota river from the 
agencies, about eight o'clock on the morning of 
the 18th, by means of the arrival of a team 
from the lower agency, bringing a badly 
wo'unded man, but no details could be obtained. 
The fort was in command of Capt. John F. 
Marsh of Company R, Fifth Minnesota Volun- 
teer Infantry. He had eighty-five men in his 
company, from which he selected forty-five, 
leaving the balance, under Lieut. T. 
F. Gere, to defend the fort. This little 
squad under command of Captain Marsh, 
with a full supply of ammunition, pro- 
visions, blankets, etc., accompanied by a 
six-mule team, left the fort at nine A. 
M. on the 18th of August for the lower 
Sioux agency, which was on the west side of 
the .Minnesota river, the fort being on the east, 
which necessitated the crossing of the river by 
a ferry near the agency. On the march up, the 
command passed nine or ten dead bodies, all 
bearing evidence of having been murdered by 
the Indians, one of which was Dr. Humphrey, 
surgeon at the agency. On reaching the vicin- 
ity of the ferry, no Indians were in sight, ex 
cept one on the opposite side of the river, who 



tried to induce them to cross over. A dense 
chaparral bordered the river on the agency 
side, and tall grass covered the bottom on the 
side where the troops were. Suspicion of the 
presence of Indians was aroused by the dis- 
turbed condition of the water of the river, 
which was muddy and contained floating grass. 
Then a group of ponies was seen. At this 
point, and without any notice whatever, In- 
dians in great numbers sprang up on 
all sides of the troops and opened upon 
them a deadly fire. About half of the 
men were killed instantly. Finding them- 
selves surrounded, it became with the sur- 
vivors a question of sauve qui peut. Several 
desperate hand-to-hand encounters occurred 
with varying results, when the remnant of the 
command made a point down the river about 
two miles from the ferry, Captain Marsh being 
of the number. Here they attempted to cross, 
but the Captain was drowned in the effort and 
only from thirteen to fifteen of the command 
reached the fort alive. Among those killed was 
Peter Quinn, the United States interpreter, an 
Irishman who had been in the Indian Territory 
for many years. He had married into the Chip- 
pewa tribe. He was a man much esteemed by 
the army and all old settlers. 

Much criticism has been indulged in as to 
whether Captain Marsh, when he became con- 
vinced of the general outbreak, should not 
have retreated to the fort. Of course, forty-five 
men could do nothing against five or six hun- 
dred warriors, who were known to be at or 
about the agency. The Duke of Wellington, 
when asked as to what was the best test of a 
general, said, "To know when to retreat, and to 
dare to do it." Captain Marsh cannot be justly 
judged by any such criterion. He was not an 
experienced general. He was a young, brave 
and enthusiastic soldier. He knew little of In- 
dians. The country knows that he thought he 
was doing his duty in advancing. I am confi- 
dent, whether this judgment is intelligent or 
not, posterity will hold in warmer esteem the 
memory of Captain Marsh and his gallant little 
band than if he had adopted the more prudent 
course of retracing his steps. General George 
Custer was led into an ambush of almost the 

exact character, which was prepared for him 
by many of the same Indians who attacked 
Marsh, and he lost five companies of the Sev- 
enth United States Cavalry, one of the best 
fighting regiments in the service, not a man 

Immediately previous to the outbreak Lieut. 
Timothy J. Sheehan, of Company C, Fifth 
Minnesota, had been sent with about fifty men 
of his company to the Yellow Medicine agency 
on account of some disorder prevailing among 
the Indians, but having performed his duty, he 
had been ordered to Fort Ripley, and had, on 
the 17th, left Fort Ridgely, and on the 18th 
had reached a point near Glencoe, distant from 
Fort Ridgely about forty miles. As soon as 
Captain Marsh became aware of the outbreak 
he sent the following dispatch to Lieutenant 
Sheehan, which reached him on the evening of 
the 18th: 
"Lieutenant Sheehan: 

"It is absolutely necessary that you should 
return with your command immediately to this 
post. The Indians are raising hell at the low- 
er agency. Return as soon as possible." 

Lieutenant Sheehan was then a young Irish- 
man, of about twenty-nve years of age, with 
immense physical vigor and corresponding en- 
thusiasm. He immediately broke camp and 
returned to the fort, arriving there on the 19th 
of August, having made a forced march of 
forty-two miles in nine and one-half hours. He 
did not arrive a moment too soon. Being the 
ranking officer after the death of Captain 
Marsh, he took command of the post. The gar- 
rison then consisted of the remnant of Marsh's 
Company B, 51 men; Sheehan's Company 
C, 50 men; Renville Rangers, 50 men. This 
company was the one raised by Major Gal- 
braith, the Sioux agent at the agencies, and 
was composed principally of half-breeds. It 
was commanded by Capt. James Gorman. 
On reaching St. refer, on its way down to Fort 
Snelling to be mustered into the service of the 
L'liited States, it learned of the outbreak, and 
at once returned to Ridgely, having appro- 
priated the arms of a militia company at St. 
Peter. There was also at Ridgely Sergeant 
Jones of the regular artillery, who had been 



left there in charge of the military stores. He 
was quite an expert gunner, and there were 
several field-pieces at the fort. Besides this 
garrison a large number of people from the 
sui rounding country had sought safety at the 
fort, and there was also a party of gentlemen 
who had brought up the annuity money to pay 
the Indians, who, learning of the troubles, had 
stopped with the money, amounting to some 
|70,000 in specie. I will here leave the fort for 
the present, and turn to other points that be- 
came prominent in the approaching war. 

On the night of the ISth of August, the day 
of the outbreak, the news reached St. Peter, 
and as I have before stated, induced the Ren- 
ville Rangers to retrace their steps. Great ex- 
citement prevailed, as no one could tell at what 
moment the Indians might dash into the town 
ami massacre the inhabitants. 

The people at New Ulm, which was situated 
about sixteen miles below Fort Ridgely, on the 
Minnesota river, dispatched a courier to St. 
Peter as soon as they became aware of the 
trouble. He arrived at four o'clock A. M. ou 
I he 19th, and came immediately to my house, 
which was about one mile below the town, and 
informed me that the Indians were killing peo- 
ple all over the country. Having lived among 
the Indians for several years, and at one time 
had charge of them as their agent, I thor- 
oughly understood the danger of the situation, 
and knowing, that whether the story was true 
or false, the frontier was no place at such a 
time for women and children, I told him to 
wake up the people at St. Peter, and that I 
would be there quickly. I immediately placed 
my family in a wagon and told them to flee 
down the river, and taking all the guns, pow- 
der and lead I could find in my house, I arrived 
at St. Peter about six A. M. The men of the 
town were soon assembled at the court house, 
and in a very short time a company was formed 
of one hundred and sixteen men, of which I 
was chosen as captain, ^Villiam B. Dodd as 
first and Wolf H. Meyer as second lieutenant. 
Before noon two men, Henry A. Swift, after- 
wards Governor of the State, and William C. 
Hayden, were dispatched to the front in a 
buggy to scout and locate the enemy if he was 

near, and about noon sixteen mounted men 
under L. M. Boardman, sheriff of the county, 
were stalled on a similar errand. Both these 
squads kept moving until they reached New 
Ulm, at about five P. M. 

Great activity was displayed in equipping 
the main body of the company for service. All 
(ho guns of the place were seized and put into 
the hands of the men. There not being any 
large game in this part of the country, rifles 
were scarce, but shot-guns were abundant. All 
the blacksmith shops and gun-shops were set 
at work molding bullets, and we soon had a 
gun in every man's hand, and he was supplied 
with a powder horn or a whiskey flask full of 
powder, a box of caps and a pocketful of bul- 
lets. We impressed all the wagons we needed 
for transportation and all the blankets and 
provisions that were necessary for subsistence 
and comfort. While these preparations wen 
going on a large squad from Le Sueur, ten 
miles further down the river, under the com- 
mand of Captain Tousley, sheriff of Le Sueur 
county, joined us. Early in the day a squad 
from Swan Lake, under an old settler named 
Samuel Coffin, had gone to New Ulm to see 
what was the matter. 

Our advance guard reached New Ulm just 
in time to participate in its defense against an 
attack of about one hundred Indians who had 
been murdering the settlers on the west side 
ol the river, between the town and Fort Ridge- 
ly. The inhabitants of New Ulm were almost 
exclusively German, there being only a few 
English speaking citizens among them, and 
they were not familiar with the character of 
the Indians, but the instinct of self-preserva- 
tion had impelled them to fortify the town 
with barricades to keep the enemy out. The 
town was built in the usual way of western 
towns, the principal settlement being along 
the main street, and the largest and best 
houses occupying a space of about three blocks. 
Some of these houses were of brick and stone, 
so with a strong barricade around them the 
town was quite defensible. Several of the peo- 
ple were killed in this first attack, but the In- 
dians, knowing of the coming reinforcements, 
withdrew, after firing five or six buildings. 



The main body of my company, together 
with the squad from Le Sueur, reached the 
ferry about two miles below the settled part 
of New Ulm, about eight P. M., having made 
thirty-two miles in seven hours, in a drenching 
rainstorm. The blazing houses in the distance 
gave a very threatening aspect to the situa- 
tion, but we crossed the ferry successfully, and 
made the town without accident. The next 
day we were reinforced by a full company 
from Mankato under Capt. William Bier- 
bauer. Several companies were formed from 
the citizens of the town. A full company from 
South Bend arrived on the 20th or 21st, and 
various other squads, greater or less in num- 
bers, came in during the week, before Saturday 
the 23rd, swelling our forces to about three 
hundred men, but nearly all very poorly armed. 
We improved the barricades and sent out daily 
scouting parties, who succeeded in bringing 
in many people who were in hiding, in swamps, 
and who would have undoubtedly been lost 
without this succor. It soon became apparent 
that to maintain any discipline or order in the 
town some one man must be placed in com- 
mand of the entire force. The officers of the 
various companies assembled to choose a com- 
mander in chief, and the selection fell to me. 
A provost guard was at once established, order 
inaugurated, and we awaited events. 

I have been thus particular in my descrip- 
tion of the movements at this point, because ii 
gives an idea of the defenseless condition in 
which the outbreak found the people of the 
country, and also because it shows the intense 
energy with which the settlers met the emer- 
gency, at its very inception, from which I will 
deduce the conclusion at the proper time that 
this prompt initial action saved the State from 
a calamity the magnitude of which is unre- 
corded in the history of Indian wars. 

Having described the defensive condition of 
Fort Ridgely and New Ulm, the two extreme 
frontier posts, the former being on the Indian 
Reservation and the latter only a few miles 
southeast of it, I will take up the subject at 
the capital of the State. The news reached 
Governor Ramsey at Saint Paul on the 19th of 
August, the second day of the outbreak. He 

at once hastened to Mendota, at the mouth of 
the Minnesota river, and requested ex-Gov- 
ernor Sibley to accept the command of such 
forces as could be put in the field to check the 
advance of and punish the Indians. Governor 
Sibley had a large experience with the Sioux, 
perhaps more (linn any man in the Slate, hav- 
ing traded and lived with them since 1834, and 
besides that, was a distinguished citizen of the 
State, having been its first Governor. He ac- 
cepted the position with the rank of colonel 
in the State Militia. The Sixth regiment was 
being recruited at Fort Snelling for the Civil 
War, and on the 20th of August Colonel Sibley 
started up the Valley of the Minnesota willi 
four companies of that regiment, and arrived 
at St. Peter on Friday, the 22nd. Capt. A. O. 
Nelson of the regular army had been appointed 
colonel of the Sixth, and 'William Crooks had 
been appointed lieutenant colonel of the Sev- 
enth. Colonel Crooks conveyed the orders of 
the Governor to Colonel Nelson, overtaking 
him at Bloomington ferry. On receipt of his 
orders, finding he was to report to Colonel Sib- 
ley, he made the point of military etiquette, 
that an officer of the regular army could not re- 
port to an officer of militia of the same rank, 
and turning over his command to Colonel 
Crooks, he returned to St. Paul and handed in 
his resignation. It was accepted, and Colonel 
Crooks was appointed colonel of the Sixth. 
Not knowing much about military etiquette, 
I will not venture an opinion on the action of 
Colonel Nelson in this instance, but it always 
seemed to me that in the face of the enemy, 
and especially considering the high standing 
of Colonel Sibley, and the intimate friendship 
that exisled between the two men, it would 
have been better to have waived this point and 
unitedly fought the enemy, settling all such 
matters afterwards. 

On Sunday, the 24th, Colonel Sibley's force 
at St. Peter was augmented by the arrival of 
about two hundred mounted men under the 
command of William J. Cullen, formerly super- 
intendent of Indian Affairs, called the Cullen 
Guard. On the same day six more companies 
of the Sixth arrived, making up the full regi- 
ment, and also about one hundred more 



mounted men, and several squads of volunteer 
militia. The mounted men were placed under 
the command of Col. Samuel McPhail. By 
these acquisitions Colonel Sibley's command 
numbered about 1.400 men. Although the nu- 
merical strength was considerable, the com- 
mand was practically useless. The ammuni- 
tion did not fit the guns of the Sixth Regi- 
ment, and had to be all made over. The horses 
of the mounted men, and the men themselves, 
were inexperienced, undisciplined, and practi- 
cally unarmed. It was the best the country 
afforded, but probably about as poorly 
equipped an army as ever entered the field, to 
face what I regard as the best warriors to be 
found on the North American continent; but 
fortunately the officers and men were all that 
could be desired. The leaders of this army 
were the best of men, and being seconded by 
intelligent and enthusiastic subordinates, they 
soon overcame their physical difficulties, but 
they knew nothing of the strength, position or 
previous movements of the enemy, no news 
having reached them from either Fort Ridgely 
or New Ulm. Any mistake made by this force 
resulting in defeat would have been fatal. No 
such mistake was made. Having now shown 
the principal forces in the field, we will turn 
to the movements of the enemy. The Indians 
felt that it would be necessary to carry Fort 
Ridgely and New Ulm before they extended 
their depredations further down the Valley of 
the Minnesota, and concentrated their forces 
for an attack on the fort. Ridgely was in no 
sense a fort. It was simply a collection of 
buildings, principally frame structures, facing 
in towards the parade ground. On one side 
was a long stone barrack and a stone commis- 
sary building, which was the only defensible 

part of it. 



On the 20th of August, at about three P. M., 
an attack was made upon the fort by a large 
body of Indians. The first intimation the gar- 
rison had of the assault was a volley poured 
through one of (he openings between the build- 
ings. Considerable confusion ensued, but or- 

der was soon restored. Sergeant Jones 
attempted to use his cannon, but, to his utter 
dismay, lie found them disabled. This was the 
work of some of the half-breeds belonging to 
the Renville Rangers, who had deserted to the 
enemy. They had been spiked by ramming old 
rags into them. The Sergeant soon rectified 
this difficulty, and brought his pieces into ac- 
tion. The attack lasted three hours, when it 
rcased, with a loss to the garrison of three 
killed and eight wounded. 

On Thursday, the 21st, two further attacks 
were made on the fort, one in the morning and 
one in the afternoon, but with a reduced force, 
less earnestness, and little damage. On 
Friday, the 22nd, the savages seemed deter- 
mined to carry the fort. About eight hundred 
or more, under the leadership of Little Crow, 
came down from the agency, and concentrating 
themselves in the ravines which lay on several 
sides of the fort, they made a feint by sending 
about twenty warriors on the prairie for the 
purpose of drawing out the garrison from the 
fort and cutting them off. Such a movement, 
if successful, would have been fatal to the de- 
fenders, but fortunately there were men among 
I hem of much experience in Indian warfare 
who saw through the scheme and prevented the 
success of the maneuver. Then followed a 
shower of bullets on the fort from all direc- 
tions. The attack was continued for nearly 
five hours. It was bitterly fought, and coura- 
geously and intelligently resisted. Sergeant 
Jones and other artillerists handled the guns 
with effective skill, exploding shells in the out- 
lying buildings and burning them over the 
heads of the Indians, while the enemy endeav- 
ored to burn the wooden buildings composing 
the fort by shooting fire arrows on their roofs. 
( )ne of the most exposed and dangerous duties 
to be performed was covering the wooden roofs 
with earth to prevent fire. One white man was 
killed and seven wounded in this engagement. 
Lieutenant Sheehan, who commanded the post 
through all these trying occurrences; Lieuten- 
ant Gorman of the Renville Rangers; Lieu- 
tenant Whipple and Sergeants Jones and 
McGrew all did their duty in a manner becom- 
ing veterans, and the men seconded their ef- 



forts handsomely. The Indians, after this 
effort, being convinced that they could not take 
the fort, and anticipating the coming of rein 
forcements, withdrew, and concentrating all 
their available forces, descended upon New 
(Jim the next morning, August 23d, for a final 
struggle. In the official history of this battle, 
written for the State, I placed the force of the 
Indians as four hundred and fifty, but I have 
since learned from reliable sources that it 
was as above stated. 


We left New Ulm after the arrival of the 
various companies which I have named, on the 
twenty-first of August, strengthening its bar- 
ricades and awaiting events. I had placed a 
good glass on the top of one of the brick build 
ings within the barricades for the purpose of 
observation, and always kept a sentinel there 
to report any movement he should discover in 
any direction throughout the surrounding 
country. We had heard distinctly the cannon- 
ading at the fort for the past two days, but 
knew nothing of the result of the fight at that 
point. I was perfectly familiar, as were many 
of my command, with the country between 
New Ulm and the fort, on both sides of the 
river, knowing the house of every settler on 
the roads. 

Saturday, the 23d of August, opened bright 
and beautiful, and early in the morning we saw 
column after column of smoke rise in the direc- 
tion of the fort, each column being nearer than 
the last. We knew to a certainty that the 
Indians were approaching in force, burning 
every building and grain or hay stack as they 
passed. The settlers had either all been killed 
or had taken refuge at the fort or New Ulm, 
so we had no anxiety about them. About 9:30 
A. M. the enemy appeared in great force on 
both sides of the river. Those on the east side, 
when they reached the neighborhood of the 
ferry, burned some stacks as a signal of their 
arrival, which was responded to by a similar 
fire in the edge of the timber about two miles 
and a half from the town on the west side. 

Between this timber and the (own was a beau- 
tiful open prairie with considerable descent 
towards the town. Immediately on seeing the 
smoke from the ferry the enemy advanced 
rapidly, some six hundred strong, many 
mounted and the rest on foot. I had deter 
mined In meet them on the open prairie, and 
had formed my men by companies in a long line 
of battle, with intervals between them, on the 
first level plateau on the west side of the town, 
thus covering its whole west front. There were 
not over twenty or thirty rifles in the whole 
command, and a man with a shotgun, knowing 
his antagonist carries a rifle, has very little 
confidence in his fighting ability. l>own came 
the Indians in the bright sunlight, galloping, 
running, yelling and gesticulating in the most 
fiendish manner. If we had had good rifles 
they never would have go1 near enough to do 
much harm, but as it was, we could not check 
them before their Are began to tell on our line. 
They deployed to the right and left until they 
covered our entire front, and then charged. 
My men, appreciating the inferiority of their 
armament, after seeing several of their com- 
rades fall, and having fired a few ineffectual 
volleys, fell back on the town, passing some 
buildings without taking possession of them. 
This mistake was instantly taken advantage of 
by the Indians, who at once occupied them; 
but they did not follow us into the town 
proper, no doubt thinking our retreat was a 
feint to draw them among the buildings and 
thus gain an advantage. I think if they had 
boldly charged into the town and set it on tire 
they would have won the tight; but instead 
they surrounded it on all sides, the main body 
taking possession of the lower end of the main 
street below the barricades, from which direc- 
tion a strong wind was blowing towards the 
(inter of the town. From this point they be- 
gan firing the houses on both sides of the 
street. We soon rallied the men, and kept the 
enemy well in the outskirts of the town, and 
the fighting became general on all sides. Just 
about this time my first lieutenant, William B. 
Dodd, galloped down the main street, and as 
he passed a cross street the Indians put three 
or four bullets through him. He died during 



the afternoon, after having been removed sev- 
eral times from house to house as the enemy 
crowded in upon us. 

On the second plateau there was an old Don 
(juixote windmill, with an immense tower and 
sail-arms about seventy-five feet long, which 
occupied a commanding position, and had been 
taken possession of by a company of about 
thirty men, who called themselves the Le 
Sueur Tigers, most of whom had rifles. They 
barricaded themselves with sacks of flour and 
wheat, loopholed the building and kept the sav- 
ages at a respectful distance from the west 
side of the town. A rifle ball will bury itself 
in a sack of flour or wheat, but will not pene- 
trate it. During the battle the men dug out 
several of them, and brought them to me be- 
cause they were the regulation Minie bullet, 
and there had been rumors that the Confeder- 
ates from Missouri had stirred up the revolt 
and supplied the Indians with guns and am- 
munition. I confess I was astonished when I 
saw the bullets, as I knew the Indians had no 
such arms, but 1 soon decided that they were 
using against us the guns and ammunition 
they had taken from the dead soldiers of Cap- 
tain Marsh's company. I do not believe the 
Confederates had any hand in the revolt of 
these Indians. 

We held several other outposts, being brick 
buildings outside the barricades, which we 
loopholed and found very effective in holding 
the Indians aloof. The battle raged generally 
all around the town, every man doing his best 
in his own way. It was a very interesting fight 
on account of the stake we were contending 
for. We had in the place about twelve or fif- 
teen hundred women and children, the lives of 
all of whom and of ourselves depeuded upon 
victory perching on our banners, for in a fight 
like this no quarter is ever asked or given. The 
desperation with which the conflict was con- 
ducted can be judged from the fact that I 
lost sixty men in the first hour and a half, ten 
killed and fifty wounded, out of less than two 
hundred and fifty, as my force had been de- 
pleted by the number of about seventy-five by 
Lieutenant Huey taking that number to guard 
the approach to the ferry. Crossing to the 

other side of the river he was cut off and 
forced to retreat toward St. Peter. It was 
simply a mistake of judgment to put the river 
between himself and the main force, but in his 
retreat he met Capt. E. St. Julien Cox with 
reinforcements for New Ulm, joined them and 
returned the next day. He was a brave and 
willing officer. The company I mentioned as 
having arrived from South Bend, having heard 
that the Winnebagoes had joined in the out- 
break, left us before the final attack on Satur- 
day, the 23d of August, claiming that then- 
presence at home was necessary to protect 
their families, and on the morning of the 
23d, when the enemy was in sight, a wagon 
load of others left us and went down the river. 
I doubt if we could have mustered over two 
hundred guns at any time during the fight. 

The enemy, seeing his advantage in firing 
the buildings in the lower part of the main 
street, and thus gradually nearing our barri- 
cades with the intention of burning us out, 
kept up his work as continuously as he could 
with the interruptions we made for him by 
occasionally driving him out, but his approach 
was (instant, and about two o'clock a roaring 
conflagration was raging on both sides of the 
street, and the prospect looked discouraging. 
At this juncture, Asa White, an old frontiers- 
man, connected with the Winnebagoes, whom 
I had known for a long time, and whose judg- 
ment and experience I appreciated and valued, 
came to me and said: "Judge, if this goes on, 
the Indians will bag us in about two hours." I 
said: "It looks that way; what remedy have 
you to suggest?" His answer was, "We must 
make for the cottonwood timber." Two miles 
and a half lay between us and the timber re- 
ferred to. which, of course, rendered his sug- 
gestion utterly impracticable with two thou- 
sand non-combatants to move, and I said: 
"White, they would slaughter us like sheep 
should we undertake such a movement ; our 
si longest hold is in this town, and if you will 
get together fifty volunteers I will drive the 
Indians out of the lower town and the greatest 
danger will be passed." He saw at once the 
propriety of my proposition and in a short time 
we had a squad ready, and sallied out, cheering 



and yelling in a manner that would have done 
credit to the wildest < Jomanches. We knew the 
Indians were congregated in force down the 
street and expected to find them in a sunken 
road about three blocks from where we started, 
but they bad worked their way up much nearer 
to us and were in a deep swale about a block 
and a half from our barricades. There was a 
large number of them, estimated at about sev- 
enty-fire to one hundred, some on ponies and 
some on foot. When the conformation of the 
ground disclosed their whereabouts we were 
within one hundred feet of them. They opened 
a rapid fire on us, which we returned, while 
keeping up our rushing advance. When we 
were within fifty feet of them they turned and 
tied down the street. We followed (hem for at 
least half a mile, firing as well as we could. 
This took us beyond the burning houses, and 
finding a large collection of saw logs I called a 
halt and we took cover among them, lying flat 
on the ground. The Indians stopped when we 
ceased to advance, took cover behind anything 
that afforded protection, and kept up an inces- 
sant fire upon us whenever a head or hand 
showed itself above the logs. We held them, 
however, in this position, and prevented their 
return toward the town by way of the street. I 
at once sent a party back with instructions to 
burn every building, fence, stack or other ob- 
ject that would afford cover between us and 
the barricades. This order was strictly carried 
out, and by six or seven o'clock there was not 
a structure standing outside of the barricades 
in that part of the town. We then abandoned 
our saw logs and returned to the town, and the 
day was won. the Indians not daring to charge 
us overan open country. I lost four men lulled 
in this exploit, one of whom was especially to 
be regretted. I speak of Newell Houghton. In 
ordinary warfare all men stand for the same 
value as a general thing, but in an Indian fight 
a man of cool head, an exceptionally fine shot, 
and armed with a reliable rifle, is a loss doubly 
to be regretted. Houghton was famous as 
being the best shot and deer hunter in all the 
Northwest, and had with him his choice rifle. 
He had built a small steamboat with the pro- 
ceeds of his gun and we all held him in high 

respect as a fine type of frontiersman. We had 
hardly got back to the town before a man 
brought me a rifle which he had found on the 
ground near a clump of brush, and handing it 
to me said, "Some Indian lost a good gun in 
I hat run." II happened that White was with 
me and saw the gun. He recognized it in an 
instant, and said, "Newell Houghton is dead; 
he never let that gun out of his hands while he 
could hold it." We looked where the gun was 
picked up and found Houghton dead in the 
brush. He had been scalped by some Indian 
who had seen him fall and had sneaked back 
for that purpose. 

That night we dug a system of rifle pi Is all 
along the barricades on the outside, and 
manned them with three or four men each; bul 
the firing was desultory through the night and 
nothing much was accomplished on either side. 

The next morning, Sunday, opened bright 
and beautiful, but scarcely an Indian was to be 
seen. They had given up the contest and were 
rapidly retreating northward up the river. We 
got an occasional shot at one, but without 
effect except to hasten the retreat. And so 
ended the second and decisive battle of New 

In this fight between ourselves and the en 
emy we burned one hundred and ninety build- 
ings, many of them substantial and valuable 
structures. The whites lost some fourteen 
killed and fifty or sixty wounded. The loss of 
the enemy is uncertain, but after the tight we 
found ten dead Indians in burned houses and 
in chaparral, where they escaped the notice of 
their friends. As to their wounded we knew 
nothing, but judging from the length and char- 
acter of the engagement and the number of 
I heir dead found, their casualties must have 
equaled, if not exceeded, ours. 

About noon of Sunday, the 24th, Capt. E. St. 
Julien Cox arrived with a company from St. 
Peter, which had been sent by Colonel Sibley 
to reinforce us. Lieutenant Huey, who had 
been cut off at the ferry on the previous day, 
accompanied him with a portion of his com- 
mand. They were welcome visitors. 

There were in the town at the time of the at- 
tack on the twentv third, as near as can be 



learned, from 1,200 to 1,500 non-combatants, 
consisting of women and children, refugees 
and unarmed citizens, all of whose lives de- 
pended upon our success. It is dink-nit to con 
ceivo a much more exciting stake to play for, 
and the men seemed fully to appreciate it and 
made no mistakes. 

On the 25th we found that provisions and 
ammunition were becoming scarce, and pesti- 
lence being feared from stench and exposure, 
we decided to evacuate the town and try to 
reach Mankato. This destination was chosen 
to avoid the Minnesota river, the crossing of 
which we deemed impracticable. The only 
obstacle between us and Mankato was the Big 
Cottonwood river, which was fordable. We 
made up a train of one hundred and fifty-three 
wagons, which had largely composed our bar- 
ricades, loaded them with women and children, 
and about eighty wounded men, and started. 
A more heartrending procession was never wit- 
nessed in America. Here was the population 
of one of the most flourishing towns in the 
State abandoning their homes and property, 
starting on a journey of thirty odd miles 
through a hostile country, with a possibility of 
being massacred on the way, and no hope or 
prospect but the hospitality of strangers and 
ultimate beggary. The disposition of the guard 
was confided to Captain Cox. The march was 
successful, mi Indians being encountered. We 
reached Crisp's farm, which was about half 
way between New 1'lni and Mankato, about 
evening. I pushed the main column on, fear- 
ing danger from various sources, but camped 
at this point with about one hundred and fifty 
men, intending to return to New rim. or hold 
this point as a defensive measure for the ex- 
posed settlements further down the river. On 
the morning of the 20th we broke camp, and I 
endeavored to make the command return to 
New Ulm or remain where they were; my ob- 
ject, of course, being to keep an armed force 
between the enemy and the settlements. The 
men had not heard a word from their families 
for more than a week, and declined to return 
or remain. I did not blame them. They had 
demonstrated their willingness to tight when 
necessary, but held the protection of their fami- 

lies as paramount to mere military possibili- 
ties. I would not do justice to history did I not 
record that when I called for volunteers to re- 
turn Captain Cox and his whole squad stepped 
to the front ready to go where I commanded. 
Although I had not then heard of Capt.Marsh's 
disaster, I declined to allow so small a com- 
mand as that of Captain Cox to attempt the re- 
occupation of New Ulm. My staff stood by me 
in this effort, and a gentleman from Le Sueur 
county, Mr. Freeman Talbott, made an impres 
sive speech to the men to induce them to re- 
turn. The train arrived safely at Mankato on 
the 25111, and the balance of the command on 
the following day; whence the men generally 
sought their homes. 

I immediately, on arriving al Mankato. went 
to St. Peter to inform Colonel Sibley of the 
condition of things in the Indian country. I 
found him, in the night of August 26th, in camp 
about six miles out of St. Peter, and put him in 
possession of everything that had happened to 
the westward. His mounted men arrived at 
Fort Ridgely on the 27th of August, and were 
the first relief that reached that fort after its 
long siege. Sibley reached the fort on the 28th 
of August. Intrenchments were thrown up 
about the fort, cannon properly placed and a 
strong guard maintained. All but ninety men 
of the Cullen Guard, under Captain Anderson, 
returned home as soon as they found the fort 
was safe. The garrison was soon increased by 
the arrival of forty-seven men under Captain 
Sterritt, and on the 1st of September Lieut. 
Col. William Marshall of the Seventh Regi- 
ment arrived with a portion of his command. 
This force could not make a forward movement 
on account of a lack of ammunition and provis- 
ions, which were long delayed. 


On the :'>lst of August a detail of Captain 
Grant's company of infantry, seventy men of 
tlie Cullen Guard under Captain Anderson, 
and siime citizens and other soldiers, in all 
about one hundred and fifty men, under com- 
mand of Maj. Joseph R. Brown, with seventeen 



teams and teamsters, were sent from Fort 
Ridgely to the lower agency to feel the enemy, 
bury the dead and perform any other service 
that might arise. They went as far as Little 
Crow's village, but not finding any signs of 
Indians they returned, and on the 1st of Sep- 
tember they reached Birch Coulie and en- 
camped at the head of it. Birch Coulie is a 
ravine extending from the upper plateau to the 
river bottom, nearly opposite the ferry where 
Captain Marsh's company was ambushed. 

The Indians, after their defeat at Fort 
Ridgely and New Ulm, had concentrated at the 
Yellow Medicine river, and decided to make one 
more desperate effort to carry their point of 
driving the whites out of the country. Their 
plan of operation was to come down the Minne- 
sota Valley in force, stealthily, passing Sib- 
ley's command at Ridgely, and attacking St. 
Peter and Mankato simultaneously. They con- 
gregated all their forces for this attempt and 
started down the river, \Yhen they reached 
the foot of Birch Coulie they saw the last of 
Major Brown's command going up the Coulie. 
They decided to wait and see where they en- 
camped and attack them early in the morning. 
The whites went to the upper end of the Coulie 
and camped on the open prairie about two hun- 
dred and fifty feet from the brush in the Coulie. 
On the other side of their camp there was a roll 
in i lie prairie about four or five feet.high, which 
they probably did not notice. This gave the 
enemy cover on both sides of the camp, which 
they did not fail to see and take advantage of. 
The moment daylight came sufficiently to dis- 
close the camp the Indians opened fire from 
both sides. The whites had ninety horses 
hitched to a picket rope and their wagons 
formed in a circular corral, with their camp in 
the center. The Indians soon killed all the 
horses but one, and the men used their car- 
casses as breastworks from which to fight be- 
hind. The battle raged from the morning of 
September 2, to September 3, when they were 
relieved by Colonel Sibley's whole command 
and the Indians fled to the west. 

Maj. Joseph R. Brown was one of the most 
experienced Indian men in the country and 
would never have made the mistake of locating 

his camp in a place that gave the enemy such 
an advantage. He did not arrive until the 
camp was selected and should have removed it 
at once. I have always supposed that he was 
lulled into a sense of security by not having 
seen any signs of Indians in his march; but the 
result proved that when in a hostile Indian 
country no one is ever justified in omitting any 
precautions. The firing at Birch Coulie was 
heard at Fort Ridgely, and a relief was sent 
under Colonel McPhail, which was checked by 
the Indians a few miles before it reached its 
destination. The Colonel sent a courier to the 
tint for reinforcements, and it fell to Lieuten- 
ant Sheehan to carry the message. With his 
usual energy he succeeded in getting through, 
his horse dying under him on his arrival. Col- 
onel Sibley at once started with his whole com- 
mand, and when he reached the battle ground 
the Indians left the field. 

This was one of the most disastrous battles 
of the war. Twenty-three were killed outright, 
or mortally wounded, and forty-five severely 
wounded, while many others received slight in- 
juries. The tents were, by the shower of bul- 
lets, made to resemble lace work, so completely 
were they perforated. One hundred and four 
bullet holes were counted in one tent. Besides 
the continual shower of bullets that was kept 
up by the Iudians, the men suffered terribly 
from thirst, as it was impossible to get water 
into the camp. This fight forms a very import- 
ant feature in the Indian war, as, notwithstand- 
ing its horrors, it probably prevented awful 
massacres at St. Peter and Mankato, the for- 
mer being absolutely defenseless and the latter 
only protected by a small squad of about eighty 
men, which formed my headquarters guard at 
South Bend, about four miles distant. 


While these events were passing, other por- 
tions of the State were being prepared for de 
fense. In the region of Forest City in Meeker 
county, and also at Hutchinson and Glencoe, 
the excitement was intense. Capt. George C. 



Wliitcomb obtained in St. Paul seventy-five 
stand of arms and some ammunition. He left a 
part of the arms at Hutchinson, and with the 
rest armed a company at Forest City of fifty- 
three men, twenty-five of whom were mounted. 
Capt. Richard Strout of Company B, Ninth 
Regiment, was ordered to Forest City, and went 
there with his company. Col. John H. Stevens 
of Glencoe was commander of the State militia 
for the counties of McLeod, Carver, Sibley and 
Renville. As soon as he learned of the out- 
break he erected a very substantial fortifica- 
tion of saw-logs at Glencoe, and that place was 
not disturbed by the savages. A company of 
volunteers was formed at Glencoe under Capt. 
A. H. Rouse. Company F of the Ninth Regi- 
ment, under Lieut. O. P. Stearns, and Company 
H of the same regiment (Capt. W. R. Baxter i. 
also an independent company from Excelsior, 
and the Goodhue County Rangers (Capt. David 
L. Davis), all did duty at and about Glencoe 
during the continuance of the trouble. Cap- 
tains Whitcomb and Strout, with their com- 
panies, made extensive reconnoissances into the 
surrounding counties, rescuing many refugees, 
and having several brisk and sharp encounters 
with the Indians, in which they lost several 
killed and wounded. The presence of these 
troops in this region of country, and their 
active operations, prevented its depopulation 
and saved the towns and much valuable prop- 
erty from destruction. 


On the 29th of August I received a commis- 
sion from the Governor of the State instruct- 
ing and directing me to take command of the 
Blue Earth country, extending from New 7 Ulm 
to the north line of Iowa, embracing the then 
western and southwestern frontier of the 
State. My powers were general, to raise 
troops, commission officers, subsist upon the 
country, and generally to do what in my judg- 
ment was best for the protection el' this fron- 
tier. Under these powers I located my head- 

quarters at South Bend, being the extreme 
southern point of the Minnesota river, thirty 
miles below New Ulm, four from Mankato and 
about fifty from the Iowa line. Here I main- 
tained a guard of about eighty men. We 
threw up some small intrenchments, but noth- 
ing worthy of mention. Enough citizens of 
New I'lm had returned home to form two com- 
panies at that point; Company E of the 
Ninth Regiment, under Capt. Jerome E. Dane, 
was stationed at Crisp's farm, about half way 
between New Ulm and South Bend; Col. John 
R. Jones of Chatfield collected about three hun- 
dred men, and reported to me at Garden City. 
They were organized into companies under 
Captains N. P. Colburn and Post, and many 
of them stationed at Garden City, where they 
erected a serviceable fort of saw-logs. Others 
of this command were stationed at points along 
the Blue Earth river. Capt. Cornelius F. Buck 
of Winona raised a company of fifty-three men, 
all mounted, and started west. They reached 
Winnebago City, in the county of Faribault, 
on the 7th of September, where they reported 
to me, and were stationed at Chain lakes, 
about twenty miles west of Winnebago City; 
twenty of this company were afterwards sent 
to Madelia. A stockade was erected by this 
company at Martin lake. In the latter part 
of August Capt. A. J. Edgerton, of Company 
B, Tenth Regiment, arrived at South Bend, 
and having made his report, was stationed at 
I lie Winnebago agency, to keep watch on those 
Indians and cover Mankato from that direc- 
tion. About the same time Company F of 
the Eighth Regiment, under Capt. L. Aldrich, 
reported and was stationed at New Ulm. E. 
St. Julien Cox, who had previously reinforced 
me at New Ulm, was commissioned a captain 
and put in command of a force which was sta- 
tioned at Madelia, in Watowan county, where 
I hey erected quite an artistic fortification of 
logs, with bastions. While there an attack was 
made upon some citizens who had ventured 
beyond the safe limits, and several whites were 

It will be seen by the above statement that 
almost immediately after the evacuation of 
New Ulm, on the 25th of August, the most ex 



posed part of the southern frontier was occu- 
pied by quite a strong force. I did not expect 
that any serious incursions would be made 
along this line, but the state of alarm and 
panic that prevailed among the people ren- 
dered it necessary to establish this cordon of 
military posts to prevent an exodus of the in- 
habitants. No one who has not gone through 
the ordeal of an Indian insurrection can form 
any idea of the terrible apprehension that 
takes possession of a defenseless aud non-com- 
batant population under such circumstances. 
There is an element of mystery and uncertainty 
about the magnitude and movements of tins 
enemy, and a certainty of his brutality, that 
inspires mortal terror. The first notice of his 
approach is the crack of his rifle, and no one 
with experience in such struggles ever blames 
the timidity of citizens in exposed positions 
when assailed by these savages. I think, all 
things being considered, the people generally 
behaved very well. If a map of the State is 
consulted, taking New Ulm as the most north- 
ern point on the Minnesota river, it will be 
seen that the line of my posts covered the fron- 
tier from that point down the river to South 
Bend, and up the Blue Earth southerly, to Win- 
nebago City, and thence to the Iowa line. 
These stations were about sixteen miles apart, 
with two advanced posts at Madelia and Chain 
lakes, to the westward. A system of couriers 
was established, starting from each end of the 
cordon every morning with dispatches from 
tlie commanding officer to headquarters, who 
stopped at every station for an endorsement 
of what was going on, so I knew every day 
what had happened a I every point on my line. 
By this means the frontier population was 
pacified, and no general exodus took place. 

In September Major General Pope was or- 
dered to Minnesota to conduct the Indian war. 
He made liis headquarters at St. Paul, and by 
his high rank took command of all operations, 
though not exerting any visible influence on 
them, the fact being that all imminent danger 
had been overcome by the State and its citi- 
zens before his arrival. In the latter part of 
September the citizen troops under my com- 
mand were anxious to return to their homes, 

and on presentation of the situation to General 
Pope, lie ordered into the State a new regiment 
just mustered into the service in Washington 
— the Twenty-fifth Wisconsin — commanded by 
Col. M. Montgomery, who was ordered to re- 
lieve me. lie appeared at South Bend on the 
lsi of October, and alter having fully informed 
liiin of what had transpired and given him my 
views as to the future, I tinned my command 
over to hi in in the following order: I give it, as 
it succinctly presents the situation of affairs at 
the time. 

"Headquarters Indian Expedition, 

Southern Frontier. 
South Bend, October 5, 1862. 
To the Soldiers and Citizens who have been, 
and are now. engaged in the defense of 
the Southern Frontier: 

On the eighteenth day of August last your 
frontier was invaded by the Indians. You 
promptly rallied for its defense. You checked 
the advance of the enemy and defeated 
him in two severe battles at New Ulm. You 
have held a line of frontier posts extending 
over a distance of one hundred miles. You 
have erected six substantial fortifications and 
other defensive works of less magnitude. You 
have dispersed marauding bands of savages 
that have hung upon your lines. You have 
been uniformly brave, vigilant and obedient 
to orders. By your efforts the war has been 
confined to the border; without them, it would 
have penetrated into the heart of the State. 

Major General Pope has assumed command 
of the Northwest, and will control future op- 
erations. He promises a vigorous prosecution 
of the war. Five companies of the Twenty- 
fifth Wisconsin Regiment and five hundred 
cavalry from Iowa are ordered into the region 
now held by you, and will supply the places 
of those whose terms of enlistment shortly ex- 
pire. The department of the southern frontier, 
which I have had the honor to command, will, 
from the date of this order, be under the com- 
mand of Colonel M. Montgomery of the Twen- 
ty-fifth Wisconsin, whom I take pleasure in 
introducing to the troops and citizens of that 
department, as a soldier and a man to whom 
they may confide their interests and the safety 
of their country, with every assurance that 
they will be protected and defended. 

Pressing public duties of a civil nature de- 
mand my absence temporarily from the border. 
The intimate and agreeable relations we have 
sustained toward each other, our union in dan- 

7 6 


ger and adventure, cause me regret in leaving 
you, but will hasten my return. 

Charles E. Flandrau, 
Colonel Commanding, 
Southern Frontier." 

This practically terminated my connection 
with the Mar. All matters yet to be related 
took place in other parts of the State, under 
the command of Colonel Sibley and others. 


We left Colonel Sibley on the 4th of Sep- 
tember at Fort Ridgely, having just relieved 
the unfortunate command of Maj. Joseph R. 
Brown, after the fight at Birch Coulie. Know- 
ing that the Indians had in their possession 
many white captives, and having their rescue 
alive uppermost in his mind, the Colonel left 
on the battlefield at Birch Coulie the following 
communication attached to a stake driven in 
the ground, feeling assured that it would fall 
into the hands of Little Crow, the leader of the 

"If Little Crow has any proposition to make, 
let him send a half-breed to me, and he shall 
be protected in and out of camp. 

H. H. Sibley, 
Colonel Commanding, 
Military Expedition." 

The note was found and answered by Little 
Crow in a manner rather irrelevant to the sub- 
ject most desired by Colonel Sibley. It was 
dated at Yellow Medicine, September 7, and 
delivered by two half-breeds. 

Colonel Sibley returned the following an- 
swer by the bearers: 

"Little Crow, you have murdered many of 
our people without any sufficient cause. Re- 
turn me the prisoners under a flag of truce and 
I will talk with you like a man." 

No response was received to this letter until 
September 12, when Little Crow sent an- 
other, saying that he had one hundred and 
fifty-five prisoners, not including those held by 
the Sissetons and Wakpaytons, who were at 
Lac qui Parle, and were coming down. He 

also gave assurances that the prisoners were 
faring well. Colonel Sibley, on the 12th of 
September, sent a reply by Little Crow's mes- 
sengers, saying that no peace could be made 
without a surrender of the prisoners, but not 
promising peace on any terms, and charging 
the commission of nine murders since the re- 
ceipt of Little Crow's last letter. The same 
messenger that brought this letter from Little 
Crow also delivered quite a long one from 
Wabasha \v and Taopee, two lower chiefs who 
claimed to be friendly, and desired a meeting 
with Colonel Sibley, suggesting two places 
where it could be held. The Colonel replied 
that he would march in three days, and was 
powerful enough to crush all the Indians; that 
they might approach his column in open day 
with a flag of truce, and place themselves un- 
der his protection. On the receipt of this note 
a large council was held, at which nearly all 
the annuity Indians were present. Several 
speeches were made by the Upper and Lower 
Sioux, some in favor of continuance of the war, 
and "dying in the last ditch," and some in favor 
of surrendering the prisoners. I quote from 
a speech made by Paul Ma-za-ku-ta-ma-ni, who 
will be remembered as one of the Indians who 
volunteered to rescue the white captives from 
Ink-pa -du-ta's band in 1857, and who was al- 
ways true to the whites. He said among other 

"In fighting the whites you are fighting the 
thunder and lightning. You say you can make 
a treaty with the British government. That is 
not possible. Have you not yet come to your 
senses? They are also white men, and neigh- 
bors and friends to the soldiers. They are 
ruled by a petticoat, and she has the tender 
heart of a squaw. What will she do for the 
men who have committed the murders you 

This correspondence was kept up for several 
days, quite a number of letters coming from 
the Indians to Colonel Sibley, but with no sat 
isfactory results. On the 18th of September 
Colonel Sibley determined to move upon the 
enemy, and on that day camp was broken at 
the fort, a boat constructed and a crossing of 
the Minnesota river effected near the fort to 
prevent the possibility of an ambuscade. Col- 



ouel Sibley's force consisted of the Sixth Regi- 
ment, under Colonel Crooks; about three 
hundred men of the Third, under Major Welch; 
several companies of the Seventh under Col. 
William R. Marshall; a small number of 
mounted men under Colonel McPhail, and a 
battery under the command of Capt. Mark 
Hendricks. The expedition moved up the river 
without encountering any opposition until the 
morning of the 23d of September. Indians had 
been in sight during all the march, carefully 
watching the movements of the troops, and 
several messages of defiance were found at- 
tached to fences and houses. 


On the evening of the 22nd the expedition 
camped at Lone Tree lake, about two miles 
from the Yellow Medicine river, and about 
three miles east from Wood lake. Early next 
morning several foraging teams belonging to 
the Third Regiment were fired upon. They 
returned the fire and retreated toward the 
camp. At this juncture the Third Regiment, 
without orders, sallied out, crossed a deep ra- 
vine and soon engaged the enemy. They were 
ordered back by the commander and had not 
reached camp before Indians appeared on all 
sides in great numbers, many of them in the 
ravine between the Third Regiment and the 
camp. Thus began the battle of Wood lake. 
Captain Hendricks opened with his cannon 
and the howitzer under the direct command 
of Colonel Sibley, and poured in shot and shell. 
It has since been learned that Little Crow had 
appointed ten of his best men to kill Colonel 
Sibley at all hazards, and that the shells di- 
rected by the Colonel's own hand fell into this 
special squad and dispersed them. Captain 
Hendricks pushed his cannon to the head of 
the ravine and raked it with great eifect, and 
Colonel Marshall, with three companies of the 
Seventh, and Captain Grant's company of the 
Sixth, charged down the ravine on a double 
quick and routed the Indians. About eight 
hundred of the command were engaged in the 
conflict, and met about an equal number of 

Indians. Our loss was four killed and between 
forty and fifty wounded. Major Welch of the 
Third was shot in the leg, but not fatally. The 
Third and the Renville Rangers, under Capt. 
James Gorman, bore the brunt of the fight, 
which lasted about an hour and a half, and 
sustained the most of the losses. Colonel Sib- 
ley, in his official report of the encounter, gives 
great credit to his staff and all of his com- 
mand. An-pay-tu-tok-a-cha, or John Otherday, 
was with the whites, and took a conspicuous 
part in the fray. 

Thus ended the battle of Wood lake. It 
was an important factor in the war, as it was 
about the first time the Indians engaged large 
forces of well organized troops in the open 
country, and their utter discomfiture put them 
on the run. It will be noticed that I have not 
in any of my narratives of battles used the 
stereotyped expression: "Our losses were so 
many, but the losses of the enemy were much 
greater; however, as they always carry off 
their dead and wounded, it is impossible to 
give exact figures." The reason I have not 
made use of this common expression is, be- 
cause I don't believe it. The philosophy of 
Indian warfare is, to kill your enemy and not 
get killed yourself, and they can take cover 
more skilfully than any other people. In all 
our Iudiau wars from the Atlantic westward, 
with regulars or militia, I believe it would not 
be an exaggeration to say that the whites have 
lost ten to one of the Indians in killed and 
wounded. But the battle of Wood lake was 
quite an open fight, and so rapidly conducted 
and concluded that we have a very accurate 
account of the loss of the enemy. He had no 
time or opportunity to withdraw his dead. Fif- 
teen dead were found upon the field, and one 
wounded prisoner was taken. No doubt many 
others were wounded who were able to escape. 
After this fight Colonel Sibley retired to the 
vicinity of an Indian camp located nearly op- 
posite the mouth of the Chippewa river, where 
it empties into the Minnesota, and there en- 
camped. This point was afterwards called 
"Camp Release," from the fact that the white 
prisoners held by the enemy were here deliv- 
ered to Colonel Sibley's command. We will 



leave Colonel Sibley and his troops at Camp 
Release and narrate the important events that 
occurred on the Red River of the North, at 
and about Fort Abercrombie. 


The United States government, about the 
year 1858, erected a military post on the west 
side of the Red River of the North at a place 
then known as Graham's Point, between what 
are now known as the cities of Breckenridge 
and Fargo. Like most of the frontier posts of 
that day, it was not constructed with reference 
to defense, but more as a depot for troops and 
military stores. It was then in the midst of 
the Indian country, and is now in Richland 
county, North Dakota. The troops that had 
garrisoned the fort had been sent South to aid 
in suppressing the Southern Rebellion, and 
their places had been supplied by one company 
of the Fifth Regiment of Minnesota Volun- 
teers, which was commanded by Capt. John 
Van der Horck. There was a place down the 
river, and north of the fort about fifty miles, 
called Georgetown, at which there were some 
settlers, and a depot of stores for the company 
engaged in the navigation of the river. At the 
commencement of the outbreak Captain Van 
der Horck had detached about one-half of his 
company and sent them to Georgetown to pro- 
tect the interests centered at that point. 

About the 20th of August news reached 
Abercrombie from the Yellow Medicine agency 
that trouble was expected from the Indians. 
An expedition was on the way to Red lake to 
make a treaty with the Chippewa Indians, 
which consisted of the government commis- 
sioners and party, accompanied by a train of 
thirty loaded wagons and a herd of two hun- 
dred cattle. On the 23d of August news 
reached Fort Abercrombie that a large body 
of Indians were on the way to capture this 
party. A courier was at once dispatched to 
the train, and it immediately sought refuge in 
the fort. Runners were also sent to all the set- 
tlements in the vicinity, and the warning 
spread of the approaching danger. Happily, 

nearly all of the surrounding people reached 
the fort before the arrival of the enemy. The 
detachment stationed at Georgetown was also 
called in. A mail coach that left the fort on 
the 22nd fell into the hands of the Indians, who 
killed the driver and destroyed the mail. 

The garrison had been strengthened by 
about fifty men capable of duty from the refu- 
gees, but they were unarmed. Captain Van 
der Horck strengthened his post by all means 
in his power, and endeavored to obtain rein- 
forcements. Captain Freeman, with about 
sixty men, started from St. Cloud on the Mis- 
sissippi to relieve the garrison at Abercrombie, 
but on reaching Sauk Center the situation ap- 
peared so alarming that it was deemed impru- 
dent to proceed with so small a force, and no 
addition could be made to it at Sauk Center. 
Attempts were made to reinforce the fort from 
other points. Two companies were sent from 
Fort Snelling, and got as far as Sauk Center, 
but the force was even then deemed inadequate 
to proceed to Abercrombie. Part of the Third 
Regiment was also dispatched from Snelling 
to its relief on September 6. Another expe- 
dition, consisting of companies under com- 
mand of Captains George Atkinson and Rollo 
Banks, with a small squad of about sixty men 
of the Third Regiment under command of Ser- 
geant Dearborn, together with a field-piece 
under Lieut. Robert -T. McHenry, was formed, 
and placed under the command of Capt. Emil 
A. Burger. This command started on Septem- 
ber 10, and, after a long and arduous march, 
reached the fort on the 23d of September, find- 
ing the wearied and anxious garrison still in 
possession. Captain Burger had been l'ein- 
forced at Wyman's station, on the Alexandria 
road, on the 19th of September by the com- 
panies under Captains Freeman and Barrett, 
who had united their men on the 14th, and 
started for the fort. The relief force amounted 
to quite four hundred men by the time it 
reached its destination. 

While this long delayed force was on its way 
the little garrison at the fort had its hands full 
to maintain its position. On the 30th of Au- 
gust a large body of Indians made a bold raid 
on the post and succeeded in stampeding anil 



running off nearly two hundred head of cattle 
and one hundred head of horses and mules, 
which were grazing on the prairie. Some fifty 
of the cattle afterwards escaped and were 
restored to the post by a scouting party. This 
band of marauders did not, however, attack 
the fort. No one who has not experienced it 
can appreciate the mortification of seeing an 
enemy despoil you of your property when you 
are powerless to resist. An attack was made 
on the fort on the 3d of September, and some 
stacks burned and a few horses captured. Sev- 
eral men were killed on both sides, and Cap- 
tain Van der Horck was wounded in the right 
arm from an accidental shot from one of his 
own men. On September 6th a second attack 
was made by a large force of Indians, which 
lasted nearly all day, in which we lost two men 
and had several wounded. No further attack 
was made until the 26th of September, when 
Captain Freeman's company was fired on while 
watering their horses in the river. These In- 
dians were routed and pursued by Captain 
Freeman's company and a squad of the Third 
Regiment men with a howitzer. Their camp 
was captured, which contained quite an 
amount of plunder. A light skirmish took 
place on the 29th of September, in which the 
enemy was routed, and this affair ended the 
siege of Fort Abercrombie. 


Colonel Sibley's command made Camp Re- 
lease on the 26th of September. This camp was 
in the near vicinity of a large Indian camp of 
about one hundred and fifty lodges. These In- 
dians were composed of Upper and Lower 
Sioux, and had generally been engaged in all 
the massacres that had taken place since the 
outbreak. They had with them some two hun- 
dred and fifty prisoners, composed of women 
and children, whites and half-breeds. Only one 
white man was found in the camp — George 
Spencer — who had been desperately wounded 
at the lower agency, and saved from death 
by an Indian friend of his. 

The desire of the troops to attack and pun- 

ish these savages was intense, but Colonel 
Sibley kept steadily in mind that the rescue of 
the prisoners was his first duty, and he well 
knew that any demonstration of violence 
would immediately result in the destruction of 
the captives. He therefore wisely overruled 
all hostile inclinations. The result was a gen- 
eral surrender of the whole camp, together 
with all the prisoners. As soon as the safety 
of the captives was assured inquiry was insti- 
tuted as to the participation of these Indians 
in the massacres and outrages which had been 
so recently perpetrated. Many cases were soon 
developed of particular Indians who had been 
guilty of the grossest atrocities, and the com- 
mander decided to form a military tribunal to 
try the offenders. 


The State has reason to congratulate itself 
on tw r o things in this connection. First, that 
it had so wise and just a man as Colonel Sibley 
to select this important tribunal, and, second, 
that he had at his command such admirable 
material from which to make his selection. It 
must be remembered that this court entered 
upon its duties with the lives of hundreds of 
men at its absolute disposal. Whether they 
were Indians or any other kind of people, the 
fact must not be overlooked that they were 
human beings, and the responsibility of the 
tribunal was correspondingly great. Colonel 
Sibley, at this date, sent me a dispatch, declar- 
ing his intention in the matter of the result of 
the trials. It is as follows: 

"Camp Release, nine miles below 

Lac Qui Parle, Sept. 25, 1862. 

Colonel: (After speaking of a variety of 
matters concerning the disposition of troops 
who were in my command, the battle of Wood 
lake — which he characterized as 'A smart con- 
flict we had with the Indians' — the rescue of 
the prisoners and other matters, he adds): 

N. B. I am encamped near a camp of one 
hundred and fifty lodges of friendly Indians 
and half-breeds, but have had to purge it of 
suspected characters. I have apprehended 
sixteen supposed to have been connected with 
the late outrages, and have appointed a mili- 



tary commission of five officers to try them. 
If found guilty they will be forthwith executed, 
although it will perhaps be a stretch of my au- 
thority. If so, necessity must be my justifica- 
tion. Yours, 

H. H. Sibley." 

On the 2Sth of September an order was is- 
sued convening this court martial. It was 
composed of William Crooks, colonel of the 
Sixth Regiment, president; William R. 
Marshall, lieutenant colonel of the Sev- 
enth Regiment; Captains Grant and Baily 
of the Sixth, and Lieutenant Olin of the 
Third. Others were subsequently added as 
necessity required. All these men were of 
mature years, prominent in their social and 
general standing as citizens, and as well 
equipped as any persons could be to engage 
in such work. What I regard as the most im- 
portant feature in the composition of this most 
extraordinary court is the fact that the Hon. 
Isaac V. D. Heard, an experienced lawyer of 
St. Paul, who had been for many years the 
prosecuting attorney of Ramsey county, and 
who was thoroughly versed in criminal law, 
was on the staff of Colonel Sibley, and was 
by him appointed recorder of the court. Mr. 
Heard, in the performance of his duty, was 
above prejudice or passion, and could treat a 
case of this nature as if it was a mere misde- 
meanor. Lieutenant Olin was Judge Advocate 
of the court, but as the trials progressed the 
evidence was all put in and the records kept 
by Mr. Heard. Some changes were made in 
the personnel of the court from time to 
time, as the officers were needed else- 
where, but none of the changes lessened 
the dignity or character of the tribunal. I 
make these comments because the trials took 
place at a period of intense excitement, and 
persons unacquainted with the facts may be 
led to believe that the court was "organized to 
convict," and was unfair in its decisions. 

The court sat some time at Camp Release, 
then at the lower agency and Mankato, where 
it investigated the question whether the Win- 
nebagoes had participated in the outbreak, but 
none of that tribe were implicated, which 
proves that the court acted judicially, and not 

upon unreliable evidence, as the country was 
full of rumors and charges that the Winneba- 
goes were implicated. The court terminated 
its sittings at Fort Snelling, after a series of 
sessions lasting from September 30 to No- 
vember 5, 1862, during which four hundred 
and twenty-five prisoners were arraigned and 
i lied. Of these three hundred and twenty-one 
were found guilty of the offenses charged, of 
whom three.hundred and three were sentenced 
to death and the rest to various terms of im- 
prisonment according to the nature of their 
crimes. The condemned prisoners were re- 
moved to Mankato, where they were confined 
in a large guard house constructed of logs for 
the purpose, and were guarded by a strong 
force of soldiers. On the way down, as the 
party having charge of the prisoners passed 
through New Ulm, they found the inhabitants 
disinterring the dead, who had been hastily 
buried in the streets where they fell during the 
fights at that place. The sight of the Indians 
so enraged the people that a general attack 
was made on the wagons in which they were 
ehained together. The attacking force was 
principally composed of women, armed with 
clubs, stones, knives, hot water and similar 
weapons. Of course, the guard could not shoot 
or bayonet a woman, and they got the prison- 
ers through the town with the loss of one 
killed and many battered and bruised. 

While this court-martial was in session the 
news of its proceedings reached the eastern 
cities, and a great outcry was raised that Min- 
nesota was contemplating a dreadful massacre 
of Indians. Many influential bodies of well- 
intentioned but ill informed people beseeched 
President Lincoln to put a stop to the proposed 
executions. The President sent for the records 
of the trials, and turned them over to his legal 
and military advisers to decide which w 7 ere the 
more flagrant cases. On the 6th of December, 
1862, the President made the following order: 

"Executive Mansion, Washington, D. C, 

December 6, 1862. 
Brigadier General Henry H. Sibley, 

St. Paul, Minnesota: 
Ordered, that of the Indians and half-breeds 
sentenced to be hanged by the Military Com- 


8 1 

mission, composed of Colonel Crooks, Lieuten- 
ant Colonel Marshall, Captain Grant, Captain 
Bailey and Lieutenant Olin, and lately sitting 
in Minnesota, you cause to be executed on Fri- 
day, the 19th day of December, instant, the 
following named, to-wit: 

(Here follows the names of thirty-nine In- 
dians and their numbers on the record of con- 

The other condemned prisoners you will 
hold subject to further orders, faking care that 
they neither escape nor are subjected to any 
unlawful violence. Abraham Lincoln, 

President of the United States." 

Colonel Sibley had been appointed by Presi- 
dent Lincoln a Brigadier General on the 29th 
of September, 1802, on account of his success 
at the battle of Wood Lake, the announcement 
of his promotion being in a telegram, as fol- 

"Washington, D. C, Sept. 29, 1862. 
Major General Pope, 

St. Paul, Minnesota: 
Colonel Henry H. Sibley is made a Brigadier 
General for his judicious fight at Yellow Medi- 
cine. He should be kept in command of that 
column and every possible assistance sent to 
him. H. W. Halleck, 

General in Chief." 

His commission as brigadier general was not 
issued until March 20, 1804, but, of course, this 
telegram amounted to an appointment to the 
position, and if accepted, as it was, made him 
subject to the orders of the President; so not- 
withstanding his dispatch to me stating that 
the Indians, if convicted, would be forthwith 
executed, he could not very well carry out such 
an extreme duty without first submitting it to 
the Federal authorities, of which he had be- 
come a part. 

My view of the question has always been 
that when the court-martial was organized 
Colonel Sibley had no idea that more than 
twenty or twenty-five of the Indians would be 
convicted, which is partly inferable from his 
dispatch to me, in which he said he had "ap- 
prehended sixteen supposed to have been con- 
nected with the late outrages." But when the 
matter assumed the proportions it did, and 
he found on his hands some three hundred men 
to kill, he was glad to shift the responsibility 

to higher authority. Any humane man would 
have been of the same mind. I have my own 
views also of the reasons of the general gov- 
ernment in eliminating from the list of the con- 
demned all but thirty-nine. It was not because 
these thirty-nine were more guilty than the 
rest, hut because we were engaged in a great 
< 'ivil War, and the eyes of the world were upon 
us. Had these three hundred men been exe- 
cuted, the charge would have undoubtedly 
been made by the South that the North was 
murdering prisoners of war, and the authori- 
ties at Washington, knowing full well that the 
other nations were not capable of making the 
proper discrimination, and perhaps not anx- 
ious to do so if they were, deemed it safer not 
to incur the odium which might follow from 
such an accusation. 


The result of the matter was that the order 
of the President was obeyed, and on the 20th 
of December, 1802, thirty-eight of the con- 
demned Indians were executed by hanging at 
Mankato, one having been pardoned by the 
President. Contemporaneous 'history, or rather 
general public knowledge of what actually oc- 
curred, says that the pardoned Indian was 
hanged and one of the others liberated by mis- 
take. As an historian, I do not assert this to 
be true, but as a citizen, thoroughly well in- 
formed of current events at the time of this 
execution, I believe it to be a fact. The hang- 
ing of the thirty-eight was done on one gallows, 
constructed in a square form capable of sus- 
taining ten men on each side. They were 
placed upon a platform facing inwards, and 
dropped all at once by the cutting of a rope. 
The execution was successful in all its details, 
and reflects credit on the ingenuity and engi- 
neering skill of Captain Burt of Stillwater, 
who was intrusted with the construction of 
the deadly machine. The rest of the condemned 
Indians were, after some time, taken down to 
Davenport, in Iowa, and held in confinement 


until the excitemenl had generally subsided, 
when they were sent wesi of the .Missouri and 
set free. An Indian never forgets what he re- 
gards as an injury, and never forgives an en- 
emy. It is my opinion that all the troubles 
that have taken place since the liberation of 
these Indians, with the tribes inhabiting the 
western plains and mountains up to a recent 
date, have grown out of the evil counsels of 
these savages. The only proper course to have 
pursued with them, when it was decided not 
to hang them, was to have exiled them to some 
remote post — say the Dry Tortugas — where 
communication with their people would bare 
been impossible, set them to work on fortifica- 
tions or other public works, and allowed them 
to pass out by life limitation. 

The execution of these Indians practically 
terminated the campaign for the year 1862, no 
other event worthy of detailed record having 
occurred; but the Indian war was far from 
being over, as it was deemed prudent to keep 
within the State a sufficient force of troops to 
successfully resist all further al tacks and to 
inaugurate an aggressive campaign in the com- 
ing year. The whole of I he Sixth, Seventh and 
Tenth Regiments, the Mounted Rangers, some 
artillery organizations, scouts and other troops 
were wintered in the State at various points 
along the more exposed frontier; in 1863 a 
formidable expedition under command of Gen- 
eral Sibley was sent from Minnesota to crush 
the enemy, which was to be aided and co-op- 
erated with by another expedition under Gen. 
Alfred Sully, of equal proportions, which was 
to start from Sioux City, on the Missouri. 
After the attack at Birch Coulie and its relief, 
Little Crow, with a large part of his followers, 
branched off and went to the vicinity of Acton, 
and there attacked the command under Capt. 
Richard Strout, where a severe battle was 
fought, in which several of Captain Strout's 
men were killed. On the 3d of July, 1863, 
Crow ventured down to the neighborhood of 
Hutchinson with his young son, probably to 
get something which he had hidden, or to steal 
horses, and while he was picking berries a 
farmer named Lamson, who was in search of 
his cows, saw him and shot him dead. His 

scalp now decorates the walls of the Minnesota 
Historical Society. 


The remnant of Little Crow's followers were 
supposed to be rendezvoused at Devil's lake, 
in Dakota Territory, and reinforced by a large- 
body of the Upper Sioux. An expedition 
against them was devised by General Tope, 
to be commanded by General Sibley. It was 
to assemble at a point near the mouth of the 
Redwood river, some twenty-five miles above 
Fort Ridgely. On the 7th of June, 1S63, Gen- 
eral Sibley arrived at the point of departure, 
which was named Camp Tope in honor of the 
commanding general. The force composing 
the expedition was as follows: One company 
of Pioneers under Captain Chase; ten compa- 
nies of the Sixth Regiment, under Colonel 
Crooks; eight companies of the Tenth Regi- 
ment, under Colonel Baker; nine companies of 
the Seventh, under Lieutenant Colonel Mar- 
shall; eight pieces of artillery, under Captain 
Jones; nine companies of Minnesota Mounted 
Rangers, under Colonel McPhail; seventy-five 
Indian scouts under Major Brown, George Mc- 
Leod and Major Dooley; in all three thousand 
and fifty-two infantry, eight hundred cavalry 
and one hundred and forty-eight artillerymen. 
The command, from the nature of the country 
it had to traverse, was compelled to depend 
upon its own supply train, which was com 
posed of two hundred and twenty-five six-mule 
wagons. The staff was complete, consisting of 
Adjutant General Olin, Brigade Commissary 
Forbes, Assistant Commissary and Ordnance 
Officer Atchinson, Commissary Clerk Spencer. 
Quartermaster Corning, Assistant Quarter- 
master Kimball, Aides-de-camp, Lieutenants 
Pope, Beaver, Hawthorne and A. St. Clair 
Plandrau, Chaplain Rev. S. R. Riggs. 

The column moved from Camp Pope on June 
Kith, 1S63. The weather was intensely hot, 
and the country over which the army had to 
march was wild and uninhabited. At first the 
Indians retreated in the direction of the Brit- 
ish line, but it was discovered that their course 



had t»een changed to the direction of the Mis- 
souri river. They had probably heard that 
General Sully had been delayed by low water 
and hoped to be able to cross to the west 
bank of that stream before his arrival to inter- 
cept them, with the future hope that they 
would, no doubt, be reinforced by the Sioux 
inhabiting the country west of the Missouri. 
On the 4th of July the expedition reached the 
Big Bend of the Cheyenne river. On the 17th 
of July Colonel Sibley received reliable infor- 
mation that the main body of the Indians was 
moving toward the Missouri, which was on the 
20th of July confirmed by a visit at Camp 
Atchison of about three hundred Chippewa 
half-breeds, led by a Catholic priest named 
Father Andre. On becoming satisfied that the 
best fruits of the march could be attained by 
bending towards the Missouri, the General de- 
cided to relieve his command of as much im- 
pedimenta as was consistent with comfort and 
safety, and thus increase the rapidity of its 
movements. He therefore established a per- 
manent post at Camp Atchison, about fifty 
miles southeasterly from Devil's lake, where 
he left all the sick and disabled men and a 
large portion of his ponderous train, with a 
sufficient guard to defend them if attacked. 
He then immediately started for the Missouri 
with one thousand four hundred and thirty-six 
infantry, five hundred and twenty cavalry, one 
hundred pioneers and artillery and twenty-five 
days' rations. On the 22nd he crossed the 
James river, forty-eight miles west of Camp 
Atchison, and on the 24th reached the vicinity 
of Big Mound, beyond the second ridge of the 
Missouri coteau. Here the scouts reported 
large bodies of Indians with Red Plume and 
Standing Buffalo among them. 


The General, expecting an attack on the 
24th, corralled his train and threw up some 
earthworks to enable a smaller force to defend 
it. The Indians soon appeared. Dr. Weiser, 
surgeon of the First Rangers, supposing he saw 
some old friends among them, approached too 

close and was instantly killed. Lieutenant 
Freeman, who had wandered some distance 
from the camp, was also killed. The battle 
opened at three P. M., in the midst of a terrific 
thunderstorm, and after some sharp fighting 
the Indians, numbering about fifteen hundred, 
fled in the direction of their camp, and were 
closely pursued. A general panic ensued, the 
Indian camp was abandoned, and the whole 
throng, men, women and children, fled before 
the advancing forces. Numerous charges were 
made upon them, amidst the roaring of the 
thunder and the flashing of the lightning. One 
private was killed by lightning, and Colonel 
McPhail's saber was knocked out of his grasp 
by the same force. 

The Indians are reported to have lost in this 
fight eighty killed and wounded. They also 
lost nearly all their camp equipment. They 
were pursued about fifteen miles, and had it 
not been for a mistake in the delivery of an 
order by Lieutenant Beaver, they would un- 
doubtedly have been overtaken and destroyed. 
The order was to bivouac where night caught 
the pursuing troops, but was misunderstood 
to return. This unfortunate error gave the In- 
dians two days' start, and they put a wide gap 
between themselves ami the troops. The Bat- 
tle of Big Mound, as this engagement was 
called, was a decided victory and counted heav- 
ily in the scale of advantage, as it put the sav- 
ages on the run and disabled them from prose- 
cut inii' further hostilities. 


On the 2Cth the command again moved in 
the direction of the fleeing Indians. Their 
abandoned camp was passed on that day early 
in Hie morning. About noon large bodies of 
the enemy were discovered and a brisk fight en- 
sued. Attacks and counter attacks were made, 
and a determined fight kept up until about 
three P. M., when a bold dash was made by the 
Indians to stampede the animals which were 
herded on the banks of a lake; but the attempt 
was promptly met and defeated. The Indians, 
foiled at all points and having lost heavily in 



killed and wounded, retired from the field. At 
nighl earthworks were thrown up to prevent a 
surprise, but none was attempted, and this 
ended the battle of Dead Buffalo lake. 

The General was now convinced that the In- 
dians were going toward the Missouri with the 
intention of putting the river between them 
and his command, and, expecting General 
Sully's force to be there to intercept them, he 
determined to push them on as rapidly as pos- 
sible, inflicting all the damage he could in their 
flight. The campaign was well conceived, and 
had Sully arrived in time the result would un- 
doubtedly have been the complete destruction 
or capture of the Indians. But low water de- 
layed Sully to such an extent that he failed to 
arrive in time, and the enemy succeeded in 
crossing the river before General Sibley could 
overtake them. 


On the 28th of July Indians were again seen 
in large numbers. They endeavored to encircle 
the troops. They certainly presented a force 
of two thousand fighting men, and must have 
been reinforced by friends from the west side 
of the Missouri. They were undoubtedly fight- 
ing to keep the soldiers back until their fami- 
lies could cross the river. The troops were 
well handled. A tremendous effort was made 
to break our lines, but the enemy was repulsed 
at all points. The artillery was effective and 
the Indians finally fled in a panic and rout 
towai'ds the Missouri. They were hotly pur- 
sued, and on the 29th the troops crossed Apple 
creek, a small stream a few miles from the 
present site of Bismarck, the capital of North 
Dakota, and, pushing on, struck the Missouri 
at a point about four miles above Burnt Boat 
island. The Indians had succeeded in crossing 
the river with their families, but in a very de- 
moralized condition as to supplies and camp 
equipage. They were plainly visible on the 
blufl's on the opposite side. It was here that 
Lieutenant Beaver lost his life while carrying 
an order. He missed the trail and was am- 

bushed and killed. He was a young English- 
man who had volunteered to accompany the 
expedition, and whom General Sibley had 
placed upon his staff as an aide. 

Large quantities of wagons and other ma- 
terial abandoned by the Indians in their haste 
to cross the river were destroyed. The bodies 
of Lieutenant Beaver and a private of the 
Sixth Regiment, who was killed in the same 
way, were recovered and buried. It was clear 
that the Indians, on learning of the magnitude 
of the expedition, never contemplated over- 
coming it in battle, and made their movements 
with reference to delaying its progress, while 
they pushed their women and children toward 
and across the river, knowing there was no 
resting place for them on this side. They suc- 
ceeded admirably, but their success was solely 
at 1 1 ibuted to the failure of General Sully to ar- 
rive in time. General Sibley's part of the cam- 
paign was carried out to the letter and every 
man in it, from the commander to the private, 
is entitled to the highest praise. 

On August 1, the command broke camp for 
home. As was learned afterwards, General 
Sully was then distant down the river one hun- 
dred and sixty miles. His delay was no fault 
of his, as it was occasioned by insurmountable 
obstacles. The march home was a weary, but 
uneventful one. The campaign of 1863 may be 
summed up as follows: The troops marched 
nearly 1,200 miles. They fought three well- 
contested battles. They drove from eight to 
ten thousand Indians out of the State and 
across the Missouri river. They lost only seven 
killed and three wounded, and inflicted upon 
the enemy so severe a loss that he never again 
returned to his old haunts. For his meri- 
torious services General Sibley was appointed 
a Major General by brevet on November 20, 
1865, which appointment was duly confirmed 
by the Senate, and he was commissioned on 
April 7, 1866. 

In July, 1863, a regiment of cavalry was 
authorized by the Secretary of War to be 
raised by Maj. E. A. C. Hatch for duty on the 
Northern frontier. Several companies were re- 
cruited and marched to Pembina on the ex- 
treme northern border, where they performed 



valuable services and suffered incredible hard- 
ships. The regiment was called Hatch's Bat- 


The government very wisely decided net to 
allow the Indian question to rest upon the re- 
sults of the campaign of 1S63, which left the 
Indians in possession of the country west of 
the Missouri, rightly supposing that they might 
construe their escape from General Sibley the 
previous year into a victory. II therefore sent 
mit another expedition in ls<>4 to pursue and 
attack them beyond the Missouri. The plan 
and outfit were very similar to that of isi»:;. 
General Sully was again to proceed up the Mis 
souri with a large command ami meet a force 
sent out from Minnesota, which forces, when 
combined, were to march westward and find 
and punish the savages if possible. The expe- 
dition, as a whole, was under the command of 
General Sully. It consisted of two brigades, 
the first composed of Iowa and Kansas infan- 
try and cavalry, and Brackett's Battalion, to 
the number of several thousand, which was to 
start from Sioux City and proceed up the Mis 
souri in steamboats. The Second embraced 
the Eighth Regiment of Minnesota Volunteer 
Infantry under Colonel Thomas, mounted on 
ponies, the Second Minnesota Cavalry under 
Colonel MacLaren, the Third Minnesota Bat- 
tery under Captain Jones. The Second Bri- 
gade was commanded by Colonel Thomas. 
This brigade left Port Snelling on June 1, and 
marched westward. General Sibley and staff 
accompanied it as far as Fort Ridgely. On the 
9th of June it passed Wood lake, the scene of 
the fight in 18(12. About this point it overtook 
a large train of emigrants on their way to 
Idaho, who had with them Kill wagon loads of 
supplies. This train was escorted to the Mis 
souri river safely. The march was wearisome 
in the extreme with intensely hot weather and 
very bad water, and was only enlivened by the 
appearance occasionally of a herd of buffalo, 
a band of antelope or a straggling elk. The 
movements of the command were carefully 

watched by Hying bands of Indians during iis 
whole march. On July 1st, the .Missouri was 
reached at a point where now stands Fort Rice. 
General Sully and the First Brigade had ar- 
rived there the day before. The crossing was 
made by the boats that brought up the First 
Brigade. The column was immediately di- 
rected toward Cannon Ball river, where 1,800 
lodges of Indians were reported to be camped. 
The Indians fled before (lie approaching troops. 
<>ii the last of July the Heart river was 
reached, where a camp was formed, and the 
tents and teams left behind. Thus relieved, the 
command pressed forward for an Indian camp 
eighty miles northward. On the 2nd of August 
the Indians were found in large numbers on 
the Big Knife river in the Bad Lands. These 
were Unca-Papa Sioux, who had murdered a 
party of miners from Idaho the year before and 
had given aid and comfort to the Minnesota 
refugee Indians. They were attacked and a 
Aery spirited engagement ensued, in which the 
enemy was badly beaten and suffered severe 
losses. The place where this battle was fought 
was called Ta-ka-ho-ku-tay, or the bluff where 
the man shot the deer. 

On the next day, August 3, the command 
moved west through the Bad Lands, and just 
as it emerged from this terribly ragged coun- 
try it was sharply attacked by a large body of 
Indians. The fight lasted through two days 
and nights, when the enemy retired in haste. 
They were very roughly handled in this en- 

General Sully then crossed to the west side 
of the Yellowstone river, where the weary sol- 
diers found two steamboats awaiting them 
with ample supplies. In crossing this rapid 
river the command lost three men and about 
twenty horses. From this point they came 
home by the way of Forts Union, Berthold and 
Stevenson, reaching Fort Rice on the 9th of 

On this trip General Sully located Forts 
Rice. Stevenson and Berthold. 

On reaching Fort Rice, considerable anxiety 
was felt for Colonel Fisk, who, with a squad of 
fifty troops, had left the fort as an escort for a 
train of Idaho immigrants, and had been at- 



tacked one hundred and eighty miles west of 
the fort and had been compelled to intrench. 
He had sent for reinforcements and General 
Sully sent him three hundred men, who extri- 
cated him from his perilous position. 

The Minnesota Brigade returned by way of 
Fort Wadsworth, where they arrived on Sep 
tember 27. Here Major Hose, with six com 
panies of the Second Cavalry, was left to gar- 
rison the post, the balance of the command 
icaching Fort Snelling on the 12th of October. 

In June. 1865, another expedition left Minne- 
sota for the West under Colonel Callahan of 
Wisconsin, which went as far as Devil's lake. 
The first, second and fourth sections of the 
Third Minnesota Battery accompanied it, and 
again in 1866 an expedition started from Fort 
Abercrombie which included the first section 
of the Third Battery, under Lieutenant Whip- 
ple. As no important results followed from 
these two latter expeditions I only mention 
them as being parts of the Indian War. 

The number of Indians engaged in this war, 
together with their superior fighting qualities, 
their armament, and the country occupied by 
them, gives it rank among the most important 
of the Indian Wars fought since the first settle- 
ment of the country on the Atlantic Coast. But 
when viewed in the light of the number of set- 
tlers massacred, the amount of property de- 
stroyed and the horrible atrocities committed 
by the savages, it far surpasses them all. 

I have dwelt upon this war to such an extent 
because I regard it as the most' important 
event in the history of our State, and desire to 
perpetuate the facts more especially connected 
with the gallant resistance offered by the set- 
tlers in its inception. Not an instance of timid- 
ity is recorded. The inhabitants engaged in the 
peaceful pursuits of agriculture, utterly unpre- 
pared for war, sprang to the front on the first 
indication of danger, and checked the advance 
of the savage enemy in his initial efforts. The 
importance of battles should never be meas- 
ured by the number engaged, or the lists of 
killed and wounded, but by the consequences 
of their results. 1 think the repulse of the In- 
dians at Fort Ridgely and New Clin saved the 
State of Minnesota from a disaster, the magni- 

tude of which cannot he estimated. Their ad- 
vance was checked at the very frontier and 
they were compelled to retreat, thus affording 
t inie and opportunity for the whites to organi/.e 
for systematic action. Had they not met this 
early check, it is more than probable that the 
Chippewas on the upper Mississippi and the 
Winnebagoes in the lower Minnesota valley 
would have joined them, and the war have 
been carried into the heart of the State. In- 
stances of a similar character have occurred in 
our early wars which illustrate my position. 
The Battle of Oriscany, which was fought in 
the Revolutionary War in the valley of the 
Mohawk, between Rome and Utica, was not 
more of an encounter than Ridgely or New 
[Tim, yet it has been characterized as one of the 
decisive battles of the world because it pre- 
vented a junction of the British forces under 
St. Ledger in the west and Burgoyne in the 
east and made American independence pos- 
sible. The State of New York recognized tic 
value of Oriscany just one hundred years after 
the battle was fought by the erection of a 
monument to commemorate it. The State of 
Minnesota has done better by erecting impos- 
ing monuments on both the battlefields of 
Ridgely and New Ulm, the inscriptions on 
which give a succinct history of the respective 

The State also presented each of the defend- 
ers of Fort Ridgely with a handsome bronze 
medal, especially struck for the purpose, the 
presentation of which took place at the time of 
the dedication of the monument, on the 20th 
day of August, 1890. 

The medal has a picture of the fort on its 
obverse side, surrounded by the words, "De- 
fender of Fort Ridgely. August IS 27, 1802." 
Just over the flagstaff, in a scroll, is the legend 
in Sioux. "Ti-yo-pa-na-ta-ka-pi," which means, 
"It shut the door against us," referring to the 
battle having obstructed the further advance 
of the Indians. This was said by one of the In- 
dians in the attacking party in giving his view 
of the effect of the repulse, and adopted by the 
committee having charge of the preparation of 
the medal, as being appropriate and true. 
On the reverse side are the words, "Presented 



by the State of Minnesota to ," 

encircled by a wreath of moccasin flowers, 
which is the flower of the State. 

The State has also placed monuments at 
Birch Coulie, Camp Release and Acton. I re- 
gret to be compelled to say that a majority of 
the committee having charge of the building of 
the Birch Coulie monument so far failed in the 
performance of their duties as to the location 
of the monument and formulating its inscrip- 
tions that the Legislature felt compelled to 
pass an act to correct their errors. The correc- 
tion has not yet been made, but in the cause of 
true history it is to be hoped that it will be in 
the near future. The State also erected a 
handsome monument in the cemetery of Fort 
Ridgely to Captain Marsh and the twenty-three 
men of his company that were killed at the 
ferry near the Lower Sioux agency on August 
18, 1862, and by special act passed long after, 
at the request of old settlers, added the name 
of refer Quinn, the interpreter who was killed 
at the same time and place. The State also 
built a monument in the same cemetery in re- 
membrance of the wife of Dr. Muller, the post 
surgeon at Ridgely during the siege, on ac- 
count of the valuable services rendered by her 
in nursing' the wounded soldiers. 

able to enter extensively into the catalogue of 
its productions beyond the needs of domestic 


After the stirring events of the Civil and In- 
dian Wars, Minnesota resumed its peaceful 
ways and continued to grow and prosper for a 
long series of years, excepting the period from 
1873 to 1876, when it was afflicted with the 
plague of grasshoppers. Possessed of the 
many advantages that nature has bestowed 
upon it, there was nothing else for it to do. 
The State, as far as it was then developed, was 
exclusively agricultural, and wheat was its 
staple production, although almost every char- 
acter of grain and vegetable can be produced 
in exceptional abundance. Potatoes of the first 
quality were among its earliest exports, but 
that crop is not sufficiently valuable or port- 


The wheat raised in Minnesota was and al- 
ways has been of the spring variety, and up to 
about the year 1S74 was regarded in the mar- 
kets of the world as an inferior article of grain 
when compared with the winter wheat of 
States further south; and the flour made from 
it was also looked upon as of much less value 
than its competitor made from winter wheat. 
The State labored under this disability in real- 
izing upon its chief product for many years, 
both in the wheat and the flour made from it. 
.Many mills were erected at the Falls of St. 
Anthony with a very great output of flour, 
which, with the lumber manufactured at that 
point, composed the chief exports of the State. 
The process of grinding wheal was the old 
style, of an upper and nether millstone, which 
left the flour of darker color, less nutritious 
and less desirable than that from the winter 
wheat made in the same way. About the year 
1871 it was discovered that a new process of 
manufacturing flour was in operation on the 
Danube and at Budapesth. Mr. George H. 
Christian, a partner of Gen. C. C. Washburn, 
in the milling business at Minneapolis, studied 
the invention, which consisted of crushing the 
wheat by means <if rollers made of steel or por- 
celain, instead of grinding it, as of old, to 
which the French had added a new process of 
eliminating the bran specs from the crushed 
product by means of a flat oscillating screen or 
bolt with an upward blast of air through it, 
upon which the crushed product was placed 
and cleansed of all bran impurities. In 1871 
Gen. C. C. Washburn and Mr. Christian intro- 
duced this French invention into their mills in 
Minneapolis, and derived from it great advan- 
tage in the appearance and value of their flour. 
This was called a "middlings purifier." In 
1N74 they introduced the roller crushing pro- 
cess, and the result was that the hard spring 
wheat returned a flour superior to the product 



of the winter wheal and placed Minnesota upon 
more than an equality with the best flour-pro- 
ducing States in the Union. This process has 
been universally adopted throughout the 
Tinted States in all milling localities with 
great advantage to that industry. 

It is a rather curious fact that as all oar 
milling knowledge was originally inherited 
from England, which country is very sluggish 
in the adoption of new methods, that it was not 
until our improved flour reached that country 
that the English millers accepted the new 
method and have since acted upon it. It is a 
case of the pupil instructing his preceptor. 

I regard the introduction of these improve- 
ments in the manufacture of flour into this 
State as of prime importance to its growth and 
increase of wealth and strength. It is esti- 
mated by the best judges that the value of our 
spring wheat was increased at least twenty per 
cent by their adoption, and when we consider 
that the State produced, in 1898, 78,418,000 
bushels of wheat, its magnitude can be better 
appreciated. It formerly required five bushels 
of wheat to make a barrel of flour; under the 
new process it only takes four bushels and 
seven pounds to make a barrel of the same 
weight, 196 pounds. 

The only record that is kept of Hour in Min- 
nesota is for the two points of Minneapolis and 
the head of the lakes; the latter includes Du- 
luth and Superior in Wisconsin. The output 
of Minneapolis for the crop year of 1898-9 was 
15,164,881 barrels, and for Duluth-Supeiior for 
the same period, 2,637,035 barrels. The esti- 
mate for the whole State is 25,000,000 barrels. 
These figures are taken from the Northwestern 
Miller, a reliable publication in Minneapolis. 

The credit of having introduced the Hun- 
garian and French processes into Minnesota is 
due primarily to the late Gen. C. C. Washburn 
of La Crosse, Wisconsin, who was greatly 
aided by his partner at the time, Mr. George H. 
Christian of Minneapolis. 

While I am convinced that the credit of first 
having introduced these valuable inventions 
into Minnesota belongs to Gen. ('. ('.Washburn 
and his partner, Mr. George II. Christian, I am 
in justice bound to add thai Gov. John S. Pills- 

bury and the late Mr. Charles A. Pillsbury, 
who were large and enterprising millers a I 
Minneapolis, owning the Excelsior Mills, im- 
mediately after its introduction adopted the 
process and put it into their mills, and by em- 
ploying American skilled millers to set up and 
operate their machinery, succeeded in securing 
the first absolutely perfect automatic mill of 
the new kind in the country; General Wash- 
burn having imported Hugarian millers to 
start and operate his experimental mills, found 
himself somewhat handicapped by their ineffi- 
ciency and sluggishness in adopting American 
ways and customs. 


From the earliest days of the Territory the 
people had predicted the growth of cities at 
several points; at St. Paul, because it was the 
head of navigation of the Mississippi river; at 
St. Anthony, on account of its great water 
power; at Superior, as being the head of navi- 
gation of the Great Lake System, and at Man- 
kato, from its location at the great bend of the 
Minnesota river. It must be remembered that 
when these prophecies were made, Minneapolis 
and Duluth had no existence, and Superior was 
the natural outlet of the St. Louis river into 
Lake Superior; and had its land titles not been 
so complicated when the railroad from St. Paul 
to the head of the lakes was projected, there is 
no doubt Superior would have been the ter- 
minus of the road. However it was found to be 
almost impossible to procure title to any land 
in Superior on account of its having been sold 
by the proprietors in undivided interests to 
parties all over the country, and it was situ- 
ated in Wisconsin. The railroad people, accord- 
ingly, procured the charter of the company to 
make its northern terminus on the Minnesota 
side of the harbor, where Duluth now stands, 
and founded that town as the terminus of the 
road. Some years after, Minnesota Point was 
cut by a canal at its base or shore end, and the 
entrance to the harbor changed from its natu- 
ral inlet around the end of the point to this 
canal. This improvement has proved to be of 



vast importance to the city of Duluth and to 
the shipping interests of the State, as the natu- 
ral entrance was difficult and dangerous. 

Duluth increased in importance from year Lo 
year by reason of the natural advantages of its 
situation as the outlet of much of the exports 
of the State, and the inlet of a large portion of 
its imports. As railroads progressed, it !»• 
came connected with the wheat producing 
areas of the State, which resulted in the erec- 
tion of elevators for the shipment of wheat and 
mills to grind it. As nearly all the coal con 
sumed in the State came in by the gateway of 
Duluth, immense coal docks were constructed 
with all the modern inventions for unloading it 
from ships and loading it on cars for distribu- 
tion. Duluth soon attained metropolitan pro- 
portions. About the year 1870 Mr. George C. 
Stone became a resident of the city and en- 
gaged in business. 

In 1873 Jay Cooke, who had been an impor- 
tant factor in the construction of the Northern 
Pacific Railroad, failed, which was a serious 
blow to Duluth. Mr. Stone had given his at- 
tention largely to the investigation of the min- 
eral resources of the Lake Superior region in 
Minnesota, and had become convinced of the 
presence of large beds of iron ore in its north- 
eastern portion, now known as the Vermillion 
range. When he first made known his discov- 
ery the location of the ore was so remote from 
civilization that he found it difficult to interest 
any one in his enterprise. Few shared his 
faith, but undismayed by lack of support he 
undertook with steady persistence the task of 
securing the capital necessary to develop what 
he was convinced was a great natural wealth 
producing field. Comparatively alone, and 
with little encouragement at home, he visited 
the money centers of the country and assid- 
uously labored to induce men of capital to em- 
bark in the enterprise, but found it to be uphill 

The first men whose support he secured were 
Charlemagne Tower, of Ppttsville, Pennsyl- 
vania, and Samuel A. Munson, of Utica, New 
York, both men of education and great wealth. 
They became sufficiently interested to secure a 
proper test of the matter. Professor Chester, 

of Hamilton College, was sent out on two occa- 
sions. Mr. Munson died, and after the lapse 
of a few years Charlemagne Tower, then a 
resident of Philadelphia, undertook and did fur- 
nish the necessary funds to make the develop- 
ment, which involved the expense of four 
million dollars to build a railroad eighty 
miles in length, with docks anil other operating 

The railroad was opened in July, 1884, and 
there was shipped that season (12,124 tons of 
ore, and in 1885 the shipment reach 225,000 
tons. In 188G, 304,000 tons; in 1887, 394,000 
tons; in 1888, 512,000 tons. The output of the 
iron mines at and about the head of the lakes 
had by 1808 grown to the enormous quantity of 
5,871,801 tons. The grade of the ore is the 
highest in the market. This product is one of 
the most important in the State and seems 
destined to expand indefinitely. 

No better idea of the growth and importance 
of Duluth, and, in the same connection, the 
advance of the State, since the War, can be 
presented than by a statement of a few aggre- 
gates of different industries centered at the 
head of the lakes. The most recent record ob- 
tainable is for the year 1898. For example: 

Lumber cut, 544,318,000 feet. 

Coal received, 2,500,000 tons. 

Number of vessels arrived and cleared, 

Wheat received, and flour as wheat, 82,118,- 
129 bushels. 

Other grain, 19,428.022 bushels. 

Flonr manufactured, 2,400,025 barrels. 

Capacity of elevators, 24,650,000 bushels. 

Capacity of flour mills per day, 22,000 bar- 

Many other statistics could be given, but the 
above are sufficient to show the unexampled 
growth of the State in that vicinity. 


Another very interesting and instructive ele- 
ment in considering the growth of Minnesota 
is the commerce passing through the St. Mary's 



Canal, which connects Lake Superior with 
Lakes Huron and Michigan, the greater part 
of which is supplied by Minnesota. No record 
of the number of sailing vessels or steamers 
passing through the canal was kept until the 
year 1864. During that year there were 1,045 
sailing vessels and 3GG steamers. The last re- 
port for the year 1898 shows an increase of 
sailing vessels to 4,449 and of steamers to 
12,461. The first record of the amount of 
freight passing the canal, which was opened in 
1881, showed an aggregate of 1,567,741 net tons 
of all kinds of freight. In 1898 it had grown to 
the enormous sum of 21,234,664 tons. These 
figures, like distances in astronomical calcula- 
tions, require a special mental effort to fully 
comprehend them. An incident occurred in 
September, 1899, in connection with this canal 
traffic, that assists in understanding its im- 
mense proportions. By an accident to a 
steamer the channel of the river was blocked 
for a short time, until she could be removed, 
during which time a procession of waiting 
steamers was formed forty miles in length. 

I have been unable to obtain any reliable 
figures with which to present a contrast be- 
tween the commerce of this canal and that of 
the Suez, connecting the Mediterranean with 
the Red Sea, but it is generally estimated that 
the St. Mary's largely exceeds the Suez, al- 
though the commerce of the world with the 
Orient and Australia largely passes through 
the latter. 


In the early days of Minnesota its agricul- 
tural population was largely centered in the 
southeastern portion of the State. The soil 
was exceptionally fertile and produced wheat 
in unusual abundance. The Western farmer of 
early days was a careless cultivator, thinking 
more of the immediate results than permanent 
preservation of his land. Even if he was of the 
conservative old New England stock the gener- 
ous soil of the West, the freedom from social 
restraint, and the lessened labors of the farm, 
led him into more happy-go-lucky methods 
than he had been accustomed to in the East. 

It was Mark Twain who once said that if you 
plant a New England deacon in Texas you will 
find him in about a year with a game chicken 
under his ami, riding a mule on Sunday to a 
cock-fight. When farms were opened in the 
southeastern counties of Minnesota it was not 
an unusual thing to be rewarded with a crop 
of from thirty to forty bushels of wheat to the 
acre. The process of cultivation was simple 
and required scarcely any capital, so it was 
natural that the first comers should confine 
their efforts to the one product of wheat. They 
did so, regardless of the fact that the best soil 
will become exhausted unless reinforced. They 
became accustomed to think that land could 
always be had for the taking, and in twenty or 
twenty-five years the goose that laid the golden 
eggs died, and six or eight bushels were all 
they could extract from their lands. About 
1877 or 1878 they practically abandoned the 
culture of wheat and tried corn and hogs. 
This was an improvement, but not a great sip 
cess. Many of the farmers of the pioneering 
and roving class sold out and went West for 
fresh lands. 


About this time the dairy business had be- 
come quite profitable in Iowa, and the Minne- 
sota farmers turned their attention to that 
branch of industry. Their lands were excel- 
lent for pasturing purposes and hay raising. 
They began in a small way with cows and bai- 
ter making, but from lack of experience ami 
knowledge of the business their progress was 
slow; however, it improved from year to year 
and now, in the year 1899, it has become one 
of the most important, successful and profit- 
able industries in the State, and the farmers of 
Southern Minnesota constitute the most inde- 
pendent and well-to-do class of all our citizens. 
It was not very long ago when a mortgage was 
an essential feature of a Minnesota farm, but 
they have nearly all been paid off, and the 
farmer of Southern Minnesota is found in 
the ranks of the stockholders and depositors of 
the banks, and if he has anything to do witli 
mortgages he is found on the winning side of 



that dangerous instrument. A brief statement 
of the facts connected with the dairy business 
will demonstrate its magnitude. There are in 
the State at the present time: 

Creameries, about 700. 

Creamery patrons, 55,000. 

Capital invested, $3,000,000. 

Cows supplying milk, 410,000. 

Pounds of milk received (1898), 1,400,000,000. 

Pounds of butter made (1898), 63,000,000. 

Pounds of butter exported, 50,000,000. 

Gross receipts (1898), $10,400,000. 

Operating expenses (1898), $1,100,000. 

Paid to patrons, f8,600,000. 

Since 1884 Minnesota butter has been exhib- 
ited in competition with similar products from 
all the States in the Union and the butter-mak- 
ing countries of the world at all the principal 
fairs and expositions that have been held in 
the United States, and has taken more prizes 
than any other State or country. And its 
cheese has kept pace with its butter. There 
are in the State in active operation ninety-four 
cheese factories. This industry is constantly 
on the increase, and Minnesota is certainly 
destined to surpass every other State in the 
Union in this department of agriculture. 

While this new and valuable branch of in- 
dustry Mas gradually superseding (hat of 
wheat in Southern Minnesota, the latter was 
not being extinguished by any means, but sim- 
ply changing its habitat. About the time that 
wheat culture became unprofitable in Southern 
Minnesota, the valley of the Red River of the 
North began to attract attention, and it was 
at once discovered that it was the garden of 
the world for wheat culture. An intelligent 
and experienced farmer, Mr. Oliver Dalrymple, 
may be said to have been the pioneer of that 
enterprise. Lands in tin 1 valley were cheap, 
and he succeeded in gaining control of immense 
tracts and unlimited capital for their develop- 
ment. He opened these lands up to wheat cul- 
ture and gave to the world a new feature in 
agriculture, which acquired the name of the 
"Bonanza Farm." Some of these fauns em- 
braced sixty and seventy thousand acres of 
land and were divided by roads on the section 
lines. They were supplied with all the buildings 

necessary for the accommodation of the army 
of superintendents and employees that oper- 
ated them; also granaries and buildings for 
housing machinery; slaughter houses to pro- 
vision the operatives, telephone systems to fa- 
cilitate communication between distant points, 
and every other auxiliary to perfect an eco 
nomic management. These great farms, of 
course, produced wheat at more reduced rates 
than could the lesser ones, but did not materi- 
ally interfere with wheat production by the 
smaller farmers, as the output of 1898 of nearly 
79,000.000 bushels sufficiently proves. There 
seems to be no need of apprehension about the 
lauds of the Red river valley becoming ex- 
hausted, as they appear to be as enduring as 
those in the vallev of the Nile. 


The University of Minnesota, for the estab- 
lishment of which the United States donated 
to the State nearly 100,000 acres of land, and 
the agricultural college, which was similarly 
endowed, have been consolidated, and both 
have long been in successful operation. The 
University proper opened its doors for the ad- 
mission of students about the year 1869, and 
has since attained such proportions as to en- 
title it to a place among the leading educa- 
tional institutions of the United States; its roll 
of students for the last college year numbered 
over three thousand. Its curriculum embraces 
all studies generally taught in the colleges of 
this country, professional and otherwise. The 
state of efficiency and high standing of the Uni- 
versity of Minnesota is largely attributable to 
the work of its president, Hon. Cyrus North- 
rop, a graduate of Yale, who had attained emi- 
nence in the educational world before being 
called to the university. 

The School of Agriculture is of the highest 
importance to the welfare of the State. Its 
influence will soon remove one chief indus- 
try from dependence on the crude methods 
of the uneducated Western farmer, and place 
it upon a basis of scientific operation and man- 

9 2 


agement. Every branch of the art of farming 
is taught in this institution, from a knowledge 
of the chemical properties of the soil and its 
adaptation to the different vegetable growths, 
to the scientific breeding and economical feed- 
ing of stock. Much of the success in the dairy 
branch of farming is the direcl result of knowl- 
edge gained at this school. II is well patron- 
ized by the young men of the Slate who intend 
to devote themselves to agriculture as a pro- 
fession. Quite recently a new department ha* 
been added to the institution for the instruc- 
tion of women in all that pertains to the proper 
education of the mistress of the farm. It goes 
without saying that when Minnesota farming 
is brought under the management # and control 
of men and women of scientific and practical 
education in that particular line, there will be 
a revolution for the better. 

The methods of instruction in this school are 
not merely theoretical. It possesses three ex- 
perimental farms for the practical illustration 
and application of its teachings, the principal 
one of which is situated at St. Anthony Park, 
and the other two respectively at Crookstou 
and Grand Rapids. Work is also done in an 
experimental way in Lyon county, but the 
State does not own the station. 


This society dates its corporate existence 
from the year 1868, although for many years 
previous to that date, even back to the Terri- 
torial days, a society had been in existence 
covering the main features of this organiza- 
tion. In 18C7 the State recognized this society 
by appropriating one thousand dollars for its 
encouragement. Its object was the promotion 
of agriculture, horticulture and the mechanic's 
arts. The society held annual fairs in different 
localities in the State, with varying success. 
until 1885. The comity of Ramsey then offered 
to convey to the State of Minnesota, forever, 
two hundred acres of land adjoining the city 
limits of St. Paul, for the purpose of holding 

annual exhibitions thereon, under the manage 
ment of the society, of all matters pertaining 
to 'agriculture, human art, industry or skill. 
The State met this munificent donation with 
the same liberal spirit that characterized the 
offer, and appropriated $100,000 for perma- 
nent improvements. 

The hoard of managers proceeded imme 
diately to erect the necessary buildings for tic 
flrsl exhibition, but found the appropriation 
inadequate by about $32,000, which was read- 
ily supplied by public-spirited citizens of St. 
Paul and Minneapolis. The Stale, being again 
appealed to in 1887, made a further appropria- 
tion of $50,0(10. 

In 1887 the society was reorganized by ail 
of the Legislature and ils membership desig 
nated ami made to consist of the following 

First. Three delegates from each of tic 
county and district agricultural societies. 

Second. Honorary life members, who by 
reason of eminent services in agriculture, or in 
the arts and sciences connected therewith, or 
of long and faithful services in the society, or 
of benefits conferred upon it. 

Third. The president ex-officio of the Horti 
cultural Society, the Amber Cane Society, the 
State Dairymen's Association, the Southern 
Minnesota Fair Association, the State Poultry 
Association, the State Bee-Keeper's Associa- 
tion, and the president and secretary of the 
Farmer's Alliance. 

Fourth. The president of any society hav- 
ing for its object the promotion of any branch 
of agriculture, stock raising or improving, or 
mechanics relating to agriculture. 

By this selection of membership it will be 
seen that the society is composed of the lead- 
ing agriculturists of the State. It holds annual 
meetings in St. Paul for the transaction of its 
business. The State appropriates four thou 
sand dollars annually to aid in the payment of 
premiums to exhibitors. 

The society is in a prosperous condition ami 
holds annual fairs in the month of September 
on its grounds, which have been extensively 
improved. Each year there is a marked in- 
crease in the magnitude and variety of exhibits 
and extended interest and attendance. lis 
financial statement for the year 1808 was: 
Receipts, $62,523.70; expenditures, $56,850.*::. 
It has just closed ils fair for the year 1899, 
which in extent and perfection of its exhibits 



and financial results surpassed any of its pre- 
vious attempts. 

There are in the State the following named 
societies all more or less connected with agri- 
culture, and all in flourishing condition: 

The State Horticultural Society. 

The State Forestry Association. 

The Dairymen's Association. 

The State Butter and Cheese Maker's Asso- 

The State Farmer's Institute. 

The State Poultry Association. 

The State Bee Keeper's Association. 

And perhaps others. 

These associations have done much in the 
promotion of the agricultural interests of the 
State, and by their intelligent guidance will no 
doubt soon make it the leading agricultural 
State in the Union. 


In the 1887 it became apparent that the 
Civil War and the Minnesota Indian War had 
left a large number of soldiers of the State iu 
dependent circumstances from old age, wounds 
and other disabling causes. The State, recog- 
nizing its obligation to these men, determined 
to provide a home for their comfort and main- 
tenance. By an act of the Legislature, passed 
March 2, of that year, provision was made for 
the purchase of a site and the erection of suit- 
able buildings for that purpose. The act pro- 
vided for bids for the purpose of a site, and 
also authorized the acceptance of donations for 
that purpose. Minneapolis responded hand- 
somely by offering fifty-one acres of its beau- 
tiful Minnehaha Park as a donation. It was 
accepted, and is one of the most beautiful and 
picturesque locations that could have been 
found in the State, being mar the Mississippi 
river and the Falls of Minnehaha. The begin- 
ning of the home was small, one old house 
being used for the first six months, and then 
from year to year handsome and commodious 
brick houses were erected, until the home be- 
came adequate to accommodate all those who 
were entitled to its hospitality. The conditions 
of admission are, residence in Minnesota, serv- 
ice in the Mexican War, or in some Minnesota 

organization in the Civil or Indian war, honor- 
able discharge, and indigent circumstances. 
As there are no accommodations for the wives 
and families of the old soldiers and sailors at 
the home, provision is made for relief being- 
furnished to married soldiers at their own 
homes, so as to prevent the separation of fami- 
lies. There were in the home at the date of the 
last report, August 3, 1899, three hundred and 
sixty-two beneficiaries. The home is conducted 
by a board of trustees consisting of seven mem- 
bers, whose election is so arranged that they 
serve for six years. This beneficent establish- 
ment is to be commended as an evidence of the 
generosity and patriotism of the State. 


I have been somewhat explicit in mentioning 
the institutions of the State which are con- 
nected with its prominent and permanent in- 
dustry—agriculture; but it must not be sup- 
posed that it has not provided for the many 
other interests that require regulation and con- 
trol to constitute a perfectly organized State 
government. There are, besides those I have 

Four Normal Schools, located at Winona, 
Mankato, St. Cloud and Moorhead, all devoted 
to the education of teachers. 

State High and Graded Schools all over the 

State Board of Corrections and Charities. 

State Hospitals for the Insane, of which 
there are three, located as follows: One at St. 
Peter, one at Rochester, and one at Fergus 
Falls, and a fourth in contemplation. 

According to the latest report these hospi- 
tals contained 3,302 patients, as follows: St. 
Peter, 1,045; Rochester, 1,196; and Fergus 
Falls 1,061. For a small new State, this show- 
ing would seem alarming and indicate that a 
very large percentage of the population was 
insane, and that the rest were preparing to be- 
come so. The truth is, that a case of insanity 
originating in Minnesota is quite as excep- 
tional and rare as other diseases, and can 
usually be accounted for by some self-abuse of 
the patient. The population is drawn from 



such diverse sources, and the intermarriages 
are crossed upon so many different nationali- 
ties, that hereditary insanity ought to be al- 
most unknown. The climate and the general 
pursuits of the people all militate against the 
prevalence of the malady. 

The explanation of the existence of the 
numerous cases is, as I am informed by the 
very highest authority on the subject, that in 
nearly all European countries it has become 
the habit of families afflicted with insanity to 
export their unfortunates to America as soon 
as any symptoms appear, and thus provide for 
them for the rest of their lives. I cannot say 
that the governments whence these people emi- 
grate participate in the fraud, but it is not rea- 
sonable to suppose that they would interpose 
any serious objections, even should they have 
knowledge of the fact. A comparison of the 
nationalities of the patients found in these hos- 
pitals with the American element, given by the 
census of the State, proves my statement, and 
an inquiry of the medical authorities of these 
institutions will place the question beyond 


There are also State schools for the deaf, 
dumb, blind and the feeble-minded. These in- 
stitutions are all located at Faribault in Rice 
county, and each has a very handsome, com- 
modious and in every way suitable building, 
where these unfortunates are instructed in 
every branch of learning and industry of which 
they are capable. During the last two years 
there have been enrolled two hundred and sev- 
enty-five deaf and dumb children in the school 
especially devoted to them, where they receive 
the best education that science and experience 
can provide. This school has already been in- 
strumental in preparing hundreds of deaf and 
mute youth to be useful and intelligent citizens 
of the State, and year by year a few are grad- 
uated, well prepared to take their places beside 
the hearing and speaking youth who leave the 
public schools. About one-third of the time is 
devoted to manual training. 

The school for the blind is entirely separate 
from that of the deaf and dumb, and is 
equipped with all the appliances of a modern 
special school of this character. It makes a 
specialty of musical instruction and industrial 
training, such as broom-making, hammock 
weaving, bead work and sewing. 

The course of study embraces a period of 
seven years, beginning with the kindergarten 
and ending with the ordinary studies of En- 
glish classes in the high schools. The school is 
free to all blind children in the State between 
the ages of eight and twenty-six, to whom 
board, care and tuition are furnished. The 
average number of pupils at this school for the 
past few years is between seventy and one hun- 


This school is located at Owatonna in Steele 
county, and is one of the most valuable of all 
the many establishments which the State has 
provided for the encouragement of good citi- 
zenship. There are eleven buildings, which 
comprise all the agencies that tend to make 
abandoned children useful citizens and rescue 
them from a life of vagrancy and crime. The 
object of this institution is to provide a tem- 
porary home and school for the dependent and 
neglected children of the State. No child in 
Minnesota need go without a home if the offi- 
cers of the several counties do their duty. 
There is not a semblance of any degrading or 
criminal feature in the manner of obtaining 
admittance to this school. Under the law, it is 
the duty of every county commissioner, when 
he finds any child dependent or in danger of 
becoming so, to take steps to send him to this 
school. The process of admission wisely guards 
against the separation of parent and child, but 
keeps in view the ultimate good of the latter. 
Once admitted, it becomes the child of the 
State, all other authority over it being can- 
celed. Every child old enough to work has 
some fitting task assigned to it, to the end of 
training it mentally, morally and physically 
for useful citizenship. They are sent from the 



school into families wanting them, but this 
does not deprive them of the watchful care of 
the State, which, through its agents, visits 
them in their adopted homes and sees that they 
are well cared for. 

On January 1, 1899, there had been received 
into the school from seventy-two counties 1,824 
children, of whom 1.131 were boys and 09:? 
were girls. Of these, 233 were then in the 
school, the others having been placed in good 
homes. It is known that eighty-three per cent 
of these children had developed into young 
men and women of good character. 


This institution was formerly "The Minne- 
sota State Reform School," and was located in 
St. Paul. In 1895 the Legislature changed its 
name to "The Minnesota State Training School 
for Boys and Girls," and its location has been 
changed to Red Wing, in the county of Good- 
hue. This institution has to do with criminals, 
and the statute provides, "That whenever an 
infant over the age of eight years and under 
the age of sixteen years shall have been duly 
convicted of any crime punishable with im- 
prisonment, except the crime of murder, or 
shall be convicted of vagrancy or of incorrig 
ibly vicious conduct." the sentence shall be to 
the guardianship of the board of managers of 
this school. Here they are given a good common 
school education and instructed in the trades 
of cabinet making, carpenter work, tailoring, 
shoemaking, blacksmithing, printing, farming, 
gardening, etc. 

The inmates are furloughed under proper 
conditions, but the State watches over them 
through an agent, who provides homes for the 
homeless and employment for those who need 

intermediate correctional school between the 
training school and the State prison, the ob- 
ject being to provide a place for boys and 
young men from sixteen to thirty years of age, 
never before convicted of crime, where they 
may, under as favorable circumstances as pos- 
sible by discipline and education best adapted 
to that end, form such habits and character ;is 
will prevent their continuing in crime, fit them 
for self-support, and accomplish their reforma- 

The law provides for an indeterminate sen 
fence, allowing of parole when earned by con- 
tinuous good conduct, and final release when 
reformation is strongly probable. Honest 
labor is required every day of each inmate. 
Almost every occupation and employment is 
carried on in a practical way, and each inmate 
is learning to fill some honest place and to do 
useful work. The workings of this reforma- 
tory have been very satisfactory and have un- 
doubtedly rescued many young people from a 
life of crime. 


This institution was established in 1887 and 
is located at St. Cloud. It is designed as an 


All prisons where criminals are sent to work 
out sentences for crimes committed are alike 
on general principles, and the Minnesoia 
prison, situated at Stillwater, differs only in 
the fact that it combines iu its administration 
all the modern discoveries of sociological re- 
search which tend to ameliorate the condition 
of the prisoner and fit him for the duties of 
good citizenship when discharged. 

The plant is extensive and thorough. The 
labor of the prisoners is now devoted to three 
industries, the manufacture of binding twine, 
high school scientific apparatus on State ac- 
count, and the manufacture of boots and shoes. 

The discipline and management of the prison 
is the best. The most advanced principles of 
penology are in force. Sentences are reduced 
by good conduct, and everything is done to re- 
form as well as punish the prisoner. A news- 
paper is published by the convicts and a li- 
brary of five thousand volumes is furnished for 
their mental improvement. Nothing known to 



modern, social and penal science is omitted 
from the management. 


This society, as I have said before in speak- 
ing of the work of the first Territorial Legisla- 
ture, was organized by thai body in 184!). and 
has been of incalculable value to the State. 
The officers of the society are a president, two 
vice-presidents, a treasurer and a secretary. 
and it is governed by an executive council of 
thirty-six members, which embraces the Gov- 
ernor, Lieutenant Governor, Secretary. Au- 
ditor and Treasurer of State, and Attorney 
General as ex-officio members. The Stale 
makes an annual appropriation in aid of the 
society. The executive council meets once a 
month for the transaction of its business, at 
which meetings, and at its annual meetings, 
interesting papers and essays are delivered on 
historical subjects, which are preserved and, 
with other matter, are published in hand- 
somely bound volumes when sufficient material 
is accumulated. 

The society, in the manner prescribed ill its 
by-laws, may establish the following separate 

of Minnesota. 

of Annals and General History 

of Geology of Minnesota. 

of Zoology <>t' Minnesota. 

of Botany of Minnesota. 

of .Meteorology of Minnesota. 

of Northwestern Geography and 

of American History. 

of Oriental History. 

of European History. 

of Genealogy and Heraldry. 

of Ethnology and Anthropology. 

It has corresponding members all over the 
world and official connections with nearly nil 
the historical and learned societies of Europe 
and America, with which it interchanges publi- 
cations. It has a membership of 142 life and 87 
annual members. It may receive donations 
from any source. 

Its property, real and personal, is exempt 

from taxation of any kind. It has accumu- 
lated a splendid library of about sixty-three 
thousand volumes of all kinds of historical, 
genealogical, scientific and general knowledge, 
all of which are open and free to the public 
It also has a gallery of pictures of historical 
scenes in Minnesota, and portraits of men and 
women who have been prominent in, or who 
have contributed to the history or growth of 
Hie State, together with an extensive museum 
of Indian and other curiosities having some 
relation to Minnesota. One of its most valu- 
able attractions is a newspaper department in 
which are complete files of all newspapers 
which have been and are published in the 
State, except a very few unimportant ones. The 
number of our State papers, daily, weekly and 
monthly, received at the beginning of the year 
1890 was 421. These papers are all bound in 
substantial volumes for preservation for the 
use of future generations. On September 1, 
1899, the society had on the shelves of its tire- 
proof vault 4,250 of these volumes. Its rooms 
are in the capitol at St. Paul, and are entirely 
inadequate for its accommodation, but ample 
space has been allowed it in the new capitol 
now in the course of construction. 


Besides the general State boards and asso- 
ciations having special reference to the leading 
products of (lie Slate, and those of a reforma- 
tory and educational character, there are many 
others, regulating business of various kinds 
among the inhabitants, all of which are im- 
portant in their special spheres, but to name 
them is all I can say about them in my limited 
space. Their number and the subjects which 
they regulate shows the care with which the 
Slate watches ever the welfare of its citizens. 
I present the following catalogue of the State 

The Insurance Commission. 
The Public Examiner. 
The Dairy Food Commission. 
The Bureau of Labor. 



The Board of Railroad and Warehouse Com- 

The Board of Game and Fish Commission- 

The State Law Library. 

The State Department of Oil Inspection. 

The State Horticultural Society. 

The State Forestry Association. 

The Minnesota Dairyman's Association. 

The State Butter and Cheese Maker's Asso- 

The State Farmer's Institutes. 

The Red River Valley Drainage Commission. 

The State Drainage Commission. 

The Commission of Statistics. 

The State Board of Health and Vital Statis- 

The State Board of Medical Examiners. 

The State Board of Pharmacy. 

The State Board of Dental Examiners. 

The State Board of Examiners in Law. 

The Bureau of Public Printing. 

The Minnesota Society for the Prevention of 

The Geological and Natural History Survey. 

The State Board of Equalization. 

Surveyors of Logs and Lumber. 

The Board of Pardons. 

The State Board of Arbitration and Concil- 

The State Board of Investment. 

The State Board of Examiners of Barbers. 

The State Board of Examiners of Practical 

The Horseshoers Board of Examiners. 

The Inspection of Steam Boilers. 

It is difficult to conceive of any other subject 
over which the State could assume jurisdiction, 
and the great number which are embraced al- 
ready within its supervision, would lead one 
who is not in touch with our State administra- 
tion to believe that State paternalism dom- 
inated the business industries of the people; 
but nothing is further from the truth, and no 
State in the Union is freer from governmental 
interference in the ordinary channels of in- 
dustry than Minnesota. 


ways been in excellent condition. When the 
receipts of an individual or a State exceed ex- 
penditures the situation is both satisfactory 
and safe. At the last report up to July 31, 
1S9S, the receipts of the State from all sources 
were $5,429,240.32, and the expenditures were 
$5,208,942.05, leaving a balance on the right 
side of the ledger of $220,29S.27. To the re- 
ceipts must be added the balance in the treas- 
ury at the beginning of the year, of $2,054,- 
314.26, which left in the treasury on July 31, 
1898, the large sum of $2,184,612.53. 

The original indebtedness arising from the 
adjustment of the State railroad bonds was 
$1,659,000.00; other bonds, $300,000.00. This 
indebtedness has been reduced by payments to 
the sum of $1,475,647.22, on July 31, 1898, the 
date of the last report. If this debt had ma- 
tured, it could at once be paid by the funds on 
hand, leaving the State entirely free from all 

The taxable property of the State by last as- 
sessment in 1897, including real and personal 
property, was $570,598,813. 

Since the settlement of the debt created by 
the old railroad bonds that I have heretofore 
mentioned, the finances of the State have al- 


It has been customary in the United States 
to expect a disturbance in monetary and busi- 
ness affairs about once in every twenty years, 
and the expectation has not been disappointed 
since the panic of 18.">7. I have described the 
effect of the panic of 1857 on the Territory and 
State of Minnesota and the difficulties of re- 
cuperating from the shock. The next similar 
event was not due until 1877, but there is al- 
ways some special disaster to precipitate such 
occurrences. In 1S57 it was the failure of the 
Ohio Life and Trust Company, and in 1S73 it 
was the failure of Jay Cooke & Company, of 
Philadelphia. This house had been very prom- 
inent in placing the bonds of the Northern Pa- 
cific Railroad company, and in the construc- 
tion of the road, and was relied upon by many 
classes of people to invest their money for 
them, and when their failure was announced 
its effect in the East was disastrous, but here 

9 8 


in Minnesota it only affected us in a secondary 
or indirect way, in stopping railroad building 
and creating general alarm in business circles. 
We had been diligently at work for sixteen 
years endeavoring to recuperate from the dis- 
aster of 1857 and had, to a great extent, suc- 
ceeded. Real estate had partially revived, but 
had not reached the boom feature, and the 
Slate was on a sound financial basis. Fortu- 
nately we bad not recovered sufficiently to be- 
come investors in railroad securities to any 
great extent, and land speculation bad not 
reached its usual twenty years mark. We had, 
also, on hand a local affliction in the presence 
of grasshoppers, so that, although it disturbed 
business generally, it did not succeed in pro- 
ducing bankruptcy, and we soon shook it off. 

This periodical financial disturbance has been 
attributed to various causes. From the regular- 
ity of its appearance, it must be the result of 
some impelling force of a generally similar 
character. My opinion is that the period of 
twenty years being the average time of man's 
business life, the actors of the second period 
have not the benefit of the experience gained by 
those of the previous one, and they repeat the 
same errors that produced the former disasters; 
but be that as it may, when the period extending 
from 1873 to 1893 had passed the same result 
had occurred, and with quite as much force as 
any of its predecessors. Land speculation had 
reached the point of absolute insanity. Every- 
body thought he could become rich if he only 
bought. Values already ridiculously expanded 
continued to increase with every sale. Anyone 
who had money enough to pay down a small 
amount as earnest, and intelligence enough to 
sign a note and mortgage for the balance of 
the purchase price, became purchasers to the 
limit of their credit. When a party whose 
credit was questioned needed an endorser, he 
found many requiring the same assistance who 
were ready to swap endorsements with him. 
Everyone became deeply in debt. The country 
was Hooded with paper, which was secured on 
the impossibility of values continuing. The 
banks became loaded with alleged securities 
and when the bubble was strained to the 
bursting point and some one of supposed finan- 

cial soundness was compelled to succumb to 
the pressure, the veil was lifted which opened 
the eyes of the community and produced a rush 
for safety, which induced and was necessarily 
followed by a general collapse. In 1S88 and 
issn banks suspended, money disappeared, and 
in 1893, in the expressive language of the West, 
everybody who was in debt, and all stockhold- 
ers and depositors in defunct banks "wenl 
broke." Had the cities of St. Paul and Minne- 
apolis been captured byan enemyand a ransom 
of ten million dollars been demanded for each, 
paid and carried away, the consequences upon 
business would not have been worse. It was 
much the same in all the large cities of the 
State, as land speculation was more active 
there than in the rural districts, and no mat- 
ter what may happen some value always re- 
mains to farm lands, while under such a col- 
lapse as that of 1893 the greater part of city 
property becomes utterly valueless for the 
present, and much of it forever. 

There was, however, a great difference be- 
tween the consequences of 189.". and the pre- 
vious disasters of 1857 and 1873. Although the 
disturbance was great, we were better pre- 
pared to meet it. Population had increased 
immensely. The area of civilization and pro- 
duction had kept pace with immigration. 
Manufactures of many kinds had been intro- 
duced, and although we w r ere seriously 
wounded, our hopes of recovery had solid 
grounds to rest upon and we were not dis- 
mayed. The only remedy in such cases — indus- 
try and economy — were applied, through ne- 
cessity if not from choice, and recovery has 
been slowly progressing up to the present time 
—1899 — when we may be classed as convales- 

Will, this experience serve to prevent a re- 
currence of the follies of the past? Most as- 
suredly not. Those who have reaped wisdom 
will have surrendered the speculative arena to 
others before the financial cycle rolls around, 
and history will repeat itself, notwithstanding 
the State never had a better future outlook 
than at present. It does not follow that the 
panic due about 1913 will be caused by over- 
speculation in real estate. It is more likely 



to be produced by the excessive and fraudulent 
capitalization of all sorts of corporations called 
trusts, which will, of course, succumb to the 
first serious blow. 

With the exception of the events I have nar- 
rated, including the financial troubles of 1ST:', 
and 1893, nothing of special importance to the 
State has happened, except a few occurrences 
of minor moment. 


September 5, 1878, President Haves made a 
short visit to the Stale, and delivered an ad- 
dress at the State agricultural fair. 

On the 7th of September, 1S70, an organized 
gang of bandits which had been terrorizing the 
State of Missouri and surrounding States witli 
impunity, entered this State and attacked a 
bank in the town of Northfield, in Rice county, 
with the intent of looting it. The cashier, Mr. 
Haywood, resisted, and they shot him dead. 
The people of the town hearing of the raid, 
turned out and opened fire on the robbers, who 
fled, with the loss of one killed. In their flight 
they killed a Swede before they got out of the 
town. The people of the counties through 
which their flight led them turned out, and 
before any of them passed the border of the 
State two more of them were killed and three 
captured. Two escaped. The captured were 
three brothers named Younger, and those who 
escaped were supposed to be the notorious 
James brothers of Missouri. The three Young- 
er brothers pleaded guilty to a charge of mur- 
der, and, on account of a peculiarity in the law 
that only allowed the death sentence t<> be im- 
posed by a jury, they were all sentenced to 
imprisonment for life; one of them has since 
died, and the other two remain in prison. 

The manner in which this raid was handled 
by our citizens was of immense value to the 
State, as it proved a warning to all such des- 
peradoes that Minnesota was a bad field for 
their operations, and we have had no more 
trouble from that class of offenders. 

In 1877 the Constitution was amended by 

providing for biennial instead of annual ses- 
sions of the Legislature. 

On May 2. 1878, a very singular and disas- 
trous event took place at Minneapolis. Three 
large flouring mills were blown up by a dust 
explosion and eighteen men killed. It was in- 
explicable for a time, but it was afterwards 
discovered that such explosions had occurred 
before, and prompt measures were taken Id 
prevent a repetition of the trouble. 

On the 15th of November, 1880, a portion 
of the large insane asylum at St. Peter was 
destroyed by fire, and eighteen of the inmates 
were burned and others died of injuries re- 
ceived. The pecuniary loss amounted to $150,- 

On March 1, 1881. the old capitol burned 
while the Legislature was in session. That 
body moved their sittings to the St. Paul Mar- 
ket House, which had just been finished, where 
they remained until the present capitol build- 
ing was erected upon the site of the one 

On the 25th of January, 1884, the State 
prison at Stillwater was partially burned. 

September 14, 1886, St. ('loud and Sauk Rap- 
ids were struck by a cyclone. Scores of build- 
ings were destroyed and about seventy of the 
inhabitants killed. 

In the year 1889 the Australian system of 
voting at elections was introduced in cities of 
ten thousand inhabitants and over, and in 
1892 the system was made general throughout 
the State. 

On the 7th of April, 1893, the Legislature 
passed an act for the building of a new State 
capitol in the city of St. Paul, and appointed 
commissioners to carry out the object. They 
selected an eligible and conspicuous site be- 
tween University avenue, Cedar and Wabasha 
streets, near the head of Wabasha. They 
adopted for the materials which were to enter 
into it, granite for the lower and Georgia 
white marble for the upper stories. The whole 
cost was not to exceed $2,000,000. The corner 
stone of the building was laid July 27, 1898, 
with appropriate and very imposing ceremo- 
nies in the presence of an immense throng of 
citizens from all parts of the State. Senator 




Davis delivered the oration and ex-Governor 
Alexander Ramsey laid the corner si one. The 
building has reached the third story, and will 
be a very beautiful and serviceable structure. 

On September 1, 1894, there was a mosi \ 
tensive and disastrous tire in Pine county. 
Four hundred square miles of territory were 
burned over by the forest fire; the towns of 
Hinckley and Sandstone were totally de 
stroyed, and four hundred people burned. The 
money loss was estimated at $1,000,000. This 
disaster was exactly what was needed lo 
awaken the people of the State to the necessity 
of providing means for the prevention of 
forest and prairie tires, and the preservation of 
our forests. Shortly after the Hinckley lire a 
State convention was held at the Commercial 
Club in St. Paul, to devise legislation to accom- 
plish this desirable end. which resulted in the 
passage of an act at the session of the Legisla- 
ture in 1895 entitled, "An act for the preserva- 
tion of forests of this State, and for the pre- 
vention and suppression of finest and prairie 
fires." Under this act the State Auditor was 
made the Forest Commissioner of the Stair, 
with authority to appoint a Chief Fire War- 
den. The supervisors of towns, mayors of cities 
and presidents of village councils were made 
fire wardens of their respective local jurisdic- 
tions, and the machinery for the prevention 
of fires was put in motion that is of immense 
value to the State. The Forest Commissioner 
appointed Gen. C. C. Andrews Chief Fire War- 
den, one of the best equipped men in the State 
for the position, and no serious trouble 1ms 
since occurred in the way of fires. 

On the 9th of February, 1887, the Minnesota 
Historical Society passed a resolution declar- 
ing that the pretenses made by <'a]ii. Willard 
Glazier, to having been the discoverer of the 
source of the Mississippi river, were false, and 
very little has been heard from him since. 

On the 10th of October, 1887, President 
Cleveland visited the State and made a short 

This enumeration of passing events looks a 
little like a catalogue of disasters (except the 
building of the new capitol and the visit of 
Presidents Haves and Cleveland), but it must be 

remembered that Minnesota is such an empire 
in itself that such happenings scarcely pro- 
duce a ripple on the surface of its steady and 
continuous progress. It is because these events 
can he particularized and described that they 
assume proportions beyond their real impor- 
tance; but when compared with the colossal 
advances made by the State during the period 
covering them, they dwindle into mere points 
of educational experience, to be guarded 
against in the future. While the many bless 
ings showered upon the State, consisting of 
the health and wealth imparting sunshine, the 
refreshing and fructifying rains and dews of 
heaven, which, like the smiles of providence, 
and the life-sustaining air that surrounds us, 
are too intangible and indefinable for more 
I ha ii thankful recognition: our tribulations 
were really blessings in disguise. The bold 
invasion of the robbers proved our courage; 
the storms and fires proved our generosity to 
the distressed, and taught us lessons in the 
wisdom of prevention. Minnesota has as much 
to be thankful for and as little to regret as any 
State in the West, and our troubles only prove 
that we have a very robust vitality, difficult to 
permanently impair. 


For many years there has been a growing 
sentiment in the United States that Spain was 
governing Cuba and her other West Indian 
colonies in an oppressive and unjust manner, 
and the desire to interfere in behalf of the 
Cuban people received a good deal of encour- 
agement, and its unrestrained expression suc- 
ceeded in creating very strained relations be- 
tween Spain and the United States. II is a 
well known fact that the Spanish people from 
the north line of Mexico to Cape Horn, as well 
as the inhabitants of the Spanish Islands, hale 
the Americans most heartily. Why, I do nol 
know, except that our social, governmental 
and religious habits, customs and beliefs are 
radically different from their own — but that 
such is the case no one doubts who knows these 
people. In 1897 some effort at conciliation 



was made, and Spain sent one of her warships 
to New York on a friendly visit, but she did 
not stay long, and got away as soon as she 
decently could. The United Stales sent the 
battleship Maine to Havana on the same 
friendly mission, where she was officially con- 
veyed to her anchorage. She had been there 
but a short time when she was blown up, on 
February 15, 1898, and two hundred and sixty 
American seamen murdered. There was an 
official investigation to determine the cause of 
the explosion, but it found no solution of the 
disaster. Various theories were advanced of 
internal spontaneous explosion, but no one 
was misled. The general sentiment of Amer- 
icans was, that the Spanish in Cuba deliber- 
ately exploded a submarine torpedo under her 
to accomplish the result that followed. Pre- 
vious to this cowardly act there was much 
difference of opinion among the people of all 
sections of the country as to the propriety of 
declaring war against Spain, but public senti- 
ment was at once unified in favor of war on 
the announcement of this outrage. On the 25th 
of April, 1898, Congress passed an act declar- 
ing that war against Spain had existed since 
the 21st of the same mouth. A requisition wis 
made on Minnesota for its quota of troops im- 
mediately after war was declared, and late in 
the afternoon of the 28th of April the Governor 
issued an order to the Adjutant General to 
assemble the State troops at St. Paul. The 
Adjutant General, on the 29th, issued the fol- 
lowing order by telegraph to the different com- 

"The First, Second and Third regiments of 
infantry are hereby ordered to report at St. 
Paul on Friday morning, April 29, L898, not 
later than eleven o'clock, witli one day's cooked 
rations in their haversacks." 

The order was promptly obeyed and all the 
field staff and company officers, with their coin 
mands, reported before the time appointed, 
and on the afternoon of that day went into 
camp at the State fair grounds, which was 
named Camp Ramsey. Such promptness on 
the part of the State militia was remarkable, 
luil it will be seen that they had been prepared 

for the order of the Adjutant General before 
its final issue, who had anticipated the dec- 
laration of war. 

On April 18th he had issued the following 

••Thi' commanding office 
companies, and artillery b 
the National Guard, will 
steps to recruit their comm 
dred men each. All recru 
mum peace footing el' sev< 
carried upon the muster ro 
cruits, to be discharged in 

are not needed for field ser 

rs of the infantry 
atteries, composing 
immediately take 
ands up to one hun- 
ts above the maxi- 
Tity-six men will be 
11 as provisional re- 
case their services 

On the 25th of April the Adjutant General 
issued the following order: 

"In obedience to orders this day received 
from the Honorable Secretary of War, calling 
upon the State of Minnesota for three regi- 
ments of infantry as volunteers of the United 
States to serve two years or less, and as the 
three National Guard regiments have signified 
their desire of entering the service of the 
United States as volunteers, the First, Second 
and Third regiments of infantry of the Na- 
tional Guard of the State of Minnesota will im- 
mediately make preparations to report to these 
headquarters upon receipt of telegraphic or- 
ders which will be issued later." 

This commendable action on the part of our 
military authorities resulted in the Minnesota 
troops being the first to be mustered into the 
service of the United States in the war with 
Spain, thus repeating the proud distinction 
gained by the State in ISlil. when Minnesota 
was the first Stale to oiler troops for the de- 
fense of the Union in the Civil War. It is a 
curious, as well as interesting coincidence, th it 
the First Minnesota regiment for the Civil War 
was mustered in on April 29, 1861, and the first 
three regimen Is for the Spanish War were 
mobilized al St. Paul on April 29, 189S. 

The mustering in of the three regiments was 
completed on the 8th of May. 1S9S, and they 
were designated as the Twelfth, Thirteenth 
and Fourteenth Regiments of Infantry, Minne- 
sota Volunteers. This classification was made 
because the State had furnished eleven full 
regiments of infantry for (he Civil War, and it 
was decided to number them consecutively. 



The Twelfth and Fourteenth left Camp Ram 
sey on the 16th of May for Camp George H. 
Thomas, in Georgia, and the Thirteenth de- 
parted for San Francisco on I In- same day. The 
Thirteenth was afterwards ordered to Manila. 
The others did not leave the country and were 
subsequently mustered out. The Thirteenth 
did gallant service in the Philippines in many 
battles, and has just been mustered out in San 
Francisco, and on October 12, 1899, returned 
to our Stale. A warm welcome was given 
them in Minnesota, where they will always be 
regarded with the same pride and affection 
formerly bestowed upon the old First, of 
patriotic memory. 

President McKinley and several of his cabi- 
net arrived in St. Paul at the same time of the 
arrival of the Thirteenth, and assisted in wel- 
coming them to their homes. 

There was a second call foe troops, under 
which the Fifteenth Regiment was mustered 
in. but was not called upon for active duty 
of any kind. It is to be hoped that the war 
may be ended without the need of more Volun- 
teers from Minnesota, bill should another call 
lie made on our people, no doubt can be enter- 
tained of their prompt response. Having given 
I he part taken in the war againsi Spain and 
the Philippines by Minnesota, ils further pros 
ecution against the latter becomes purely a 
Federal mailer, unless we shall be called into 
it in the future. 

When Spain sued for peace, soon after the 
destruction of her second Heel off Santiago 
de Cuba, a commission to negotiate a treaty of 
peace with her was appointed by the Presi- 
dent, and Minnesota was honored by the selec- 
lioii of its Senior Senator, Hon. Cushman K. 
Davis, chairman of the Senate Committee on 
Foreign Relations, as one of ils members. The 
commission consisted of William R. Day, Sec- 
retary of State of the United States; Cushman 
K. Davis, of Minnesota: William P. Five, of 
Maine; George Gray, of Delaware, and White- 
law Reid, of New York. Tt met at Paris and 
concluded its labors the 101 h day of December, 
1898, when Iho treaty was signed by the com- 
missioners of both contracting parties. II is 
hardly necessary to add thai the influence ex- 

erted on the result by the distinguished and 
learned representative from Minnesota was 
conl rolling. 


Early in October, 1898, there was an Indian 
battle fought at Leech Lake, in this State, the 
magnitude of the result of which gives it a 
place in the history of Minnesota, although it 
was strictly a matter of United States cogni- 
zance and jurisdiction. In Cass county is lo- 
cated a Chippewa Indian reservation, and, like 
all other Indian reservations, there are within 
ils liniils turbulent people, both white and red. 
There is a large island out in Leech lake called 
Pear island, which is inhabited by the Indians. 
On October 1, 1807, one Indian shot another 
on this island. A prominent member of the 
tribe, named Pug-on-a-ke-shig, was present and 
witnessed the shooting. An indictment was 
found in the United States District Court 
against the Indian who did the shooting, but 
before any trial could be had the matter was 
sell led among the Indians in their own way, 
and they thought that was the last of it. A 
subpoena was issued for Pug-on-a-ke-shig, and 
a deputy marshal served it. He disregarded 
I he subpoena. An attachment was then issued 
lo arrest him and bring him into court, and a 
deputy United States marshal tried to serve it. 
lie was resisted by the Indian and his friends 
fin three different occasions, and once when 
the Indian was arrested he was rescued from 
the custody of the marshal. Warrants were 
I hen issued for the arrest of twenty-one of the 
rescuers. This was in the latter part of Au- 
gust, 1808. Troops were asked for to aid the 
marshal in making his arrests, and a lieuten- 
ant and twenty men were sent from Fori 
Snel ling for that purpose. This was simply a 
repetition of the many mistakes made by the 
military authorities in such matters. If troops 
were necessary for any purpose, twenty men 
were simply useless, and worse than none, and 
when the time came for I he application of mili- 
tary force would, of course, have been annihi- 
lated. The United States marshal with a squad 


10 3 

of deputies accompanied the hoops. It soon 
became apparent that there would be trouble 
before the Indians could be brought to terms, 
and General Bacon, the officer in command of 
the Department of Dakota, with headquarters 
at St. Paul, ordered Major Wilkinson, of Com- 
pany E,of the Third Regiment of United Stales 
Infantry, stationed at Fort Snelling, with his 
company of eighty men, to the scene of the 
trouble. General Bacon accompanied these 
troops as far as Walker, on the west bank of 
Leech lake, more in the capacity of an observer 
of events and to gain proper knowledge of the 
situation than as part of I lie forces. On the 
5th of October, 189S, the whole force left Walk- 
er in boats for a place on the east bank of the 
lalcc, called Sugar Point, where there was a 
clearing of several acres, and a log house oc- 
cupied by Pug-on-a-ke-shig. They were accom- 
panied by R. T. O'Connor, the United States 
marshal of Minnesota, and several of his depu- 
ties, among whom was Col. Timothy J. Shee- 
han, who knew the Indians who were subject 
to arrest. This officer was the same man who, 
as Lieutenant Sheehan, had so successfully 
commanded the forces at Fort Ridgely during 
the Indian War of 18G2, since when he had 
fought his way through the Civil War with 
distinction. When the command landed, only 
a few squaws and Indians were visible. The 
deputy marshals landed and, with the inter 
prefers, went at once to the house, and while 
there discovered an Indian whom Colonel 
Sheehan recognized as one for whom a warrant 
was out, and immediately attempted to aires! 
and handcuff him. The Indian resisted vigor- 
ously, and it was only with the aid of three or 
four soldiers that they succeeded in arresting 
him. He was put on board of the boat. The 
whole force then skirmished through the tim- 
ber in search of Indians, but found none, and 
about noon returned to the clearing and were 
ordered to stack arms preparatory to getting 
dinner. They had scouted the surrounding 
country and had seen no Indians or signs of 
Indians, and did not believe there were any in 
the vicinity; when in fact the Indians had care- 
fully watched their every movement, and were 
dose to their trail, waiting for the most advan- 

tageous moment to strike. It was (he same 
tactics which the Indians have so often adopted 
with much success in their warfare with (lie 
whites. While stacking arms a new recruit 
allowed his gun to fall to the ground, and it 
was discharged accidentally. The Indians, 
who were silently awaiting their opportunity, 
supposing it was the signal of attack, opened 
tire on the troops, and a vicious battle began. 
The soldiers seized their arms and returned the 
fire as best they could, directing it at the points 
whence came the shots from the invisible en- 
emy concealed in the dense thicket. The bat- 
tle raged for several hours. General Bacon, 
with a gun in his hands, was everywhere, en 
couraging the men. Major Wilkinson, as cool 
as if lie had been in a drawing room, cheered 
his men on, but was thrice wounded, the last 
hit proving fatal. Colonel Sheehan instinct- 
ively entered the fight, and took charge of the 
right wing of the line, charging the enemy with 
a few followers and keeping up a rapid fire. 
The Colonel was hit three times, two bullets 
passing through his clothes, grazing the skin, 
without serious injury, and one cutting a pain- 
ful, hut not dangerous wound across his stom- 
ach. The result of the fight was six killed and 
nine wounded on the part of the troops. One 
of the- Indian police was also killed and seven 
citizens wounded, some seriously. No estimate 
has ever been satisfactorily obtained of the 
loss of the enemy. The most reliable account 
of the number of his forces engaged is, from 
nineteen to thirty, and if I should venture an 
estimate of his losses, based upon my expe- 
rience of his ability to select a vantage ground, 
and take care of himself, I would put it at 
practically nothing. 

The killed and wounded were brought to 
Port Snelling, the killed buried with military 
honors and the wounded properly cared for. 
This event adds one more to the long list of 
fatal errors committed by our military forces 
in dealing with the Indians of the Northwest. 
They should never be attacked without a force 
sufficient to demonstrate I he superiority of the 
whites in all cases and under all circumstances. 
Many a valuable life has been thus unneces 
sarily lost. 



Major Wilkinson, who lost his life in this 
encounter, was a man who had earned an en- 
viable record in the army, and was much be- 
loved by his many friends and acquaintances 
in Minnesota. 

The principal Indian engaged in this fight 
lias been called in every newspaper and other 
report of it "Bug-a-ma-ge-shig," but I have suc- 
ceeded in obtaining his real name from tin- 
highest authority. The name — Pug-on-a-ke- 
shig — is the Chippewa for Hole-in-the-day. 

Shortly after the return of the troops to 
Fort Snelling the settlers about Cass and 
Leech lakes became uneasy, and deluged the 
Governor with telegrams for protection. The 
National Guard or State Troops had nearly all 
been mustered into the United States service 
for duty in the war with Spain, but the Four- 
teenth Regiment was in St. Faul awaiting mus- 
ter out, and the Governor telegraphed to the 
War Department at Washington to send 
enough of them to the front to quiet the fears 
of the settlers. This was declined, and the 
Governor at once ordered out two batteries of 
artillery, all the State troops that were avail- 
able, and sent them to the scene of the troubles, 
and then sent his celebrated telegram to the 
War Department, which may be called the 
Minnesota Declaration of Independence. It 
ran as follows: 

"October S, 1898. 

11. 0. Corbin, 

Adjutant General, 

Washington, D. C. 

Xo one claims that reinforcements are 
needed at Walker. I have not been asked for 
assistance from that quarter. Although I do 
not think General Bacon has won the victory 
he claims, other people do not say so. (Sic.) 
The Indians claim to have won, and that is my 
opinion. The people all along the Fosston 
branch of railroad are very much alarmed and 
asking for protection, which I have asked of 
the War Department. The soldiers are here 
and ready and willing to go. but as you have 
revoked your order of yesterday, you can do 
what you like with your soldiers. The State 
of Minnesota will try to get along without any 
assistance from the War Department in the 
future. I». M. ('lough, Governor." 

Rumor says that the telegram which was 
forwarded is very much modified from that 
originally dictated by the Governor. 

The United States Government concluded to 
withdraw its refusal and send troops to the 
front, and several companies of the Fourteenth 
were dispatched to the line of the Fosston 
Branch railroad and distributed along the line 
of that road. 

In the meantime the Commissioner of Indian 
Affairs had arrived at Walker, and was nego- 
tiating with the Indians, and when it became 
known that matters were arranged to the satis- 
faction of the government and the Indians, and 
no outbreak was expected, the soldiers were all 
withdrawn, and the incident, so far as military 
operations were concerned, was closed. There 
were some surrenders of the Indians to the 
officers of the court, but nothing further of eon- 
sequence occurred. 


One of the most interesting features of a 
new country is the character and the nativity 
of its population. The old frontiersman who 
has watched the growth of new States, and 
fully comprehended the effect produced upon 
their civilization and character, by the nativity 
of their immigrants, is the only person compe- 
tent to judge of the influences exerted in this 
line. It is a well known fact that the immigra- 
tion from Europe into America is generally 
governed by climatic influences. These people 
usually follow the line of latitude to which 
they have been accustomed. The Norseman 
from Russia, Sweden. Germany and Norway 
comes to the extreme Northwestern States, 
while the emigrant from southern Europe 
seeks the more southern latitudes. Of course, 
these are very general comments, and only re- 
late to immigration in its usual directions, as 
the people from all parts of Europe are found 
in all parts of America. It is generally be- 
lieved that the immigrants from Northern Eu- 
rope are more desirable than those from fur- 
ther south, and a presentation of the status of 
our population in point of nativity will afford 



a basis from which to judge of their general 
attributes for good or bad. There is no nation 
on earth that has not sent us some representa- 
tive. The following table, while it will prove 
that we have a most heterogeneous, polyglot 
population, will also prove that we possess 
vast powers of assimilation, as we are about 
as harmonious a people as ran be found in all 
(lie Union. Our Governor is a Swede, one of 
our United States Senators is a Norwegian, 
and our other State officers are pretty gener- 
ally distributed among the various nationali- 
ties. Of course, in the minor political subdi- 
visions, such as counties, cities and towns, the 
office holding is generally governed by the 
same considerations. 

I give the various countries from which our 
population is drawn, with the numbers from 
each country, and the number of native born 
and foreign born, which, aggregated, consti- 
tute our entire population. These figures are 
taken from the State census of 1895: 

England 12,041 

Scotland 5,344 

Germany 133,768 

Denmark 16,143 

Norwav 107,310 

Canada 40,231 

Poland 8,464 

Iceland 454 

Ireland 26,106 

Wales 1,246 

France 1,402 

Sweden n0.",4 

Russia 6.286 

Eohomia 10,327 

Finland 7,652 

All other countries 11,205 

Total native born 1.057,084 

Total foreign born 517,535 

Total population 1,674,619 

The total native born of our population is 
very largely composed of the descendants of 
foreign immigrants. These figures afford a 
large field for thought and future considera- 
tion when immigration problems are under 
legislative investigation. 

The census from which these figures are tak- 

en being five years old, I think it is safe to add 
a sufficient number of increase to bring our 
population up to two millions. The census of 
1000 will demonstrate whether or not my esti- 
mate is correct. 


Up to the year 1803 the State of Minnesota 
had no distinctive State flag. On April 4, 1803, 
an act was passed by the Legislature entitled, 
"An act providing for the adoption of a State 
flag." This act appointed, by name, a com- 
mission of six ladies to adopt a design for a 
State flag. Section two of the act provided that 
the design adopted should embody, as near as 
may be, the following facts: 

"There shall be a white ground with reverse 
side of blue. The center of the white ground 
shall be occupied by a design substantially em- 
bodying the form of the seal employed as the 
State seal of Minnesota at the time of its ad- 
mission into the Union. * * * * The said de- 
sign of the State seal shall be surrounded by 
appropriate representations of the moccasin 
flower indigenous to Minnesota, surrounding 
said central design, and appropriately ar- 
ranged on the said white ground shall be nine 
teen stars, emblematic of the fact that Minne- 
sota was the nineteenth State to be admitted 
into the Union, after its formation by the thir- 
teen original States. There shall also appear 
at the bottom of the flag in the white ground, 
so as to be plainly visible, the word Minne- 

The commission prepared a very beautiful 
design for the flag, following closely the in- 
structions given by the Legislature, which was 
adopted, and is now the authorized flag of the 
State. The flag-staff is surmounted by a golden 
gopher, in harmony with the popular name 
given to our State. 

May it ever represent the principles of lib 
erty and justice, and never be lowered to an 

The original flag, artistically embroidered in 
silk, can be seen at the office of the Governor 
at the State Capitol. 






On the 20th of April, 1891, the Legislature 
of the State passed an act entitled "An act to 
provide for the collection, arrangement and 
display of the products of the State of Minne- 
sota at the World's Columbian Exposition of 
one Thousand Eight Hundred and Ninety- 
three, and to make an appropriation therefor." 

This act created a commission of six citizens 
of the State, to be appointed by the Governor, 
and called "The Board of World's Fair Man- 
agers of Minnesota." 

The women of the State determined that 
(here should be an opportunity for them to par- 
ticipate in the exposition on the part of Minne- 
sota, and a convention of delegates from each 
county of the State was called and held at the 
People's church, in St. Paul, on February 14. 
1892. This convention elected one woman del 
egate and one alternate from each of the seven 
Congressional districts of the State. There 
were also two national lady managers from 
Minnesota, nominated by the two national rep- 
resentatives from Minnesota and appointed by 
the President of the United States, who were 
added to the seven delegates so chosen, and 
the whole was called "The Woman's Auxiliary 
to the State Commission." The women so 
chosen took charge of all the matters properly 
pertaining to the Women's Department of the 

At one of the meetings of the ladies, held in 
St. Paul, the question of the selection of an 
official flower for the Slate was presented, and 
the sent intent generally prevailed that it 
should at once he decided by the assemblage; 
but Mrs. L. P. Hunt, the delegate from Man 
kato, in the Second Congressional District, 
wisely suggested that the selection should lie 
made by all the ladies of the State, and that 
they should be given an opportunity to vole 
upon the proposition. This suggestion was ap- 
proved, and the following plan was adopted: 
Mrs. Hunt was authorized to appoint a com- 
mittee, of which she was to be chairman, to 
select a list of flowers to be voted on. Accord- 

ingly, she appointed a sub-committee who were 
to consult the State Botanist, Mr. Conway 
MacMillan, who was to name a number of Min- 
nesota flowers, from which the ladies were to 
choose. He presented the following: 

Lady Slipper (Moccasin Flower, Cypripe- 
dium Spectabile.) 

Silky Aster. 

Indian Pink. 

Cone Flower (Brown-eyed Susan). 

Wild Rose. 

The plan was to send out printed tickets to 
all the women's organizations in the State with 
these names on them to be voted upon. This 
was done, with the result that the moccasin 
flower received an overwhelming majority, 
and has ever since been accepted as the official 
flower of the State. That the contest was a 
very spirited one can be judged from the fact 
that Mrs. Hunt sent out in her district at least 
ten thousand tickets with indications of her 
choice of the moccasin flower. She also main 
tained lengthy newspaper controversies with 
parties in Manitoba, who claimed the prior 
right of that province to the moccasin flower; 
all of whom she vanquished. 

The choice was a very wise and appropriate 
one. The flower itself is very beautiful, and 
peculiarly adapted to the purposes of artistic 
decoration. It has already been utilized in 
three instances of an official character with 
success and approval. The Minnesota State 
Building at the Columbian Exposition was 
beautifully decorated with it. It is prominent- 
ly incorporated into the State flag, and adorns 
I he medal conferred by the State upon the de- 
fenders of Foil Ridgely. 

The botanical name of the flower is Cypripe- 
dium, taken from Creek words, meaning I he 
shoe of Venus. It is popularly called lady's 
slipper, moccasin flower and Indian shoe. 

About twenty-five species of cypripedium 
are known belonging to the north temperate 
zone, and reaching south into Mexico and 
northern India. Six species occur in the 
Northern United Stales and Canada, east of 
the Rocky mountains, all of these being found 
in Minnesota, and about a dozen species occur 
on this continent. They are perennial herbs 



with irregular flowers, which grow singly or in 
small clusters, the colors of some of which are 
strikingly beautiful. The species adopted by 
the women of the State of Minnesota is the 
Oypripedium Spectabile, or the showy lady 

The ladies naturally desired that their 
choice should be ratified by the State Legisla- 
ture, and one of their number prepared a report 
of their doings in a petition to that body ask- 
ing its approval. Whoever drew the petition 
named the flower chosen by the ladies as "Oy- 
pripedium Calceolous," a species which does 
nut grow in Minnesota, but is purely of Euro- 
pean production. The petition was presented 
to the Senate on the 4th of February, 1803. 
The journal of the Senate shows the following 
record, which is found on page 167: 

"Mr. Dean asked the unanimous consent to 
present a petition from the Women's Auxiliary 
to the World's Fair relative to the adoption of 
a State flower and emblem, which was read. 

Mr. Dean offered the following concurrent 
resolution, and moved its adoption: 

Be it resolved by the Senate, the House of 
Representatives concurring, that the wild lady 
slipper or moccasin flower, Oypripedium Oal- 
ceolons, be. and the same is hereby designated 
and adopted as the State flower or emblem of 
the State of Minnesota, which was adopted." 

In the Legislative Manual of 1803 appears on 
page 60fi the following: "The State Flower. 
On April 4. 1893 (should be February), a peti- 
tion from the Women's Auxiliary to the 
World's Fair was presented to the Senate rela- 
tive to the adoption of a State flower. By 
resolution of the Senate, concurred in by the 
House (?), the Wild Lady Slipper or Moccasin 
Flower (Oypripedium) was designated as the 
State flower or floral emblem of the State of 

The word "Calceolous" means a little shoe 
or slipper, but, as I said before, the species so 
designated in botany is not indigenous to Min- 
nesota, and is purely a foreigner. As we have 
in the course of our growth assimilated so 
many foreigners successfully we will have no 
(rouble in swallowing this small shoe, espe- 
cially as the House did not concur in its reso- 

lution, and while the mistake will in no way 
militate against the progress or prosperity of 
Minnesota, it should be a warning to all com- 
mittees and Western Legislators to go slow 
when dealing with the dead languages. 

We now have the whole body of cypriped- 
iums to choose from, and may reject the 

If the House of Representatives ever con- 
curred in the Senate resolution it left no trace 
of its action, either in its journal or published 
laws, that I have been able to find. 

Among the many valuable achievements of 
I lie Women's Auxiliary one deserves special 
mention. Mrs. H. F. Brown, one of the dele- 
gates at large, suggested a statue for the 
Woman's Building, to be the production of 
Minnesota's artistic conception and execution. 
The architect of the State Building had disal- 
lowed this feature, and there was no public 
fund to meet the expense, which would be con- 
siderable. The ladies, however, decided to 
procure the statue, and rely on private sub- 
scription to defray the cost. Mrs. L. P. Hunt 
thought that sufficient funds might be raised 
from the school children of the State, through 
a penny subscription. Enough was raised to 
secure a plaster cast of great beanty, repre- 
senting Hiawatha carrying Minnehaha across 
a stream in his arms, illustrating the lines in 
Longfellow's poem: 

"Over wide and rushing rivers 
In his arms he bore the maiden." 

This statue adorned the porch of the Minne- 
sota Building during the fair. It was designed 
and made by a very talented young Norwegian 
sculptor then residing in Minneapolis — the late 
Jakob Fjelde. It is proposed to cast the statue 
in bronze and place it in Minnehaha Park, 
Minneapolis, at some future day. 


Most of the States in the Union have a pe- 
culiar name. New York is called the Empire 
State, Pennsylvania the Keystone State, etc. 



As you come west 1 1 1 < ■> seem to have taken the 
names of animals. Michigan is called the Wol- 
verine Slate, Wisconsin the Badger State, and 
it is not at all singular that Minnesota should 
have been christened the Gopher State. These 
names never originate by any recognized au- 
thority. They arise from some event that sug- 
gests them, or from some important utterance 
that makes an impression on the public mind. 
In the very early days of the Territory, say as 
early as 1854 or L855, the question was dis 
cussed among the settlers as to what name 
should be adopted by Minnesota, and for a 
time it was called by some the Beaver Stave. 
That name seemed to have the greatest num- 
ber of advocates, but it was always met with 
the objection that the beaver, although quite 
numerous in some of our streams, was not suf- 
ficiently so to entitle him to characterize the 
Territory by giving it his name. While this 
debate was in progress the advocates of the 
beaver spoke of the Territory as the beaver 
Territory, but it never reached a point of uni- 
versal adoption. It was well known that the 
gopher abounded, and his name was introduced 
as a competitor with the beaver; but being a 
i-alher insignificant animal and his nature be- 
ing destructive, and in no way useful, hi' was 
objected to by many, as loo useless and undig- 
nified to become an emblem of the coming 
great State — for we all had. at that early day, 
full confidence that Minnesota was destined to 
be a great and prominent State. Nothing was 
ever settled on this subject until after the year 
1857. As I have before stated, in that year 
an attempt was made to amend the Consti- 
tution by allowing the Stale to issue bonds iti 
the sum of $5,000,000 loaid in the construction 
of the railroad which the United Stales had 
subsidized with land grants, and the campaign 
which involved this amendment was most bit 
terly fought. The opponents of the measure 
published a cartoon to bring the subject into 
ridicule, which was very generally circulated 
throughout the State, but failed to check the 
enthusiasm in favor of the proposition. This 
cartoon represented ten men in a line with 
heads bowed down with the weight of a bag 
of gold hung about their necks marked "$10.- 

(100." They were Supposed to represent the 

members of the Legislature who had been 
bribed to pass the act, and were called "pri- 
mary directors." On their backs was a rail 
road track, upon which was a train of cars 
drawn by nine gophers, the three gophers in 
I he lead proclaiming, ''We have no cash, but 
will give you our drafts." Attached to the 
real- of the train was a wheelbarrow with a 
barrel on ii marked "gin," followed by t he devil 
in great glee, with his thumb at his nose. In 
the train were the advocates of the lull, flying 
a flag bearing these words: "Gopher train; 
excursion train; members of extra session of 
Legislature free. We develop the resources of 
the country," and over this was a smaller flag 
with the words. "The $5,000,000 Loan Bill." 

In another part of the picture is a rostrum, 
from which a gopher is addressing the people 
with the legend, "I am right; Gorman is 
wrong." In the right hand corner of the car- 
toon is a round ball with a gopher in it. com 
ing rapidly down, with the legend, "A Hall 
come from Winona." This was a pun on the 
name of Mr. St. A. D. Balcombe from Winona. 
who was a strong advocate of the measure. 
And under the whole group was a dark pit, 
with the words, "A mine of corruption." 

The bill was passed and the State was sad- 
dled with a debt of $5,000,000, under which it 
staggered for over twenty years, and we never 
even go1 a gopher train out of it. 

This cartoon, coming just at the time when 
the name of the State was under consideration, 
fastened upon it the nickname of "Gopher," 
which it has ever since retained. The name 
is not at all inappropriate, as the animal litis 
always abounded in the State. In a work on 
the mammals of .Minnesota, by C. L. Herrick, 
1892, he n'ives the scientific name of our most 
common species of gopher, "Spermophilus 
Tridecemlineatus," or thirteen striped gopher, 
and says: "The species ranges from the Sas- 
kalchawan to Texas, and from Ohio to Utah. 
Minnesota is the peculiar home id' the typical 
form, and thus deserves the name of the 
Gopher State." 

Although the name originated in ridicule 
and contempt, it has not in any way handi- 



capped the Commonwealth, partly because very 
few people know its origin, but for the greater 
reason that it would take much more than a 
name to check its predestined progress. 


Itasca State Park. 

In a previous part of this work, under the 
head of "Lumber," I have referred to the fact 
that a great National park and forest reserve 
is in contemplation by the United States at the 
headwaters of the Mississippi, and also made 
reference to the Slab' park already established 
at that point. I will now relate whai lias been 
done by the State in this regard. In 1875 an 
official survey of the land in and about Lake 
Itasca was made by the Surveyor General of 
the United States for Minnesota which brought 
these lands under the operation of the United 
States laws, and part of them were entered. 
A portion of them went to the Northern Pa- 
cific railroad company under it s land grant. 
The swamp and school lands went to the Stale. 
and much to private individuals under the 
various methods of making title to government 

On the 20th of April, 1891, the Legislature 
passed an act entitled "An act to establish 
and create a public park, to be known and des- 
ignated as the Itasca State Park, and author- 
izing the condemnation of lands for park 
purposes." This act set apart for park pur- 
poses 19,702 acres of land, and dedicates them 
to the perpetual use of the people. It places 
the same under the care and supervision of the 
State Auditor, as land commissioner. It pro- 
hibits the destruction of trees, or hunting with- 
in its limits. It provides for a commission to 
obtain title to such of the lands as belong to 
private individuals, either by purchase or con- 

On the 3d of August, 1892, the United States 
granted to the State all the unappropriated 
lands within the limits of the park upon this 

"Provided the land hereby granted shall re- 

vert to the United States, together with all the 
improvements thereon, if at any time it shall 
cease to be exclusively used for a public State 
park, or if the State shall not pass a law or 
laws to protect the timber thereon." 
• The State, at the session of the Legislature 
in 1S93, accepted the grant, but as yet has 
made no provision for the extinguishment of 
the title of private "owners, of which there arc 
8,823 acres. This divided ownership of the 
lands within the limits of the park endangers 
the whole region by lumbering operations, and 
consequent forest fires after the timber is cut. 
Fires are not to be feared in natural forests 
until they are cut over. The acquisition of 
title to all these lands by the State should not 
be delayed any longer than is necessary to per- 
fect it, no matter at what cost. The State has 
already erected a house on the bank of Itasca 
lake, and has a resident commissioner in 
charge of the park. 

The effect of the law prohibiting hunting in 
the park has already greatly increased the 
numbers of animals and fowls that find in it 
a safe refuge. 

The extent of the park is seven miles long 
by five miles wide, and is covered with a dense 
forest of pine, oak, maple, basswood, aspen, 
balsam fir, cedar and spruce, which is nearly 
in a state of nature. It is much to be hoped 
that in the near future this park will be en- 
larged to many times its present size by addi- 
tional grants. 

Interstate Park: The Dalles of the St. Croix. 

One of the most, if not the most, beautiful 
and picturesque points in the Northwest is the 
Dalles of the St. Croix river. Here the State 
has acquired the title to about one hundred 
and fifty acres of land on the Minnesota side 
of the river, and dedicated it for park pur- 
poses. This was done under the authority of 
Chapter 109 of the Laws of 1895. The point on 
the Minnesota side is called Taylor's Falls, 
and on the Wisconsin side St. Croix Falls. Be- 
tween these two towns the St. Croix river 
rushes rapidly, forming a cataract of great 
beauty. The bluffs are precipitate and rocky, 

I K) 


forming a narrow gorge through which the 
river plunges. The name of the river is French 
— "Sainte Croix," meaning the holy cross — and 
the name of this particular point, the "Dalles," 
was given on account of the curious formation 
of the rocky banks, which assume wonderful 
shapes. One, looking down stream, presents 
a perfect likeness of a man, and is called "The 
Old Man of the Dalles." Another curious rock 
formation is called the "Devil's Chair." There 
are many others equally interesting. It is gen- 
erally supposed that the word "Dalles" has 
the same meaning of the English word "Dell" 
or "Dale," signifying a narrow secluded vale 
or valley, but such is not the case as applied 
to this peculiar locality. The word "Dalles" 
is French, and means a slab, a flag or a flag- 
stone, and is appropriate to the peculiar char- 
acter of the general rock formation of the river 
banks at this point and vicinity. 

The State of Minnesota lias already done a 
good deal of work towards making it attract- 
ive, and it has become quite a resort for pleas 
ure seekers in the summer time. Wisconsin 
has acquired title to a larger tract on 
the east side of the river than is embraced in 
I lie Minnesota park on the west side, but as 
yet has not done much in the way of improve- 
ment. The two tracts are united by a graceful 
bridge which spans the river between them. 
The Minnesota park is under the charge of a 
Stale custodian, who cares for and protects it 
from despoilment. 


In writing the history of a State, no matter 
how short or limited such history may be, its 
politics seem to be an essential element of 
presentation, and on this assumption alone 1 
will say a very few words concerning that sub 
ject. I do not believe that the question of 
which political party has been dominant in 
the State has exerted any considerable influ- 
ence on its material prosperity. The great 
First Cause of its creation was so generous in 
his award of substantial blessings that it 
placed the State beyond the ability of man, or 
his politics, to seriously injure or impede its 

advance towards material success in any of the 
channels that promote greatness — soil, cli- 
mate, minerals, facilities for commerce and 
transportation, consisting of great rivers, lakes 
and harbors; all these combine to defy the 
destructive tendencies so often exerted by the 
ignorance and passions of man. It has resisted 
every folly of its people, and they have been 
ma n \ ; every onslaught of its savage inhabi- 
tants — and they have been more formidable 
than those experienced by any other State — 
and even the cataclysms with which it has oc- 
casionally been visited arising from natural 
causes. The fact is, Minnesota is so rock- 
rooted in all the elements of material great- 
ness that it must advance, regardless of all 
known obstructions. 

When the Territory was organized, in 1840, 
Gen. Zachary Taylor, a Whig, was the Presi- 
dent of the United States, and he appointed 
Alexander Ramsey, also a Whig, as Governor, 
to set its political machinery in motion. He re- 
mained in office until the National administra- 
tion changed in 1853. and Franklin Pierce, a 
Democrat, was chosen President. lie appointed 
lii'ii. Willis A. Gorman, a Democrat, as Gov- 
ernor, to succeed Governor Ramsey. On the 
till of March, 1857, .lames Buchanan, a 
Democrat, succeeded Presidenl Pierce, and 
appointed Samuel Medarv, a Democrat, as Gov- 
ernor of Minnesota. He held this position until 
I lie Slate was admitted into the Union, in May, 
L858, when Henry H. Sibley, a Democrat, was 
elected Governor for the term of two years, 
anil served it out. 

< >n the admission of the State into the 
Union, two Democratic United States Senators 
were elected, Henry M. Rice and Gen. James 
Shields. General Shields served from May 12, 
1858, to March 3, 1859, and Mr. Rice from May 
12, 1858, to March 3, 1863, he having drawn 
the long term. The State also elected three 
members of the United Stales House of Rep 
resentatives all Democrats, James M. Cava- 
naugh, W. W. Phelps and George L. Becker; 
but it was determined thai we were only en- 
titled to two, and Mr. Phelps and Mr. Cava 
naugh were admitted to seats. With this Stale 
and Federal representation we entered upon 



our political career. At the nexl election for 
Governor, in the fall of IS")!). Alexander Rani 
sey, Republican, was chosen, and there lias 
never been a Governor of the State of any but 
Republican polities since, until John Lind was 
elected in the fall of 1898. Mr. Lind was 
chosen as a Democrat with the aid of other 
political organizations, which united with the 
Democracy. Mr. Lind now tills the office of 
Governor. It will be seen that for thirty-nine 
years the State was wholly in the hands 
of the Republicans. During the interval be- 
tween the administration of Governor Sibley 
and Governor Lind the State had twelve Gov- 
ernors, all Republican. 

In its Federal representation, however, the 
Democrats have fared a trifle better. The 
growth of population has increased our mem- 
bership in the Federal House of Representa- 
tives to seven, and occasionally a Democrat, 
or member of some other party, has succeeded 
in breaking into Congress. 

From the First District W. H. Harris, Dem- 
ocrat, was elected in 1890. 

From the Third District Eugene M. Wilson, 
Democrat, was elected in 1868; Henry Poeler, 
Democrat, in 1878; Johu L. .McDonald, Demo 
crat, in 1886, and 0. M. Hall, Democrat, in 18110, 
and again in 1892. 

From the Fourth District Edmund Rice, 
Democrat, was elected in 1886, and James N. 
Castle, Dei -rat, in 1890. 

From the Sixth District M. R. Baldwin, Dem- 
ocrat, was elected in 1892. 

From the Fifth District Kit lie Halverson, 
Alliance, was elected in 1890. 

In the Seventh District Haldoe E. Boen, 
People's Party, was elected in 1892. 

Since Henry M. Rice and James Shields, all 
the United States Senators have been Repub- 
lican, as follows: Morton S. Wilkinson, Al- 
exander Ramsey, Daniel S. Norton, William 
Windom, O. 1'. Stearns, S. J. R. McMillin, A. J. 
Edgerton, D. M. Sabin, <'. K. Davis, W. D. 
Washburn, and Knute Nelson. 

Some of these have served two terms, and 
some very short terms to fill vacancies. 

Of course, the State had its complement of 
other officers, but as their duties are more of 
a clerical and business character than political, 
it is unnecessary to particularize them. 

It is a subjeel of congratulation to all citi- 
zens of Minnesota that out of all the Stale 
officers that have come and gone in the forty 
years of its life there has been hut one im- 
peachment, which was of a State treasurer, 
Mr. William Seeger, who was elected in 1871. 
Although he was convicted, I have always be- 
lieved, and do now, that he was personally 
innocent, and suffered for the sins of others. 

The State of Minnesota has always, since 
the adjustment of ils old Railroad Bond Debt. 
held a conservative position in the Union— 
financially, socially, patriotically and commer- 
cially. Its credit is the best, its prospects the 
brightest, and it makes very little difference 
which political party dominates its future, so 
long as it is free from the taint of anarchy and 
is guided by the principles of honor and jus- 
tice. The only thing to be feared is, that some 
political party may gain control of the govern 
ment of the Nation and either degrade its cur- 
rency, involve it in disastrous complications 
and wars with other nations, or commit some 
similar folly which may reflectively or sec- 
ondarily act injuriously on Minnesota as a 
member of the National family of Stales. 
Otherwise Minnesota can defy the vagaries of 
politics and politicians. She has very little to 
fear from this remote apprehension, because 
the American people, as they ever have been. 
will no doubt continue to be, on second 
thought, true to the teachings and traditions 
of the founders of the Republic. 

Minnesota, for so young a State, has been 
quite liberally remembered in the way of diplo- 
matic appointments. Gen. C. C. Andrews rep 
resented the United States as Minister to Swe 
den and Norway; Hon. Samuel R. Thayer and 
Hon. Stanford Newell at The Hague, the latter 
of whom now tills the position. Mr. Newell 
was also a member of the World's Peace Com- 
mission recently held at The Hague. Lewis 
Baker represented the United States as Min- 
ister to Nicaragua, Costa Rica and San Sal 

The State has also been honored by the ap- 
pointment of the following named gentlemen 
from among its citizens as Consuls General to 
various countries: 

I 12 


Gen. 0. 0. Andrews to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 
Hon. Hans Mattson to Calcutta, India; Dr. 
J. A. Leonard to Calcutta, and also to Shang- 
hai, China; Hon. John Goodenow to Shang- 
hai, China. 

We have had a full complement of consuls 
to all parts of the world, the particulars of 
which are unnecessary in this connection. 

The State has also had three cabinet officers. 
On December 10th, 1879, Alexander Ramsey 
was appointed Secretary of War by President 
Hayes, and again, on December 20, 1S80, he 
was made Secretary of the Navy; the latter 
office he held only about ten days, until it was 
filled by a permanent appointee. 

William Windom was appointed Secretary 
of the Treasury by President Garfield, and 
again to the same position by President Har- 
rison. He died in office. 

Gen. William G. Le Due was appointed 
Commissioner of Agriculture by President 
Hayes, which was a quasi cabinet position, 
and was afterwards made a full and regular 
one. The General was afterwards made a mem- 
ber of the National Agricultural Society of 
France, of which Washington, Jefferson and 
Marshall were members. 

Senator Cushman K. Davis, who was chair- 
man of the Committee on Foreign Relations of 
the Senate, was appointed by President Me- 
Kinley one of the commissioners on the part 
of the United States to negotiate the treaty of 
peace with Spain after the recent Spanish war. 

Gov. William R. Merriam was appointed by 
President McKinley as Director of the Census 
of 1900, and is now busily engaged in the per- 
formance of the arduous duties of that office. 
They are not diplomatic, but exceedingly im- 

President Cleveland appointed John W. 
Riddle as Secretary of Legation to the embassy 
at Constantinople, where he has remained to 
the present time. 

subjects treated of, but also in the manner of 
such treatment. Details have usually been 
avoided, and comprehensive generalities in- 
dulged in. Those who read it may find many 
things wanting, and in order that they may 
have an opportunity to supply my deficiencies 
w ithout too much research and labor, I have 
prepared a list of all the works which have 
ever been written on Minnesota, or any partic 
ular subject pertaining thereto, and append 
them hereto for convenience of reference. Am 
and all of them can be found in the library 
of the Minnesota Historical Society in the 
State Capitol. 

So much of what I have said consists of per- 
sonal experiences, and observations, that it 
more resembles a narrative than a history, but 
I think I can safely vouch for the accuracy and 
truthfulness of all I have thus related. 


Necessity has compelled me, in the prepara- 
tion of this history, to be brief, not only in the 




The following will be found in "COLLEC- 
SOCIETY, Volume I, St. Paul, 1872": 

The French Voyageurs to Minnesota During 
the Seventeenth Century, by Rev. E. 1). 

Description of Minnesota (1850), by Hon. Hen 
ry H. Sibley. 

Our Field of Historical Research, by Hon. Al- 
exander Ramsey. 

Early Courts of Minnesota, by Hon. Aaron 

Early Schools of Minnesota, by D. A. J. Baker. 

Religious Movements in Minnesota, by Rev. C. 

The Dakota Language, by Rev. S. R. Riggs. 

History and Physical Geography of Minne- 
sota, by H. R. Schoolcraft. 

Letters of Mesnard, by Rev. E. D. Neill. 

The Saint Louis River, by T. M. Fullerton. 



Ancient Mounds and Memorials, by Messrs. 
Pond, Aiton and Riggs. 

Schoolcraft's Exploring Tour of 1832, by Rev. 
\Y. T. Boutwell. 

Battle of Lake Pokegama, by Rev. E. D. Neill. 

Memoir of Jean Nicollet, by Hon. Henry H. 

Sketch of Joseph Renville, by Rev. E. D. Neill. 

Department of Hudson's Bay, by Rev. G. A. 

Obituary of James M. Goodhue, by Rev. E. D. 

Dakota Land and Dakota Life, by Rev. K. D. 

Who Were the First Men? by Rev. T. S. Wil- 

Louis Hennepin the Franciscan, and DuLuth 
the Explorer. 

LeSueur, the Explorer of the Minnesota River. 

D'Iberville, An Abstract of His Memorial. 

The Fox and Ojibway War. 

Captain Jonathan Carver and his Explorations. 

Pike's Explorations in Minnesota. 

Who Discovered Itasca Lake? by William Mor- 

Early Days at Fort Snelling. 

Punning the Gauntlet, by William I. Snelling. 

Reminiscences, Historical and Personal. 

Volume II. 

Voyage in a Six Oared Skiff to the Falls of St. 
Anthony in 1817, by Maj. Stephen H. Long. 

Early French Forts and Footprints of the Val- 
ley of the Upper Mississippi, by Rev. E. D. 

Occurrences In and Around Fort Snelling from 
1819 to 1840, by Rev. E. D. Neill. 

Religion of the Dakotas (Chapter VI. of James 
W. Lynd's Manuscripts). 

Mineral Regions of Lake Superior, from Their 
First Discovery in 18G5, by Hon. Henry M. 

Constantine Beltrami, by Alfred J. Hill. 

Historical Notes on the IT. S. Land Office, by 
Hon. Henry M. Rice. 

The Geography of Perrot, so far as it relates 
to Minnesota, by Alfred J. Hill. 

Dakota Superstitions, by Rev. Gideon II. Pond. 

The Carver Centenary; an account of the cele- 
bration, May 1, 18G7, of the one hundredth 
anniversary of the council and treaty of 
Capt. Jonathan Carver with the Nadowes- 
sioux, at Carver's cave, in St. Paul, with an 
address by the Rev. John Mattocks. 

Relation of M. Penticant, translated by Alfred 
J. Hill, with an introductory note by the 
Rev. E. D. Neill. 

Bibliography of Minnesota, by J. Fletcher Wil- 

A Reminiscence of Fort Snelling, by Mrs. Char 
lotte O. Van Cleve. 

Narrative of Paul Ma-za-koo-to-ma-ne. Trans 
lated by Rev. S. R. Riggs. 

Memoir of Ex-Governor Henry A. Swift, by J. 
Fletcher Williams. 

Sketch of John Otherday, by Hon. Henry H. 

A Coincidence, by Mrs. Charlotte O. Van Cleve. 

Memoir of Hon. James W. Lynd, by Rev. S. R. 

The Dakota Mission, by Rev. S. R. Riggs. 

Indian Warfare in Minnesota, by Rev. S. W. 

Colonel Leavenworth's Expedition to Establish 
Fort Snelling in 1819, by Maj. Thomas For- 

Memoir of Jean Baptiste Faribault, by Gen. II. 
H. Sibley. 

Memoir of Capt. Martin Scott, by J. Fletcher 

Xa peh-shnee-doo-ta, a Dakota Christian, by 
Rev. T. S. Williamson. 



Memoir of Hercules L. Dousinan, by Gen. Hen 

ry H. Sibley. 

Memoir of Joseph R. Brown, by J. P. Williams, 
E. S. Goodrich and J. A. Wheelock. 

.Memoir of Hon. Cyrus Aldrich, by J. Fletcher 

Memoir of Rev. Lucian Galtier, by Archbishop 
John Ireland. 

Memoir of Hon. David Olmsted, by J. Fletcher 

Reminiscences of the Early Days of Minnesota, 
by Hon. H. H. Sibley. 

The Sioux or Dakotas of the Missouri River, 
by Rev. T. S. Williamson. 

.Memoir of Rev. S. Y. McMasters, by Earle S. 

Tributes to the Memory of Rev. John Mattocks, 
by J. Fletcher Williams, non. Henry II. 
Sibley, John B. Sanborn and Archbishop 

Memoir of Ex-Governor Willis A. Gorman. 
Compiled from Press Notices and Eulogy 
by Hon. C. K. Davis. 

Lake Superior, Historical and Descriptive, by 
Hon. James H. Baker. 

Memorial Notices of Rev. Gideon H. Pond, by 
Rev. S. R. Riggs, Hon. H. H. Sibley ami 
Rev. T. S. Williamson. 

In .Memory of Rev. Thomas S. Williamson, by 
Rev. S. R. Riggs and A. W. Williamson. 

The Ink-pa-du-ta Massacre of 1857, by Hon. 
Charles E. Flandrau. 

Volume IV. 

History of the City of St. Paul and County of 
Ramsey, Minnesota, by J. Fletcher Wil- 
liams, containing a very full sketch of the 
first sell lenient and early days of St. Paul, 
in 1838, 1839 and 1840, ami of the Territory 
from 1849 to 185S; lists of the early set- 
tlers and claim owners; amusing events of 
pioneer days; biographical sketches of over 
two hundred prominent men of early times; 

three sled portraits ami forty-seven wood 
eiiis (portraits and views); lists of Federal, 
county and city officers since 1849. 

Volume Y. 

History ot the Ojibway Nation, by William VV. 
Warren (deceased); a valuable work, con 
taining the legends and traditions of Hie 
Ojibways, their origin, history, costumes, 
religion, daily life and habits, ideas, biogra- 
phies of leading chieftains and orators, viv- 
id descriptions of battles, etc. The work was 
carefully ediled by Rev. Edward D. Neill, 
who added an appendix of 116 pages, giving 
an account of the ojibways from official 
and other records. It also contains a por- 
trait of Warren, a memoir of. him by -I. 
Fletcher Williams, and a copious index. 

Volume VI. 

The Sources of the Mississippi; Their Discov- 
ery, Real and Pretended, by Hon. James H. 

The Hennepin Bi-Centenary; celebration by 
the .Minnesota Historical Society of the 
200th anniversary of the discovery of the 
Falls of St. Anthony in 1080, by Louis Hen 

Early Days at Red River Settlement and Fort 
Snelling. reminiscences of Mrs. Ann Adams. 

Protestant Missions in the Northwest, by Rev. 
Stephen R. Riggs. with a memoir of the 
author, by J. Fletcher Williams. 

Autobiography of Maj. Lawrence Taliaferro, 
Indian agent at Fort Snelling, 1820 to 1840. 

Memoir of Gen. Henry Hastings Sibley, by J. 
Fletcher Williams. 

Mounds in Dakota. Minnesota and Wisconsin, 
by Alfred J. Hill. 

Columbian Address, delivered by Hon. H. \Y. 
Childs, before the Minnesota Historical So- 
ciety; October 21, 1892. 

Reminiscences of Fort Snelling. by Col. John 
I -diss. 



Sioux Outbreak of LS(»-J; Mrs. J. E. DeCamp's 
narrative of her captivity. 

A Sioux Story of tin- War; Chief Big Eagle's 
Story of the Sioux Outbreak of L862. 

Incidents of the Threatened Outbreak of Hole- 
in t he-day and Other Ojibways at the Time 
of (lie Sioux Massacre in 1862, by George 

W. Sweet. 

Dakota Scalp Dances, by Rev. T. S. William 


Earliest Schools in Minnesota Valley, by Rev. 
T. S. Williamson. 

Traditions of Sioux Indians, by Maj. William 
II. Forbes. 

Death of a Remarkable .Man — Gabriel Fran- 
chore — by Hon. Benjamin I'. Avery. 

First Set I lenient on the Red River of the 
North in 1812, and the Condition in 1847, 
by Mrs. Elizabeth T. Ayres. 

Frederick Ayer, teacher and missionary to the 
Ojibway Indians, 1829 to 1850. 

Captivity Among the Sioux, Story of Nancy 

Captivity Among the Sioux, Story of Mary 

Autobiography and Reminiscences of Philan- 
der Prescott. 

Recollections of James M. Goodhue, by Col. 
John H. Stevens. 

History of the Ink-pa-du-ta Massacre, by Abbie 
Gardner Sharp. 

Volume VII. 

The Mississippi River and Its Source; a nar- 
rative and critical history of the river and 
its headwaters, accompanied by the results 
of detailed hydrographic and topographic 
surveys; illustrated with many maps, por 
traits and views of the scenery; by Hon. 
J. V. Brower, commissioner of the Itasca 
State Park, representing also the State His 
torical Society. With an appendix: How 
the Mississippi River and the Lake of the 

Woods Became Instrumental in the Estab 
lishment of the Northwestern Boundary of 
the United States, by Alfred J. Hill. 

Volume VIII. 

The International Boundary Between Lake Su- 
perior and the Lake of the Woods, by Ulys- 
ses Sherman Grant. 

The Settlement and Development of the Red 
River Valley, by Warren Upham. 

The Discovery and Development of the Iron 
Ores of Minnesota, by N. H. Winehell, Stale 

The Origin and Growth of the Minnesota His 
torical Society, by the President, Hon. Al 
exander Ramsey. 

Opening of the Red River of the North to Coin 
merce and Civilization, with plates, by 
Capt. Russell Blakeley. 

Last Days of Wisconsin Territory, and Early 
Days of Minnesota Territory, by Hon. Hen 
ry L. Moss. 

Lawyers and Courts of .Minnesota Prior to and 
During Its Territorial Period, by Judge 
Charles E. Flandrau. 

Homes and Habitations of the Minnesota His- 
torical Society, by Charles E. Mayo. 

The Historical Value of Newspapers, by J. P.. 

The United States Government Publications, 

by D. L. Kingsbury. 

The First Organized Government of Dakota, 
by Gov. Samuel J. Albright, with a preface 
by Judge Charles E. Flandrau. 

How Minnesota Became a State, by Professor 
Thomas F. Moran. 

Minnesota's Northern Boundary, by Alexander 
N. Winehell. 

The Question of the Sources of the Mississippi 
River, by Prof. E. Lavasseur. (Translated 
by William P. < Hough.) 

The Source of the Mississippi, by Prof. N. II. 



Prehistoric Man at the Headwaters of the 

Mississippi River (with plates), and an ad- 
dendum relating to the early visits of Mr. 
•Iiilius Chambers and the Rev. J. A. Gjl- 
lillan to Itasca Lake, by Hon. .J. V. Brower. 

History of Minnesota, by Rev. Edward D. Neill. 
First edition, 185S. (Has gone through four 

Concise History of the State of Minnesota, by 
Rev. Edward D. Neill. 1S87. 

Minnesota in the Civil and Indian Wars, 1861, 
1805, prepared under the supervision of a 
committee appointed by the Legislature, 
1S90-1893, in two volumes. 

History of the Sioux War and Massacres of 
1862-1863, by Isaac V. D. Heard, 1865. 

A History of the Great Massacre by the Sioux 
Indians in Minnesota, by Charles S. Bryanl 
and Abel B. Murch, 1872. 

Minnesota Historical Society Collections, in 
eight volumes, 1850 to 1S98, containing 
many of the above named works and papers. 

History of St. Paul, Minnesota, by Gen. Chris- 
topher C. Andrews, 1890. 

History of the City of Minneapolis, by Isaac 
Atwater, in two volumes. 

Pen Pictures of St. Paul, Minnesota, and Bio- 
graphical Sketches of Old Settlers, by T. 
M. Newson. 

Fifty Years in the Northwest, by W. H. 0. 
Folsoni, 188S. 

The United States Biographical Dictionary 
and Portrait Gallery of Eminent and Self- 
Made Men, Minnesota volume by Jeremiah 
Clemens, assisted by J. Fletcher Williams, 

Progressive Men of Minnesota, biographical 
sketches and portraits, together with an 
historical and descriptive sketch of the 
State, by Marion 1). Shutter and J. S. Mr- 
Lain, 1897. 

I.iographical History of the Northwest, by 
Alonzo Phelps, 1890. 

A History of th<- Republican Party, to which 
is added a political history of Minnesota 
from a Republican point of view, and bio- 
graphical sketches of leading Minnesota 
Republicans, by Eugene V. Smalley. 

There are also many quarto histories of coun 

ties in Minnesota, and of larger districts of 
the State, mostly published during the 
years 1880 to is'.io. including twenty coun- 
ties, namely, Dakota. Dodge, Faribault. 
Fillmore, Freeborn. Goodhue. Hennepin. 
Houston, Mcl.eod. Meeker. Olmsted. Pope, 
Ramsey, Rice, Steele. Stevens, Wabasha. 
Waseca, Washington and Winona, and five 
districts, namely, the St. Croix Valley, the 
Upper Mississippi Valley, the Minnesota 
Valley, the Red River Valley and Park Re 
gion and Southern Minnesota. 

Winona and lis Environs, by L. II. Bunnell, 
1897, with maps and portraits. 

Among the earliest publications are: 

Minnesota and Its Resources, by J. Wesley 
1 loud, 1853. 

Minnesota Year Books, 1851, 1852, 1853, by 

William G. Le Due. 

Floral Home, or First Years of Minnesota. 
1857, by Harriet E. Bishop. 

Narratives and Reports of Travels and Ex- 
plorations, by Hennepin. Carver, Long 
and Keating. Beltrami, Featherstonhaugh, 
Schoolcraft, Nicollet, Owen. Oliphant, An- 
drews. Seymour and others. 

For Geographic and Geologic descriptions of 
Minnesota the reports of the geological and 
natural history survey are the most com 
plete sources of information, by Professor 
N. H. Winchell. State Geologist, assisted by 
Warren Upham, Ulysses Sherman Grant, 
and others. The annual reports comprise 
twenty three volumes, 1872 to 1894, with 
another to be published. Several other vol- 
umes have been issued as bulletins of the 
survey on iron, mining, birds, mammals, 
and fishes. 



Four thousand two hundred and fifty bound 
volumes of Minnesota newspapers, embrac- 
ing complete files of nearly all the news- 
papers ever published in Minnesota frora 

first to last. 

One thousand seven hundred and two 1 lis 

and about fifteen hundred pamphlets relat- 
ing in some way 1<> Minnesota history. All 
these books can be found in the library of 
the Minnesota Historical Society, which is 
always open to the public, free. 

Much historical and other information is con- 
tained in the messages of the Governors 

and reports of the various State officers, 
and especially in the Legislative .Manuals 
prepared for the use of the members of the 
Legislature by the Secretary of State, un 
der Chapter 122 of the General Laws of 
1893, and former laws. These Manuals, and 
especially thai of. 1899, are replete with 
valuable statistics concerning the Stale, its 
history and resources. 

Illustrated Bistory of Minnesota, by T. II. 
Kirk, M. L., 1887. 

Ancestry, Life and Times of Henry Hastings 
Sibley, by Nathaniel West, D. D., 1889. 




Into the warp and woof of John Sargent 
Pillsbury's character arc woven the integrity, 
courage, thrift and persistence of the best New 
England Puritan ancestry, whose residence in 
America covered a period of more than two 
and one-half centuries. Joshua Pillsbury, the 
English emigrant, settled in Newburyport, 
Massachusetts, in 1640, and received a grant of 
land at that place, a portion of which still re- 
mains in the possession of his descendants. 
One of these descendants, Micajah Pillsbury, 
the grandfather of the subject of this biog- 
raphy, settled in Sutton, New Hampshire, in 
L790, where on the 19th day of July, 1S28, John 
Sargent Pillsbury was born. His father was a 
manufacturer, successful in business and for 
many years prominent in his neighborhood and 
the political affairs of the State, esteemed for 
the probity of his private life and the con- 
scientious performance of public duty. His 
mother was Susan Wadleigh, ;i descendant of 
Robert Wadleigh, of Exeter, New Hampshire, 
who was a member of the Provincial Legisla- 
ture, and whose son, Capt. Thomas Wadleigh, 
held a commission in the Continental army. 
His mother's mother was a daughter of Eben- 
ezer Kezar, one of the capable and honorable 
early settlers of Sutton. One naturally expects 
a buy sprung from such ancestry, and inherit- 
ing the admirable traits inherent in it, to make 
the best possible use of his opportunities. And 
that is what John S. Pillsbury has done. In 
youth he enjoyed only the limited educational 
advantages of his native town, performing 

meanwhile his full share of manual labor. At 
an early age he entered the office of a local 
newspaper for the purpose of learning the 
printer's trade, but at the age of sixteen had 
the wisdom to abandon it as unsuited to his 
inclination and talent for mercantile pursuits 
— the larger held of trade and commerce. For 
six years thereafter he was employed as clerk 
in a general store at Warner, New Hampshire, 
and for the two years next following he was in 
] partnership with Walter Harriman, a mer- 
chant of the same town, who subsequently 
served as Governor of his State. Half a cen- 
tury ago it was necessary for a boy to serve 
an apprenticeship for several years, even to 
become proficient as clerk in a country store. 
The discipline was more severe and the re- 
quirements more exacting than now, when a 
young man imagines himself transformed into 
a safe and successful merchant by an ex- 
perience of half a year as clerk. The greater 
thoroughness in the training and the severer 
discipline incident to employment in the last 
generation, were potent factors in the develop- 
ment of the qualities of mind, trend of thought 
and methods of business, characteristic of the 
men who have achieved the largest successes 
in the present generation. They contributed 
to that splendid equipment of character and 
habit which enabled John S. Pillsbury to be- 
come one of the foremost citizens of the 
Northwest, and one of the grandest Governors 
of a State that has developed many great men. 
After conducting mercantile business at Con- 
cord for two years on his own account, hi' 
became convinced of the larger and better 




opportunities for growth in the West, and 
deliberately formed the purpose of prospecting 
to find a desirable and promising location. He 

never drifted, and never formed plans hastily. 
His judgment, after careful investigation and 
reflection, determined liis action. So that, 
starting out from his New England home in 
1853 for a tour of observation in the West, 
he did not decide upon a new residence until 
June, 1855, when lie visited the young State of 
.Minnesota. The Falls of St. Anthony influenced 
his decision. He foresaw in the power they 
afforded the possibilities of a great city on 
the adjacent, banks of the Mississippi. He 
settled in the town of St. Anthony, which was 
later to become merged and lost in the greater 
city of Minneapolis. He liked the spirit and 
energy of the West, and possessed the capacity 
to become a leader in the progress and enter- 
prise and development of a new commonwealth 
on the frontier. Associating himself with his 
brother-in-law, Woodbury Fisk. and George A. 
Cross, in a partnership for carrying on trade 
in hardware, the Arm continued business 
through the dark period of financial depression 
and panic in L857, until the store and stock 
were completely destroyed by tire, about the 
time that hundreds of other firms in the East 
and the West were forced to close their doors 
through failure to meet liabilities. Four 
things were left to Mr. Pillsbury, unscathed by 
the fire — debts, courage, integrity and persist 
ence. He settled the debts of the firm with his 
individual notes, assumed all liabilities, satis- 
fied all creditors, and resumed business which 
he continued for eighteen years with marked 
success, and then disposed of it in order to 
devote himself entirely to the manufacture of 
Hour. He had already interested himself in 
establishing the milling industry at Minneap- 
olis in connection with his nephew, Charles A. 
Pillsbury, and his brother, John A. Pillsbury, 
conducting the business under the firm name 
of C. A. Pillsbury & Co. Another nephew, 
Fred G, was subsequently admitted to the 
firm. The magnitude of this milling business 
has grown to enormous proportions. The prod- 
uct of the marvelous mills has reached all the 
civilized countries of the globe, and contrib- 

uted to the fame of the millers throughout the 
world. Fostered with sedulous care, and 
managed with remarkable sagacity, the profits 
of the business naturally enriched the men 
who founded the industry, and have kept it 
going for more than a quarter of a century. 
The Pillsbury Mills have been maintained on 
their own merit and operated independently. 
\\ hen a movement was started in 1899 to com 
bine all the milling interests of the Northwest 
in one enormous trust, strong enough to tix 
prices and control the production, Governor 
Pillsbury said "No" with emphasis, and stead- 
f i i si ly refused, either to consider any proposit ion 
or to countenance the proposed combination. 
He stands opposed to trusts, whose evi- 
dent object is to increase the prices of prod 
ucts, and thus place on consumers additional 
burdens. He believes in competition and the 
rewards of individual effort and excellence. 
Only a man of broad and flexible mind is aide 
to devote his energies and directing force to 
several kinds of business at the same time, 
successfully. Governor Pillsbury is able to do 
this in a very marked degree. In addition to 
milling, he has carried on lumbering on a large 
scale, and been a liberal purchaser of real es- 
tate. He has been identified with the construe 
tion of railroads, and for many years has held 
a place in the directory of several important 
railroad companies. He has also for a long 
time served on the board of directors of some 
of the most prosperous banks of Minneapolis; 
is a director of the Stockyards Company and of 
the Washburn Mills Company. While pri- 
marily a business man and occupied with the 
management of large industries and transpor- 
tation companies and commercial or financial 
institutions, he has on various occasions ac- 
ceded to the wishes of his fellow citizens to 
serve the public in political office. Never a 
candidate in the sense of actively seeking 
office, he has always acknowledged the obliga- 
tions of citizenship and never shirked any 
duty or responsibility to the municipality or 
the commonwealth imposed by his conscious 
ness of such obligation. He served as member 
of the city council ten years, and from 180:? to 
1N7<>. with a single brief interval, he was a 



Senator in the State Legislature. About the 
same time lie was appointed one of the Re- 
gents of the State University, whose financial 
condition had for some years been deplorable. 
The public lands granted by Congress in L851 
for the establishment of a university, had been 
mortgaged and bonded for a loan of forty 
thousand dollars, to be expended in the con- 
struction of the main college building; and as 
soon as this building was completed, it was 
encumbered by a mortgage of fifteen thousand 
dollars. This was in 1857, the year of the 
disastrous panic. The trustees were unable 
to meet the demands of creditors clamoring for 
their dues, and at length despaired of being- 
able to extricate the university from its finan- 
cial embarrassments. There was a general opin- 
ion that the lands would have to be sold to 
pay the debts, and the maintenance of a higher 
institution of learning by the State abandoned. 
This course was recommended bv Governor 
Ramsey in his message to the Legislature in 
1862. Meanwhile, Mr. Pillsbury, a sincere ad- 
vocate of broader and more thorough educa- 
tion than he had been able to procure in youth, 
and which the university alone can furnish, 
studied the situation earnestly with a view to 
evolving some measure of relief. He was then 
a private citizen, but the following year afford- 
ed him the opportunity for effective work. 
What he did is thus told graphically by a for- 
mer biographer: 

"In 1863 Mr. Pillsbury was appointed 
one of the Regents of the university, 
and commenced specially to investigate tin- 
details of the institution, the situation and 
amount of its debts, and the location and char- 
acteristics of the land which had been granted 
it; and, in short, he looked into every detail as 
thoroughly as a man would do with his own 
business affairs. In 18(!?> he was also elected a 
member of the State Senate, when he at once 
proposed a plan to the Legislature, whereby the 
whole affairs of the university were placed in 
the hands of a new board of regents. This board 
was composed of Hon. John Nichols of St. 
Paul, Hon. O. G. Merriam of St. Anthony and 
John S. Pillsbury. He found a strong friend 
and ally in the person of Hon. John M. Berry, 
then a lawyer of Faribault, but afterwards, 
and for many years, one of the Justices of the 

Supreme Court of Minnesota. Mr. Berry en- 
tered enthusiastically into Mr. Pillsbury's 
plan for the restoration of the university; in- 
deed, drew up and introduced the measure 
which resulted in the new board of regents. 
This act became a law March 4, 18C4, and is 
found in chapter XVIII. of the General Laws 
of Minnesota for that year. We refer to it 
thus definitely, as it is a memorable act in the 
history of the university, and many of its pro- 
visions are well worthy of the attention ami 
consideration of those who may hereafter wish 
to study the history of that institution. The 
act placed all the affairs of the university 'in 
their discretion to compromise, settle and pay 
any and all claims and demands of whatsoever 
nature, against the University of Minnesota, 
or the regents thereof.' Some of the claims 
had been due for many years, and were in dis- 
pute as to their items; many were held by 
parties outside the State, and in order to ad- 
just them. Mr. Pillsbury was compelled to 
visit various parts of the country. Finally, 
after a great deal of effort, he succeeded in 
fully discharging all the outstanding bonds, 
liens and claims of every kind, to the entire 
satisfaction of those holding the claims, as 
well as the friends of the university. This he 
did without compensation to himself, and 
there was saved to the university upwards of 
thirty thousand acres of the land grant which 
Congress had made, and the present site of the 
university of twenty-five acres, with the cam- 
pus and buildings, which are to-day valued at 
fully half a million dollars. Mr. rillsbury's 
efforts did not abate one whit after the finan- 
cial affairs of the institution were thus settled. 
From 1863 until 1870 he was a member of the 
State Senate, excepting one and a half terms, 
and during this entire period he made the 
affairs of the university and its management 
his constant study. Governor Pillsbury has 
well earned the name of 'Father of the Uni- 
versity,' given him by the grateful students of 
that institution, and he has crowned his long- 
years of service as regent, with a gift of one 
hundred and fifty thousand dollars made in 

President Northrop, in his baccalaureate ad- 
dress June 2, of that year, referred to Governor 
Pillsbury and his noble gift in the following- 

"The name of George Peabody, whose monu- 
ment may be seen in Harvard and Yale, and 



men who have within the last few years done 
great service to humanity by unprecedented 
gifts, especially Otis, Hand and Slater, all of 
Connecticut, will readily occur to you; and I 
am sure thai as I speak all of you are thinking 
of the recent noble j^ift to tliis university by 
our friend and neighbor, Governor Pillsbury. 
It is not the flrsl time that he has shown his 
generous interest in this institution; indeed, 
it is owing to him that the university exists at 
all, for, by unwearied efforts of his, the univer- 
sity was secured from hopeless debt even be- 
fore it was organized for work. During all the 
years in which that aide scholar, Dr. Folwell, 
the flrsl president of the university, was laying 
its foundations and wisely planning its educa- 
tional work, Governor Pillsbury was the sa- 
gacious counsellor, the earnest friend, the 
faithful regent, watching over the financial 
interests of the institution with ceaseless vigi- 
lance, ever ready to sacrifice his time, his busi- 
ness and his ease to its welfare. By his kind- 
ness and charity in his daily life, by his public 
spirit, his wise services to theState in both leg- 
islative and executive positions, his free-hand- 
ed benevolence to the suffering people of the 
Slate in a time of great trial, and his firm 
and determined stand for the honor of the 
State in a time of great public temptation, he 
deserves to be remembered with gratitude by 
the people of this State to the remotest gen- 
eration. Hut for no one of his many noble deeds 
will he be longer remembered than for this, 
his munificent -iff of $150,000 to the State and 
the university at a time when the financial con- 
dition of the State made it impossible for the 
Legislature, however well disposed, to granl 
the money which it needed to carry forward 
its enlarging work. He has shown himself 
wise in making this gift while he lived, and 
might justly hope to witness in the increased 
prosperity, the fruits of his own benevolence. 
He has shown himself wise in estimating 
money at its just value — not for what it is, but 
for what it can do — not as something to be 
held and loved and gloated over, or to be ex 
pended in personal aggrandizement and lux- 
ury, but as something which can work might- 
ily for humanity; which can re-enforce even 
the educational power of a sovereign State; 
which can enrich human minds, and can thus 
lift up into the true greatness of a noble citi- 
zenship the sons and daughters of the whole 

The acumen and foresight of John S. Tills 
bury, as exhibited in all commercial and indus- 

trial enterprises with which he hail connec- 
tion, marked him as a man who could be 
trusted with the larger affairs of the public; 
his application to acquire a complete under- 
standing of the financial entanglements in 
which the State University was involved, and 
his unselfish devotion to the work of relieving 
it, gave him a peculiar hold upon intelligent 
popular favor. In 1ST"), therefore, lie was nom- 
inated with perfect unanimity by the Repub 
lican convention, and elected Governor of the 
Stale. Endowed by nature with keen percep- 
tion, and educated liberally by contact with 
men of affairs in that great school of prac- 
tical business, his knowledge of men was al- 
most unerring, and his judgment as to their 
capabilities and weaknesses was to a degree 
infallible. This superior executive ability, so 
essential to a judicious exercise of the appoint- 
ing power, supported by his own personal in- 
tegrity and deep sense of official honor and 
responsibility, enabled him to give to the peo- 
ple of the State a pure and wholesome admin- 
istration. His mental grasp, breadth of view. 
trained sagacity, honest purpose and equable 
temperament qualified him to administer the 
government and execute the laws wisely. He 
was very early confronted with novel condi- 
tions, which demanded instant attention and 
relief. The ravages of the grasshoppers had 
laid waste large agricultural sections and left 
the farmers destitute. The Governor, incog- 
nito, made a tour of the devastated portions 
of the State in order to ascertain the extent of 
ruin, and thus qualify himself to provide and 
recommend adequate measures of relief. He 
found much destitution and suffering — some of 
the settlers without sufficient food; others 
without clothing — at the opening of winter. 
They were independent, self-supporting citi- 
zens, who would ordinarily scorn the offer of 
assistance; but the distress of their families 
was too great for pride to refuse the proffered 
aid of their more fortunate fellow citizens. The 
Governor's sympathies were deeply touched, 
and he generously relieved by his private 
purse many of the cases of immediate want, 
discovered while he was passing unknown 
among the distressed people. He also made 


I2 3 

public appeal for relief to the prosperous peo- 
ple of the State, and volunteered to superin- 
tend the distribution of all donations of food, 
clothing, fuel and money. When the Legisla- 
ture assembled, he recommended an appropri- 
ation from the treasury sufficient to relieve the 
want, and urged immediate action. His rec- 
ommendation received favorable action. He 
was also called upon to deal with another raid 
during the first term, when the gang of free- 
booters from Missouri, known as the Younger 
Brothers, entered the State to prosecute their 
trade of robbery and murder, and the State 
prison rolls attest the complete success of the 
prompt measures instituted by him for the 
capture of the outlaws. Governor Pillsbury 
was re-elected in 1877, and again in 187!), 
serving three consecutive terms, a distinction 
accorded to no other man in the history of the 
State. During his second term Governor Pills- 
bury was instrumental in effecting the settle- 
ment of a contention between the settlers on 
railroad lands granted to the State by the St. 
Paul and Pacific Railroad company and the 
Western Railroad company as successor of 
the grantee, and his thorough knowledge of the 
history of the transaction, supported by his 
sense of justice, his inflexible will and his per- 
sistence iii the accomplishment of a purpose, 
saved their homes to three hundred settlers, 
and established himself immovably in the af- 
fections and confidence of the people. The 
crowning glory of Governor Pillsbury's admin- 
istration was the preservation of the honor 
and the restoration of the credit of the State 
by effecting a complete settlement of its debts 
and the payment of its bonds, which had been 
repudiated. The story of the issue of these 
bonds is told in the historical article elsewhere 
printed in this volume. The people had voted 
in 1857, by a majority of five to one, to create 
a debt of five million dollars, evidenced by 
bonds, to aid in the construction of railroads. 
Contracts were executed, by which certain 
companies agreed to build lines of road and 
accept the bonds in payment. Considerable 
grading was done on different lines, but no 
road was ever built. The Legislature of 18G1 
repudiated the bonds. Subsequently the con- 

tracting companies failed and defaulted, and 
the Slate foreclosed on their property and 
gave it to new companies undertaking to com- 
plete the work. The bonds had been duly au- 
thorized and regularly issued. They had been 
purchased in good faith by innocent investors, 
and Governor Pillsbury insisted the State 
should keep faith with its creditors. He adverted 
to the subject in messages to the Legislature, 
and urged the importance of a settlement. A 
proposition to set aside for the payment of the 
bonds five hundred thousand acres of land 
granted to the Territory by Congress for pur- 
poses of internal improvement was submitted 
to the people in 1878 and rejected by a vote of 
two to one. These discouraging conditions 
only served to increase the energy and make 
unalterable the determination of Governor 
Pillsbury to save the State from dishonor. To 
a company of prominent gentlemen who called 
on him after the result of the popular vote be- 
came known, he said : "My children were bom 
in Minnesota, my home is here; but I want to 
say now, that no matter what interests I have 
to attract me here, whether financial or sen- 
timental, I will not live in a repudiating State. 
I will never give up this fight so long as there 
is a shadow of a hope. I will stump for it and 
vote for it and fight for it. The bonds shall be 
paid." His personal efforts equaled his otti 
cial solicitude for the welfare of the State and 
his earnest endeavor was directed to securing 
a settlement. The question as to the validity 
of the bonds was submitted to the Supreme 
Court and they were adjudged valid. The 
Governor called an extra session of the Legis- 
lature and secured the passage of an act au- 
thorizing a new loan evidenced by bonds bear- 
ing five per cent interest. By consultation 
with the principal creditor, he was able to 
effect the acceptance of a four and a half per 
cent bond to replace the old ones, thus saving 
1400,000 in interest. The Governor invested a 
million dollars of the State's school fund in the 
bonds. Some opposition to the issuing of these 
bonds was developed and injunction proceed- 
ings were threatened. To avoid delay, Gover- 
nor Pillsbury carried the bonds to his home, 
signed them at night, and delivered them be- 

I2 4 


fore the opposition took form in the filing of a 
complaint. The credit of the State was at 
once restored by the action of its honest Gov- 
ernor, and since thai time no State has enjoyed 
higher credit than Minnesota. Actuated by 
tender memories of his childhood home and 
grateful appreciation of his ancestors, Gover- 
nor Pillsbury erected a beautiful Memorial 
Hall at Sutton, New Hampshire, which was 
dedicated July 13, 1892, to the public uses for 
which it was designed — an assembly hall, a 
library and a meeting place for the selectmen 
of the town. The Governor's speech on that 
occasion was characteristic of the man. 
abounding in noble sentiment and practical in 
statistics portraying the marvelous growth of 
the country during the brief span of one hu- 
man life. The address was not only broad and 
generous in conception, but faultless in dic- 
tion and rhetoric. He referred with emotion 
to the fathers and mothers as follows: 

"What hardy men and women were the 
pioneers and early settlers of this town of Sut- 
ton. Let us not in these modern days, with all 
our conveniences and new methods, forget the 
rugged character and rigor and thrift and vir- 
tue and intrepidity of our ancestors who en- 
dured all the hardships of fifty and one hun- 
dred years ago, and who by their sacrifices and 
discipline and character which they have en- 
tailed upon their descendants, made it possible 
for us to enjoy what we have to-day. Let us 
of to-day not boast of what we have done. Out 
of the loins of the New England fathers and 
mothers of past generations came the sources 
of the wealth and strength of to-day. No- 
where in history can be found a more rugged 
set of men than our New England fathers; and 
among the women of the world, where can 
there be found the equal of the New England 
mothers who have passed away? Would that 
I had the power of speech to give proper credit 
to those noble mothers of early days. 

Trace back the history of the men who have 
been famous in the world, and in the majority 
of cases you will find that the source of their 
best qualities was very largely in the mother. 
And for noble motherhood you will nowhere 
find surpassed those New England mothers of 
a generation or more ago, who reared up with 
their own hands those large families of sons 
and daughters which were once the glory of 
New England. As the mother of Garfield, at 

the inauguration of her son as President, was 
the first to receive recognition as the bearer 
and mother of her son, and had a mother's de- 
light in his success, so may these New Eng- 
land towns, which have spared their sons and 
daughters for a season, claim the successes of 
these sons and daughters as their own.'' 

Governor Pillsbury is the only living mem- 
ber of the original firm that entered into the 
milling business in Minneapolis, and he has 
had the supervision of the business since the 
death of Charles A. Pillsbury, in August, 1S!)0. 
His familiarity with larger commercial affairs; 
his habit of application and his varied experi- 
ence in solving great problems in both private 
and official life, make his discharge of the du- 
ties easy. He is careful, methodical, earnest, 
thoughtful, never apparently in a hurry, and 
never behind with his work or his engage- 
ments. He is an officer of the First Congrega 
tional Church of Minneapolis and a liberal con- 
tributor to its support. November 3, 185C, he 
was married at Warner, New Hampshire, to 
Miss Mahala Fisk, a most estimable woman, 
whose affectionate sympathy and judicious ad- 
vice have always been helpful. John Sargent 
Pillsbury has the genius of common sense. He 
is under such perfect self-control and possesses 
the faculty of concentrating his mental forces 
to such a degree that all the powers of his 
mind are subservient to his will for the ac- 
complishment of a fixed purpose or the com- 
pletion of an assumed undertaking. His habits 
have been so simple and his life so well or- 
dered that the weight of more than seventy 
years rests lightly on him. His form is erect, 
his movement easy; his manner affable and 
his social intercourse marked by courtesy and 
cordiality. The force of his strong character 
is rendered lovable by a natural refinement 
and kindliness in social intercourse. He listens 
to a complaint or a suggestion with equal for- 
bearance, but never expresses his opinion with 
undue haste. In emergencies he decides in- 
stantly and acts promptly, with all the energy 
of a man accustomed to weigh his actions and 
measure his capabilities. He is natural and un- 
affected as a child, and free from any austerity 
of manner. He is neither effusive nor reserved. 

7 Cc^^f ^ _./ //_ / , , >. 



i- 7 5 

but simply natural and approachable. He is an 
earnest man, generous in his sympathies and 

just in his judgments. He cherishes that large- 
ness and liberality in religious belief which 
leaves every man free to formulate his own 
creed and finds its best expression in an up- 
right life, busy with good deeds and pervaded 
by a spirit to help the worthy who are in need. 
Whatever else may be engraved in his epitaph. 
the historic facts which made his administra- 
tion as Governor famous, should be expressed: 
"He saved the University to the State and 
saved the Stab' from dishonor." 


In choosing this subject as a representative 
woman of Minnesota, a tribute is paid to the 
womanhood of that State which can be fully 
appreciated only by those whom good fortune 
has led within the social circle of Mrs. Pills- 
bury, or, at least, within that larger circle of 
beneficent intluence which perpetually ra- 
diates from her personality. Yet Minnesota 
cannot claim her as a native daughter. She 
draws her heredity from a double line of New 
England's early settlers. The place of her 
birth was Springfield, New Hampshire, the 
date May 7, 1832. Her parents were Captain 
John and Sarah (Goodhue) Fisk, prominent 
citizens of the Granite State, who for many 
years resided in the town of Warner. Here 
they reared a large family, Mahala Fisk hav- 
ing three brothers — Woodbury, John and Jo- 
seph, and three sisters — Elizabeth, Sarah and 
.Mary. The American Fisks were descended — 
through William Fiske, the founder of tin- 
family in this country, who, in 1G37, settled in 
Wenham, Massachusetts — from an aristocrat- 
ic line of Englishmen with estates in Suffolk 
county, which line is traceable back to Simon 
Fisk, lord of a manor in the reign of Henry 
VI. Rut it is with a different type of nobility 
that this sketch will concern itself — a nobility 
not of titles and privileges, but of character 
and deeds; a nobility the insignia of which is 
not blazoned upon the breast, but graven deep 

within it. Mrs. Pillsbury is a true cosmopol 
itan; and although she may owe something of 
her dignity and poise to the inherent conscious- 
ness of high and honorable lineage, she is 
delightfully free from the spirit of exclusive 
ness and hauteur of manner which too fre 
quently accompany such a consciousness. Her 
childhood and youth were passed in the 
parental home, in Warner, a home dominated 
by the most healthful influences, religious and 
moral; nor was the intellectual side of her 
training neglected. She was privileged to at- 
tend both the Ilopkinton Academy and the 
Sanbornton Seminary, and she completed her 
studies at the age of nineteen. During the 
three years prior to her graduation, however, 
her time was divided between the acquiring 
and imparting of knowledge. Teaching was 
her chosen profession, and she followed it, at 
intervals, in the public schools of Keene and 
other towns of her State, up to the time of her 
marriage. On November 3, 1856, she was 
united to John S. Pillsbury, of Sutton, New 
Hampshire, and soon the youthful couple had 
bade farewell to their friends and were jour 
neying westward to found a home in Minneso- 
ta, which was then a Territory and little better 
than a wilderness. It was a bridal tour plenti- 
fully marked by events and diversions — events 
which were dire contingencies, and diversions 
which were imminent dangers. It took cour- 
age to leave such a home as had sheltered the 
girlhood of Mahala Fisk and face the rigors 
and perils of frontier life; but in courage, at 
least, and in that love which casts out fear, 
both these young wayfarers were richly capi- 
talized. Their destination was St. Anthony 
(now a part of Minneapolis), and here they 
began their Western life on an humble scale. 
The history of their first few years is one of 
hard work, misfortune and sacrifice; — the ex- 
perience common to settlers upon virgin soil. 
Nature has but one method of initiating those 
who are bold enough to venture into her 
rugged campus, lie one never so proudly born 
or daintily nurtured, his metal must be proven 
by the same ruthless hazing. Yet in homes 
like that of the Pillsburys, although meager 
in appointment as many another, hardship and 



privation were illumined by ideals, and the 
humdrum of toil relieved by the graces of cul- 
ture. In 1857, when Mr. Pillsbury's store was 
destroyed by tire, their vicissitudes culmi- 
nated in an almost total loss of their worldly 
possessions. Soon, however, the tide of pros- 
perity turned their way, and continued to flow 
with ever-increasing fullness. They erected a 
substantial house at the corner. of Fifth street 
and Tenth avenue south, which was for twenty 
years the family home. In 1878 this was re- 
placed by their present elegant residence, 
which occupies the same site as the old home- 
stead. During the Civil War. while her 
patriotic husband gave to the State his val- 
uable assistance in the task of raising troops, 
Mrs. I'illsbury was equally active in the organ 
izing of a society and the collecting of funds 
for the aid of the soldiers and relief of poverty 
in their families. Thus the sick were cared 
for, and substantial comforts added to many 
a destitute home. Following close upon the 
outbreak of the Rebellion came the horrors of 
an Indian massacre, in which hundreds of the 
Minnesota settlers were math' victims of sav- 
age slaughter. Mrs. I'illsbury, in the midst of 
treachery and death, stood steadfast as the 
granite of her native State, calmly preparing 
for a possible emergency by practicing the arts 
of defense and acquiring skill in the use of 
the rifle. Minnesota was but passing through 
the same throes which she knew as history of 
her own New Hampshire, and she was sus- 
tained in this fearful ordeal by traditions of 
the heroism of earlier pioneer women. More- 
over, she was strong with the strength of 
deep-founded religious faith. Mahala Fisk 
was a worthy representative of a fervently 
religious race, her English progenitors being 
among those persecuted during the struggle 
of the Reformation because of their adherence 
to Protestant principles. Throughout her resi- 
dence in Minnesota Mrs. I'illsbury has been 
closely identified with its religious life, which 
first took organic form in a little Congrega- 
tional church erected near the site of the Pills 
bury home, her diverse gifts finding expression 
in a diversity of work. Her natural talent for 
music, both vocal and instrumental, which had 

been cultivated during her seminary days at 
Sanbornton, were here devoted to the church. 
She was promptly appointed, and has ever 
since continued, a member of the music com- 
mittee, and for many years her sweet voice 
swelled the harmony of the choir. The genial 
womanliness of her character ever created an 
atmosphere of home about her, and this influ- 
ence has been a potent one in the church, en- 
listing in its activities many a new-comer and 
many a. frivolous or timid youth. In further- 
ing its social interests she has been a leading 
spirit and an indefatigable worker, lightening 
the pastor's burdens inestimably, though main- 
taining always a self-effacing modesty. In the 
Sunday-school her labors have been constant 
and her enthusiasm unwearying, and the young 
men and women who have gone forth to their 
life battles fortified by her wise and loving 
counsel have long ceased to be numbered. 
And, corresponding to her work as assistant 
and instructor in the church, has been her even 
more consecrated work as helpmeet and 
mother in the home. Governor and Mrs. 
I'illsbury were blessed with four chil- 
dren. Addie Eva was born October 4, 
1860. She was married October 8, 1884, 
to Charles M. "Webster — now a prominent 
business man at (heat Falls, Montana — and 
died April 2, 1885. Her native modesty and 
quiet, gentle character made her beloved by 
all. The second daughter, Susan M., born June 
1':!, 1863, grew to a beautiful womanhood, be- 
coming a general favorite through the sweet 
ness and sincerity of her character. She was 
married to Fred It. Snyder, a successful lawyer 
of Minneapolis, on September :.'.".. 1885, and 
died September :!, 1891, leaving an only child. 
John I'illsbury Snyder. Sarah Belle, born 
June 30, 1866, graduated from the University 
of Minnesota in 1888, and is now the wife of 
Edward C. Gale, of Minneapolis, a lawyer of 
high professional standing and literary cul- 
ture. Alfred Fisk, the only son, born October 
I'll, 1869, graduated at the University of Minne- 
sota, and now holds a prominent position in the 
I'illsbury -Washburn Flour Mills Company. His 
modest ways, native shrewdness and wise tact 
in dealing with business men has caused him 



to be selected to handle delicate and important 
business missions abroad, with results which 
promise much for his business future. On 
May 15, 1899, he was married to Eleanor 
Louise, a daughter of the late Chief Justice 
Wallbridge A. Field of the Supreme Court of 
Massachusetts. In 1880 Mrs. Pillsbury 
united her own efforts with those of oth- 
er philanthropic women for the establish- 
ment of a home for destitute children and 
aged women. This enterprise was car 
ried into effect on a very small scale at first, 
with a few street waifs as beneficiaries; but 
soon the volume of applications which came 
pouring in showed the extent of the need which 
the institution was designed to till. Then 
quickly followed, in November, 1881, the or- 
ganizing of a society of ladies, of which Mrs. 
Pillsbury was made president, the raising of 
funds and the purchasing of the fine old home- 
stead and grounds of Judge Atwater, situated 
on the banks of the Mississippi. Commodious 
as were these quarters, however, they were 
soon found inadequate to the increasing de- 
mands upon them, and were eventually sold, 
and new buildings erected in Minneapolis at 
an expense of $40,000. Mrs. Pillsbury is still 
president of the institution, which is known 
as the Home tor Children and Aged Women. 
In all her good works she has always re- 
ceived the warm sympathy and support of her 
husband. Christmas of the year 1899 was made 
memorable in the history of the Home for 
Children and Aged Women by an endowment 
of $100,00(1 presented by her husband in her 
honor. This fund, the only endowment of the 
institution, is a permanent one, the income 
from which is to be used in the current ex- 
penses of the institution. It is designated the 
"Mahala Fisk Pillsbury Fund." Other in- 
stitutions in which our subject has been 
actively interested are: The Washburn 
Home, of which she is a trustee; the North- 
western Hospital for Women, and the Wom- 
an's Exchange. It would be vain to attempt 
enumerating the miscellaneous charities dis- 
persed by the hand of Mrs. Pillsbury. Pros- 
perity, in smiling upon her, smiles also upon 
the poor within the range of her helpfulness. 

such poor selected always with conscientious 
discrimination. Nor does she regard them 
merely as objects for her sympathy and aid, 
but as men and women entitled to her respect- 
ful regard. She recognizes and reverences 
true manhood and womanhood, whether it 
shines from the luxurious setting of wealth 
or is hidden in the obscurity of poverty. For 
bombastic display she has no kind regard; bu1 
she knows what others see so beautifully illus- 
trated in herself — that one may possess wealth, 
position and power and yet be modest and 
sincere. Unregenerate wealth she deems alike 
pitiable with unregenerate poverty, and even 
a more baffling problem to him who would 
reduce the world chaos to something like order 
and harmony. During her husband's tenure 
of the gubernatorial chair Mrs. Pillsbury filled 
with credit her honored position by his side. 
Nor did she feel herself removed by fortune 
from the people among whom she had toiled, 
but rather drawn nearer to them through her 
sense of added responsibility. It was during 
Governor Pillsbury's first term of office that 
large tracts of the State were laid waste by 
the grasshopper scourge, plunging the settlers 
into absolute want; and while her husband 
\isited in person the devastated districts, to 
assure himself of the extent of the suffering 
and need for succor, Mrs. Pillsbury was em- 
ployed in the organizing of a bureau of relief, 
with her own house as headquarters. So se- 
rious and widespread was this affliction, how- 
ever, that she soon found it necessary to rent 
a storehouse in which to collect and distribute 
supplies; and throughout that long, cold win- 
ter, she and her little band of assistants toiled, 
often far into the night, selecting and dispatch- 
ing articles in response to the many and varied 
appeals of the sufferers. As first lady of the 
State, Mrs. Pillsbury's versatile gifts were 
given full scope; but anyone who has looked 
upon her staunch and noble face knows that 
this woman was never made by outward cir- 
cumstances; that in whatever walk of life her 
lot might have been cast she would always 
have been a leader, an organizer and a liar 
monizer. She is one of those rare souls, too 
widely scattered to touch hands, yet linked by 



unity of faith and purpose, who form, as it 

"The rainbow to the storms of life; 
The evening beam that smiles the clouds 

And tints to-morrow with prophetic ray." 


The last of the loyal "War Governors" of the 
Union and the first to answer Lincoln's call for 
volunteers, the Hon. Alexander Ramsey of 
Minnesota, was born near Harrisburg, Dan 
phin county, Pennsylvania, September 8, 181. r >. 
He is descended from two old Pennsylvania 
families. His paternal grandfather, for whom 
he was christened, was born in the eastern 
part of the then province, in the first part of 
the Eighteenth Century, and his mother, Eliza- 
beth Kelker, was descended from an early Ger- 
man settler on the Schuylkill. The Ramseys of 
Pennsylvania were of good Scotch ancestry, 
and their blending with the sober and sturdy 
Pennsylvania Germans produced men re- 
nowned for brawn and brain, with not a dwarf, 
dastard or dullard among them. All of this 
clan were brave, industrious and thrifty peo- 
ple, well-to-do and long-to-live, and there is 
no better type of the family than the old War 
Governor. He was reared by an uncle, and in 
his young manhood worked at carpentering, 
clerked in a store and in a public office, took a 
partial collegiate course, and at twenty-two be- 
gan the study of law. In 1S:J!) he was admitted 
to the bar and entered into the practice at Har- 
risburg. He would have made a great lawyer 
had he continued steadily in the profession, 
but he had a natural taste for politics, was an 
ardent Whig, and the exciting and enthusi- 
astic presidential campaign of 1840 took him 
from the bar to the hustings, and he made 
many notable speeches and helped carry Penn- 
sylvania for Harrison and Tyler. As a sort of 
recognition of his services, he was made the 
secretary of the Stale Electoral College, in 
November, and the following January was 

elected chief clerk of the Legislature. In 1842. 
when he was but twenty-seven years of age, he 
was (he Whig nominee for Congress in a newly 
formed district, and received a majority of the 
votes; but it was decided that the district had 
been illegally formed and the election was void. 
The next year he was again nominated for the 
Twenty-eighth Congress, for the district com- 
posed of the remainder of the counties of Dau- 
phin, Lebanon and Schuylkill, and was elected. 
He was re-elected in 1844, and declined a third 
nomination in 1846. In 1848 he was chairman 
of the Whig State committee, and under his 
management of the presidential campaign, 
Pennsylvania went for Taylor and Fillmore. 
In March, 1849, soon after coming into the 
Chief Magistracy, President Taylor appointed 
his now well-known Pennsylvania partisan. 
Governor of the then newly organized Minne- 
sota Territory. Two months later he arrived 
in St. Paul, the seat of government, then a 
frontier village, and entered upon his duties. 
He was accompanied by his beautiful and ac- 
complished wife — who had been Anna Earl 
Jenks, daughter of Hon. Michael H. Jenks, her 
husband's colleague in Congress — and their ar- 
rival was an event long and pleasantly to be 
remembered. The young Governor had a great 
deal of work to do in Minnesota, much of it 
unpleasant and all of it hard. The Territory 
was full of office-seekers, place-hunters and 
speculators, all of them with schemes, and 
many of them with ''jobs. - ' He had to set the 
governmental machinery in motion and keep it 
running smoothly, and solely for the general 
welfare. He was ex officio commissioner of 
Indian affairs for Minnesota, and there were 
forty thousand Sioux and Chippewas in the 
territory, owning big provinces of land, and 
blanketed and barbaric. He read his first mes- 
sage in the dining room of a hotel to a Legisla- 
ture composed of twenty-seven members, and 
it was a paper full of good sense and of hopes 
and of fair prophecies that he lived to see re- 
alized. His administration as Territorial Gov 
ernor was most successful. He governed the 
Territory much as a Pennsylvania Dutchman 
runs a faim, working hard, keeping everything 
and everybody in order, and providing for the 



future. In 1851 he made a treaty with the 
Sioux aud bought from them 40,000,000 acres 
of fine, fertile land, which was soon open to 
settlement. He was fair, but firm, in his deal 
ing with white men and red. He summarily 
repressed the unscrupulous palefaces, and 
when the old Sioux chief, Red Iron, became 
turbulent and insubordinate, he "broke" him 
from his chieftainship, put shackles upon him 
and threw him into the lockup, though a thou- 
sand scowling warriors were standing by. In 
1853, when the Democrats came into power, 
under President Pierce, Governor Ramsey was 
succeeded by Gen. W. A. Gorman, and became 
a private citizen of St. Paul. In 1855 he was 
elected mayor of the young city. In is." 7. 
when Minnesota was about to become a sov- 
ereign State, he was the Republican candidate 
for Governor against the late Gen. Henry II. 
Sibley, Democrat. Between Ramsey and Sib 
ley, the two most prominent characters in the 
early history of the Northwest, there was al- 
ways implacable political enmity, but devoted 
personal friendship. By a close vote, Sibley 
was declared elected Minnesota's first Gover- 
nor. But two years later, in 1859, Ramsey was 
elected, and with him Ignatius Donnelly, as 
Lieutenant Governor. When Sumter was 
tired upon. Governor Ramsey chanced to be 
in Washington. That day he waited on 
President Lincoln and offered him a thou- 
sand Minnesotans for the war, and when 
the formal call came he answered it in 
person: "Our quota is ready. Mr. Presi- 
dent." In 1801, Minnesota, young, poor, 
and very sorely troubled, sent five good regi- 
ments to the field. The next year she sent five 
more, almost stripping herself of her bravest 
and best. In August, 1862, with nearly all of 
the fighting force of the State in the South, 
the great Sioux rebellion broke out, and within 
a week nearly 800 people of the State had been 
put to the tomahawk and scalping knife and 
millions of property destroyed. Governor Ram 
sey did not flinch or fail. He put General Sib- 
ley at the head of such a force as could be or- 
ganized and sent him against the savages. 
strengthening and supporting him with all his 
power, and in forty days the rebellion had 

been subdued, hundreds of captives restored, 
and the Indians driven from the State, never 
to return. Ramsey was a splendid War Gov- 
ernor. He kept up Minnesota's quota, and 
established and maintained its reputation; he 
visited the soldiers in their camps, in Virginia 
and Mississippi, and cared for them as a father 
for his boys; he punished the Indian murder 
ers of his people, and then protected his fron- 
tiers from savage raids and from a repetition 
of anything like the scenes of August, L862, 
and all the while he was controlling the State 
successfully and advancing its development 
and civilization. In January, 1863, Governor 
Ramsey was elected I'nited States Senator 
from Minnesota, and at the close of his term 
was re-elected for six years more. During his 
twelve years of service he was prominent in 
the deliberations of the Senate, as chair- 
man of the Committee on Territories, on 
Postofflces and Post Roads, etc. The sub- 
ject of postal reform occupied much of his 
attention. It was the "Ramsey Bill" which 
first corrected the franking abuse. His visit 
to and labors in Europe in ISO!) were influen- 
tial in bringing about cheap international post 
age. The improvement of the Mississippi and 
its navigable tributaries, the aiding of the 
Northern Pacific railroad, legislation in behalf 
of the then Territories of Dakota and Montana, 
the encouragement of trade with Manitoba, 
and all other measures for the benefit of the 
Northwest were subjects of his particular care 
and effort. No member of either house hail 
better personal standing. His broad views, 
his good judgment and sagacity, his hearty 
frankness and geniality toward his associates 
gave him great popularity and influence. Sen- 
ator Ramsey's congressional career closed in 
March, 1875, and he rested from official life till 
December, 1870, when President Hayes ten- 
dered him tlie portfolio of Secretary of War. 
He accepted, and at once entered on his duties 
and gave faithful and conspicuous service un- 
til March, L881, when the Garfield administra- 
tion began. A year later, in March, 1882, there 
was enacted the "Edmunds Law," which vir- 
tually extinguished polygamy in Utah — the 
remaining "twin relic of barbarism" — and 



created ;i commission of live officials to exe- 
cute its provisions. Senator Ramsey was 
appointed a member of the Board of Commis- 
sioners and elected its chairman. In 1800 he 
resigned and retired permanently to private 
life. Governor Ramsey has since passed his 
life in his comfortable home in St. Paul, in the 
quiet and hearty enjoyment of domestic com- 
fort, the delight of books, of the society of 
old and valued friends, and the company of 
and association with his fellow citizens. Since 
1S84 he has been a widower, and he has but 
one child, a daughter, now Mrs. Marion Ful- 
ness, who presides over his household. He is 
past eighty-four years of age, but "wears his 
manhood hale and green" and is splendidly 
preserved. He is seen on the streets every day 
in any sort of weather. He has always taken 
care of his health, and probably was never sick 
a whole day in all of his busy and eventful life. 
"That which should accompany old age. as 
honor, love, obedience, troops of friends," he 
has in plenitude. For some time he has been 
president of the Minnesota Historical Society 
and regularly attends its meetings, and is a 
leading spirit in the Old Settlers' Association. 
He is a member of the Loyal Legion and other 
organizations, and probably he attends as 
many banquets, receptions, and public meet- 
ings as any other of his fellow citizens. His 
services are in demand on every occasion 
where speeches are to be made, and his voice 
is seemingly as strong, deep and eloquent as 
when it rang upon the hustings of Pennsyl- 
vania sixty years ago or resounded through the 
halls of the Senate in 1864. He takes life easily 
and spends it sensibly, and "so should a good 
man end his days." 


This family of Noyes may be traced back 
genealogically from America to England, from 
England to Normandy, certain representatives 
of the early stock having crossed from France 
with William the Conqueror, and by royal 
allotment become landed proprietors in Corn- 

wall. Thence the family appeared in America 
in the person of Rev. James Noyes. a Non-con- 
formist of distinction who, in 1835, sought the 
freedom of the new world, locating at New 
bury, Massachusetts. This early settler was 
the father of Rev. James Noyes of Stonington, 
Connecticut, who gained permanent honor as 
one of the founders of Yale College. ( to the 
mother's side, likewise, Mr. Noyes can count 
a line of ancestors prominent in the church and 
as educators. Edward Dorr Griffin, D. D., 
president of Williams College, was his great 
uncle, and the tradition in the family is that 
his great grandmother was descended from 
John Rogers, the Smithtield clergyman who 
suffered martyrdom at the stake for his reli- 
gious convictions. Daniel Rogers Noyes 
is the eldest son of Daniel R. and Phoebe 
(Griffin) Noyes, and was born in the town of 
Lyme, Connecticut, on the 10th of November, 
1836. He was reared amid refining and 
strengthening home influences, enjoying, also, 
the advantages of the best New England 
schools. At the age of eighteen he went to 
New York and engaged in business, continuing 
there until the breaking out of the Civil War. 
He then entered his country's service as a vol- 
unteer, not. as it proved, for a lengthy term. 
His health became undermined, and after his 
return from the war he traveled extensively, 
his journeyings, which covered a period of sev- 
eral years, including visits to points of special 
interest both in America and abroad. Upon 
the completion of this health-seeking tour, he 
resumed business as a partner in the banking- 
house of Gilman, Son & Company, New York 
City. Mr. Noyes' residence in St. Paul dates 
from 1808, and his thirty odd years in this 
community show a record of unceasing activity 
and achievement. During the first year he 
founded the wholesale drug house of Noyes, 
Tett & Company, now the leading drug house 
of the Northwest, operating under the style of 
Noyes Brothers & Cutler, with Daniel R. Noyes 
as senior partner. The business of this house 
has become extended, not only into surround 
ing States, but to those bordering the Pacific, 
while it is known in both Europe and Asia 
through its exportatious of certain classes of 





supplies to those countries. Mr. Noyes has also 
important manufacturing interests in St. Paul, 
and lias been officially identified with many of 
the city's enterprises. To him, together with 
others, the St. Paul Business and Jobbers' 
Unions owe their existence. While always re- 
fusing political place and preferment, Air. 
Noyes has served as president of the Jobbers' 
Union; also as president of the Chamber of 
Commerce. With the St. Paul Trust Company 
he is now associated as vice-president, and he 
is a member of the board of directors of the 
Merchants' National Bank. It is to Mr. Xoyes 
that St. Paul is indebted for her Relief ' Society, 
and as its treasurer he has wisely administered 
its finances from its organization. He has been 
a zealous worker in the Young Men's Christian 
Association, having formerly officiated as pres- 
ident of that body, and chairman of its State 
work as well. He is a member of the board of 
trustees of Carlton College. Largely owing to 
his influence and effort the city came to pos- 
sess its Government building, its Market Hall 
and Como Park. The Ice Palace and Winter 
Carnival, too, originating as propositions of 
.Mi'. Noyes, have been, as it were, reduced to 
cold facts. Nor are his activities merely local. 
He is a member of the Century Club of New- 
York City — as well as of the home clubs, The 
Minnesota and Town and Country clubs — also 
of the National Social Science Association; 
and he was formerly president of the National 
Wholesale Druggists' Association, and a direc- 
tor for many years of the New York Equitable 
Life Assurance Society. In legislative affairs, 
both of the State and Nation, Mr. Noyes has 
been prominent and influential, particularly in 
such as concerned bankruptcy, tariff, revenue 
and transportation. He was among the ear- 
nest advocates of our present equitable nation- 
al law regulating bankruptcy; the repeal of 
I he earlier Stamp Tax was effected through a. 
movement of which he was the mainspring, 
and he has labored faithfully for the establish- 
ment of some measure of government control 
of our railroads. He is gratefully accredited 
by Minnesota as the author of some of her sal 
utary laws for the prevention of cruelty, and 
has been for twentv-five years continuously 

president of the State society organized in this 
cause. Mr. Noyes is a ready speaker and 
forcible writer — bright in repartee, yet earnest 
in purpose. The domestic side of Air. Noyes' 
life has been equally successful. On December 
J. lsfiii, he was married to Miss Helen Oilman, 
daughter of Winthrop Sargent Gilman, Esq.. 
of New York City. Of their five living children 
the three daughters are: Mrs. (Prof.) William 
Adams Brown, id' New York; Mrs. Saltus, of 
Paris, and Miss Noyes; their two sons: Win 
throp S. G. Noyes, of St. Paul, and D. Ray- 
mond Noyes. now attending the St. Paul's 
school at Concord, New Hampshire. The fine 
Noyes residence is situated on Summit avenue, 
overlooking the Mississippi; and as its owner 
is seen at home, hospitable, hale and hearty, 
he seems as one whom all misfortune has 
passed by. Yet, free as is this sketch from any 
tinge of sadness, we know there are hours 
when each life is brooded over by dark wings. 
Mr. Noyes has known years of illness and nec- 
essary retirement from active effort. These 
years were spent in study and travel and were 
not lost. In lives like that of Mr. Noyes often 
the glad consciousness of having done well lies 
side by side with the saddening thought of 
partial accomplishment and much still to do. 
Put this is a grief that has no sting and leaves 
no poison in the heart. 


No history of the Northwest is complete, no 
picture of Minnesota is adequate, that fails to 
show the heroic figure of the Most Reverend 
John Ireland, Archbishop of St. Paul, clearly in 
the foreground. He has for half a century lived 
in the Territory and State, and has grown with 
its growth. He was born in Ireland, Septem- 
ber 11, 1838, son of Richard Ireland, a contrac- 
tor and builder, an honest man. a useful 
citizen. At the age id' eleven years he emi- 
grated with his parents and other members of 
the family to the United States, stopping some 
time in Burlington, Vermont, and Chicago, Ill- 
inois. In 1852 the family settled in St. Paul 
for a permanent residence. Here his father 
died in 1887 and his mother in 1895, and here 



is slill the borne of the son who has attained 
greal distinction as a citizen and a prelate. 
In L853 young Ireland went to France to prose- 
cute his classical and theological studies as a 
preparation for the ministry in the Catholic 
Church. This work of scholastic preparation 
occupied eight full years — lour of which were 
spent at Meximieux in the department of Ain. 
and four at Hyeres, in the department of Var. 
Upon the completion of his theological course 
he returned home, and was ordained a priest 
at St. Paul, December 21, 1861, by Bishop 
Grace. Me was young, vigorous, thoroughly 
American, and intensely patriotic. It was 
therefore most natural and praiseworthy that 
he should offer his services to the Government 
at the time of its greatest peril, and consecrate 
his holy calling anew, by ministering to the 
comfort of the volunteer soldiers and bringing 
to them in extremity the consolations of reli- 
gion. In June. 1862, he received a commission 
as chaplain of the Fifth Regiment, Minnesota 
Volunteers, and joined the regiment in camp 
at Corinth. Mississippi. He was courage and 
devotion in the army, braving every danger, 
performing every duty, adapting his ministry 
to the wants of his comrades and fulfilling 
the high demands of patriotism in the march 
and the siege and the battle. He was with his 
regiment in the bloody battle of Corinth and 
in all subsequent engagements, until seven' 
and long-continued illness rendered further 
service impossible. Having tendered his resig- 
nation in April, lst;:;. he returned home and 
was assigned to the pastorate of the Cathedral 
parish, St. Paul, where he labored for several 
years. In recognition of his marked abilities 
and conspicuous services he was, in 1ST."), ap- 
pointed Titular Bishop of Moronea and Apos- 
tolic Vicar of Nebraska by the Sovereign 
Pontiff, but on the request of Bishop Grace 
this appointment was withdrawn and that of 
the Coadjutor of the See of St. Paul substi 
tuted. His consecration to the latter office 
i..ok place December 21. 1875. So it will be 
seen he was ordained a priest in December and 
consecrated to the solemn duties of the higher 
office in the same month, just fourteen years 
from the dav of his ordination. In the limited 

space available for the biography of one man 
in a single volume containing so many, it is 
impossible to sketch adequately a life so full, 
so varied in its work and so conspicuous in 
achievement as that of Archbishop Ireland. 
The merest outline and the briefest mention 
of the most important events must suffice; but 
these are sufficient to suggest the character 
and measure of the man. One of the grandesl 
and most far-reaching in its results among the 
acts of his early ministry was the institution 
of the Catholic Total Abstinence Society in 
Minnesota, which was organized in 1869. He 
stood for total abstinence from intoxicating 
liquors as the best protection of the home and 
the safeguard of manhood. From the small 
enrolment in that first organization Hi" mem 
bership of the society has increased to many 
thousands in the State, and its blessings will 
extend to many generations in the ages to 
come. Another beneficent act of inestimable 
value was his purchase of thousands of acres 
id' the cheap and fertile lands of Minnesota, 
whose settlement he effected, by serving prac- 
tically as emigrant agent. His scheme of 
colonization served to establish many settlers 
and to add millions to the productive capital 
and labor of the State. His life has been full 
of useful work for the improvement and eleva- 
tion of mankind; for the promotion of popular 
education and the establishment of Christian- 
ity in the land. In the fore rank of ecclesiastics, 
he has at all times lent his influence, by the 
inspiration of his oratory, the clear, crisp, con- 
vincing argument of his pen. and the influence 
of his personal example, supported all progres- 
sive movements in the local community, the 
State and the Nation. To the assembled teach 
ers of the common schools he saiil in a public 
address: "Palsied be the arm that is raised 
against free popular education." In another 
address before the Loyal Legion, referring to 
the alleged "race problem," he said: "There 
is no race problem. Justice knows no color 
line." Concerning the great railroad strike of 
1894, he said in an interview: 

"I dislike to speak of the Chicago strike. 
because in doing so I shall blame labor, where 



as because of my deep sympathy with it, I 
should wish to have none but words of praise 
for it. Yet, in a momentous social crisis such 
as l he one through which we are passing, it is 
a duty to speak loud and to make the avowal 
of the truths and principles which will save 
society and uphold justice, and I am glad of 
the opportunity which a representative of the 
press affords ine. The fatal mistake which has 
been made in connection with this strike is 
thai property has been destroyed, the liberty 
of citizens interfered with, human lives endan- 
gered, social order menaced, the institutions 
and freedom of the country put in most serious 
jeopardy. The moment such things happen, 
all possible questions as to the rights and 
grievances of labor must be dropped out of 
sight, and all efforts of law-abiding citizens 
and of public officials made to serve in main- 
taining public order and guarding at all cost 
the public weal. Labor must learn that how- 
ever sacred its rights be, there is something 
above them and absolutely supreme — social 
order and the laws of public justice. There 
is no civil crime as hideous and as pregnant 
of evil results as resistance to law and the 
constitutional authority of the country. This 
resistance is revolution; it begets chaos; it 
is anarchy; it disrupts the whole social fabric 
which insures the safety of the poor as well 
as of the rich, to the employe as well as to 
the employer. There can lie no hesitation to 
bring in the repressive powers of society when 
property is menaced. Only savages, or men 
who for the time being are turned into sav- 
ages, will burn or destroy property, whether 
it be the factory of the rich man or the poor 
man's cottage, a railroad car or a national 
building. .More criminal and more inexcusable 
yet. is the aci of murdering human beings, or 
of endangering their lives. Labor, too, niusl 
learn the lesson that the liberty of the citizens 
is to be respected. One man has the right to 
cease from work, but he has no light to drive 
another man from work. He who respects not 
the liberty of others shows himself unworthy 
of his own liberty and incapable of citizenship 
in a free country. Never can riots and mob 
rule and lawless depredations be tolerated. 
The country that permits them signs its death 

When the l.exow committee entered upon the 
investigation which exposed tin' corrupt meth- 
ods of Tammany Hall, and the infamous prac- 
tices of its police force, he supported the 
reform party with all the force of his elo- 
quence. And so at all times and in all places 

he stands for whatever is just and honorable 
in government, whatever is pure, elevating and 
progressive in social or community life, what- 
ever is honest, sincere, upright, generous, no- 
ble and of good report in the individual. 
Archbishop Ireland is what Governor Roose- 
velt would call a "strenuous man." His whole 
life is devoted to lifting up and improving thi 
condition, the character and the spirit of the 
larger community life, whether his energies 
are employed in the church, through the clergy 
or in the secular world. The scope of his 
genius is evidenced by the wonderful variety 
of its operations. To-day he delivers an ad- 
dress in behalf of higher education and takes 
the initial step to found a university; to-mor- 
row he addresses a public meeting called to 
promote a railroad, and lends his influence to 
the active, earnest support of a public move 
nteiit whose importance is unquestioned; be- 
tween days he is found in charitable work, 
relieving the wants of the humble poor. Yes 
terday he was called to Rome to confer with 
His Holiness the Pope; returning, he was in- 
vited to Washington to confer with the Presi- 
dent on affairs of State. His platform lectures 
cover a great variety of subjects. Everywhere, 
at all times, he is busy, speaking, teaching, 
winking — always for some useful and worthy 
end, and without neglecting ecclesiastic duties. 
On the occasion of Chicago's great interna- 
tional carnival, in October. 1899, the Arch- 
bishop, as a banquet guest of the Marquette 
club, responded to a toast. "The American 
Republic.'" Brief extracts from this will suf- 
fice to illustrate the trend of his thought and 
t he quality of his oratory: 

"Material prosperity belongs to us as to no 
other people. The Author of Nature made the 
Western Continent so opulent that under any 
form of government the people of America 
should prosper. But not only did no barrier 
to our prosperity arise from a Republican 
form of government; but this form, T am sure, 
has contributed much to it, by the impetus it 
a H'ords to individualism and personal initia- 
tive, by the sense of dignity and the conse- 
quent ambition il creates in every human soul, 
by the equal recognition of law given to aspira- 
tions and efforts from whatever social stratum 



they spring. It matters little to me what the 
difficulties arc that arc said to confront us; 
be they political, social or industrial — I have 
no fear. I trust the great good sense of the 
people; I trust the power of American publii 
opinion; I trust the freedom of the Republic, 
which allows healthful discussion; I trust 
American justice and American respect for 
human rights, born of American democracy. 
to solve iii due time every problem and remove 
every peril. With time for reflection, the peo- 
ple will proclaim the reign of justice and of 
charity. I fear only the effects of momentary 
passion and the rashness it occasions. Hence 
the motto of Americans should be patience and 
prudence, and meanwhile energetic and unsel- 
fish work for country and for humanity, for 
righteousness and for God. * * * * The 
American Republic! She lives and liberty lives 
with her. The flag of the American Republic 
means liberty. Wherever it goes, liberty goes 
wit h it. With anxious eye and throbbing heart 
we watch to-day the journeying of the Haj; of 
America toward distant isles; we pray for its 
safety and its honor; we proclaim that in Asia 
as in America it means liberty and all the 
blessings thai go with liberty. Some say — it 
means in Asia the repression of liberty. God 
forbid! It means in Asia the institution of 
civil order, so that America, to whom the fates 
of war have brought the unsought duty of 
maintaining order in those isles, may see and 
know who are the people of the Philippines; 
who there have the righl to speak for the peo- 
ple, what the people desire and for what the 
people are fitted. Civil order restored — and it 
must be restored — the flag of America may be 
trusted to be for the Philippines the harbinger 
and the guardian of the liberty and the rights 
of the people. The American Republic! She 
will live, and with her liberty will live." 

In profound scholarship, in (he variety and 
accuracy of historical information, in famil- 
iarity with church polity, he is the equal of 
lite most learned prelate in the land, in the 
practical knowledge of affairs, in the intimacy 
of social intercourse with statesmen, in the 
confidential relations with the administration 
of the National Government, he is foremost 
amongst them all. lie is first a man, broad, 
strong, independent; intensely American in his 
love and pride of nationality; cosmopolitan in 
familiar intercourse and knowledge of men; 

catholic in spirit, in sympathy, in methods of 
work to accomplish reforms. He accepts truth 
in any guise, wherever found; he comprehends 
its universal aspect. He believes Christianity 
is progressive; that it adapts itself to condi- 
tions, to social position, to every phase of life 
and tn ethical, economic and political prob- 
lems. His active interest in affairs attests his 
belief that a prelate is not absolved from the 
duties of citizenship; but rather impelled by 
a high sense of duty to employ his activities 
and his influence in support of public policies 
which he believes to be right and expedient. 
His tolerance in matters of religion is ex- 
pressed in the Constitution of the United 
States — liberty in form of worship and impar- 
tial protection to worshipers — and therefore 
believes that for America the separation of 
Church and State is wise. Instead of the im- 
plication of hostility in such separation he 
finds abundant evidences of accord, reciprocal 
esteem and mutual helpfulness. Archbishop 
Ireland has remarkable power for doing things, 
and one of the sources of that power is found 
in his discriminating judgment in the selection 
of instrumentalities, his tact in choosing the 
right man for a particular position or work. 
This is a manifestation of the highest exec- 
utive ability. His capacity is multiplied by 
his method of working through others, wisely 
chosen. His love of the human race is so per- 
vasive as to exclude race prejudice and inspire 
a consciousness that working for humanity is 
the highest form of serving God. His stal- 
wart and symmetrical physical proportions 
suggest great strength and endurance, and at 
the same time generous impulses and large 
sympathies. He encourages the aspirations of 
the ambitious and supports the efforts of the 

I r and the weak to improve their condition. 

A worthy companion of the great and power 
ful, he is equally the friend of the humble who 
need assistance, characteristic independence 
of thoughl and boldness of expression, not in 
consistent with a high regard for the canons 
and dignitaries of the church, enlarges the 
sphere of his influence. Active performance 
of civic duties, public spirited promotion of 
secular enterprises, earnest advocacy of social 

tfo. ^XCo-^d^yU t^i 



reforms and a higher, purer individual life, 
and the advisory relationship with rulers, add 
to his dignity and eminent usefulness. 


It is the privilege of few citizens of any com- 
monwealth to exercise as wide an influence 
upon its affairs, and to touch its life at so many 
points, as has William Drew Washburn in his 
more than forty years' residence in Minnesota. 
Coming here as a pioneer, before Statehood 
had been attained, he lias been a part of the 
wonderful development of four decades — has 
seen the State change from a mere scattered 
group of frontier settlements to a well peopled 
community holding a leading position in agri- 
culture, manufactures and commerce, and the 
village in which he made his home, in 1857, 
become the chief city of the State. Through 
this period of evolution Mr. Washburn lias 
been a forceful influence in most of those lines 
of endeavor which have made the State and 
city so conspicuously successful. He was early 
identified with the improvement of the water 
power which became the nucleus of the man- 
ufacturing greatness of Minneapolis, and no 
one was more influential in fostering and pro- 
moting the manufactures of the new Stale both 
by wise encouragement and by example. Later 
lie became interested, also, in other lines of 
business, and took a most prominent part. 
through railroad construction, in opening the 
lines of commerce. During his long business 
career he has had a pari in the financial ami 
investment interests of the city and State, and 
in the later manufacturing enterprises. Organ- 
ized public work has found in him a leader and 
supporter at all times. Mr. Washburn's activ- 
ity in the promotion of public interests had 
much to do with his political successes, and 
in political life he lias been peculiarly fortu- 
nate in supplementing his other labors by 
giving In the Northwest some of its most im- 
portant public works. In the course of his 
public career Mr. Washburn has been a factor 
in local. State and National politics — affecting 
Minnesota life from every possible political 

standpoint. And while the State has felt his 
influence in all these diverse directions, his 
own city has been aware of his presence as a 
constant force in more social questions; in 
such matters as public and private charities, 
education, the church, the improvement of the 
city, the maintenance of lofty standards in 
those things which make for the higher life of 
the community. In democratic America, where 
ancestry counts for lint little as a factor in 
success, there is still a just cause for worthy 
pride in descent from those who made Amer- 
ican conditions possible, or in family relation 
with men who have been conspicuous in the 
service of the Nation. As a descendant of old 
Pilgrim stock, and as one of a group of broth- 
ers who constituted perhaps the most distin- 
guished family contemporaneously in public 
life in I he United States. Mr. Washburn might 
be pardoned for a large degree of family pride. 
The first Washburns in America were John 
Washburn, secretary of the council of Ely 
mouth, and his son John, who came to this 
country with him. The latter married Eliza- 
beth Mitchell, the daughter of Experience 
Mitchell and Jane Cook, and granddaughter of 
Francis Cook, who came over in the Mayflower 
in 1620. The family had originally lived, prob- 
ably for many generations, in the village of 
Evesham, not far from Stratford on Avon, in 
one of the most beautiful parts of England. 
Israel Washburn, born in list, was directly 
descended from these Puritan ancestors. His 
father served in Hie Revolution, as did the 
father of his wife. Martha Benjamin, whom he 
married in 1812. Mrs. Washburn's father was 
Lieut. Samuel Benjamin, a patriot of whose 
valor and persistence in his country's cause 
it need only lie said that he participated in the 
Battle of Lexington and fought through the 
whole war to Yorktown, where he was present 
at the surrender of Lord Cornwallis. Few of 
the soldiers who fought for American inde- 
pendence saw, as did Lieutenant Benjamin, the 
first and lasl battles of the great struggle. 
Israel and Martha Washburn made their home 
on a farm in Livermore, .Maine, and it was 
here thai their large family was reared. To 
the parents' influence, to the stern training of 



farm life in the Maine "hark woods," to the 
inheritance of patriotism and love of achieve- 
ment, and to their own steadfast endeavor, is 
due in very large measure the wonderful suc- 
cess of the group of boys born in this Maine 
farm home. There was little of material ad- 
vantage to be found surrounding these hoys 
during their early life. The father was no 
more successful than the average New Eng- 
land farmer, 1ml he was an alert, intelligent 
man, a reader, a man of hard common sense 
and with the largest ambit inns to give to his 
sons every opportunity for success. Of the 
mother it is said that she "was a practical 
housekeeper, industrious, frugal, sagacious, 
stimulating to the children's consciences, sin- 
cerely religious withal, and hence gave those 
under her precious charge an unalterable bent 
towards pure and lofty ends." It was in such 
a home that eleven children were born, of 
whom the seven sons have achieved worthy 
prominence in public life. In his "Triumphant 
Democracy" Andrew Carnegie says of this 
group of men: 

"Their career is typically American. The 
Washburns are a family indeed, seven sons, 
and all of them men of mark.' Several of them 
have distinguished themselves so greatly as to 
become a part of their country's history. The 
family record includes a Secretary of State, 
two Governors, four Members of Congress, a 
major general in the army and another second 
in command in the navy. Two served as For- 
eign Ministers, two as State Legislators, and 
one as Surveyor General. As all these services 
were performed during the Civil War, there 
were Washburns in nearly every department 
of State, laboring cam]) and council for the 
Republic, at the sacrifice of great personal 

As the youngest child in the family. William 
D. Washburn had, in addition to the influence 
of his parents, the stimulation of the example 
of his brothers who were already entering pub- 
lic life while he was a school boy. Israel 
Washburn. Jr., was elected to Congress in 
1850, when William, who was born in 1831, 
was but nineteen years of age. The young men 
had already become prominent in Maine State 
politics, and Israel, after serving four terms 

in Congress, was elected War Governor of his 
native State. Elihu B. Washburn served as 
Congressman from Illinois from 185:! to I860, 
when he was appointed Secretary of State by 
President Grant. During the Franco-Prussian 
war h<' was Minister Plenipotentiary to 
France. Cadwallader C. Washburn was in 
Congress both before and after the war. was 
a general in the Union army, and in 1871 was 
elected Governor of Wisconsin. Charles A. 
Washburn was minister to Paraguay; Samuel 
I!. Washburn was a distinguished officer in the 
navy. Beyond what has been said of his early 
influences there was little that was distinctive 
about the boyhood of Mr. Washburn. It was 
the common experience of the son of a New- 
England farmer — the district school in the 
winter and farm work in the summer. As he 
grew old enough to take a heavier part in the 
farming, the school months of the year became 
fewer. Short terms at a village "high school" 
and neighboring academies supplemented the 
district school experiences, and finally at 
Farinington Academy he was able to prepare 
for college. In the year 1850, when he was 
nineteen, he entered Bowdoin College — that 
honored alma mater of such men as Haw 
thorne, Longfellow, William 1'. Fessemlen. 
President Franklin Pierce, Chief Justice Ful- 
ler, Senator John P. Hale. General O. O. How 
ard and Thomas B. Reed — and graduated four 
years later with the bachelor's degree, after 
completing a full classical course. The suc- 
ceeding three years were devoted to the study 
of law in the office of his brother, Israel Wash 
burn. Jr.. and with Judge John A. Peters, now 
and for many years past Chief Justice of the 
Supreme Court of Maine. During this period 
he spent part of his time in Washington per- 
forming the duties of a clerk in the House of 
Representatives, where he obtained his first 
acquaintance with the affairs of Congress and 
with the public men of that time. Two id' Mr. 
Washburn's brothers had already made their 
home in the West, and upon completing his 
law studies he determined to follow their ex- 
ample. It was not difficult to decide upon a 
location. I iverinore had already sent men to 
the Falls of St. Anthony, and his brothers. 



Elilm and Cadwallader, had acquired interests 
there iiiid elsewhere in Minnesota. 11 seemed 
a place with ;i greater future than any other 
western sett lenient. The young man believed 
thai he saw in it a held worthy of his energies; 
but it is hardly probable that his highest 
flights of fancy pictured the Minneapolis of 
today as a possibility during his own life- 
time. On May 1, 1857, Mr. Washburn reached 
Minneapolis and shortly after opened a law 
office. The contrast between the town in which 
he settled and the city of today is striking. 
The population was then perhaps 12.000 as com- 
pared with over 200,000 in 1899; there were 
about two hundred buildings of all kinds in 
the village, and few of them were worth more 
than $1,000. There were no railroads, and the 
great manufacturing industries of the present 
time were represented by one or two small 
mills. Into this scattered collection of frame 
buildings there was pouring, however, a stream 
of immigrants, and speculation and building 
were keeping the people busy. There seemed 
every prospect of coming prosperity. But that 
stability necessary for security during finan- 
cial difficulties had not been attained, and the 
same summer saw such reverses as to make 
the outlook very dismal. Mr. Washburn ar- 
rived just in time to experience, with the town 
of his choice, all the troubles of the panic of 
1857. There was little law business to be hail, 
and soon after his arrival he became the seen 
tary and agent of the Minneapolis Mill Com- 
pany — the corporation controlling the west 
side power at the Falls of St. Anthony. This 
was a most fortunate appointment for Minne- 
apolis as well as Mr. Washburn. It brought 
into immediate exercise in behalf of the vil- 
lage those extraordinary executive faculties 
which have ever since been so continuously 
devoted to the interests of the city. To Mr. 
Washburn it gave the opportunity for famil- 
iarizing himself with the possibilities of manu- 
facturing at the falls, which was the basis of 
his future success. Later generations in Minne- 
apolis are entirely unfamiliar with the extent 
of the debt of the city to Mr. Washburn, in- 
curred during these early days. With thai 
characteristic energy and determination which 

has since become so well known to the people 
of the city, he commenced the improvement of 
the power controlled by his company. During 
1857 the original dam on the west side was 
built — this in the midst of great financial em- 
barrassments. It was a tremendous struggle, 
a great load to be laid on the shoulders of a 
man then but twenty-six years of age. But 
dam and raceway were finally completed. The 
young agent shrewdly guessed, however, that 
his battle was only half won. On the east side 
of tlie river there was a better power with 
more eligible mill sites; but the policy of its 
managers discouraged new enterprises. Mr. 
Washburn decided that the west side works 
must have mills, and he at once adopted a lib- 
eral policy and leased mill powers, now com- 
manding a yearly rental of $1,500, as low as 
$133 per annum, to persons who would estab- 
lish mills. The plan worked admirably. 
Everyone knows now how the Hour mills gath- 
ered about the west side raceway until there 
was built up the greatest group in the whole 
world. Until the industries at the falls were 
put upon a firm foundation, Mr. Washburn re- 
mained the agent of the company, and he has 
always maintained a large interest in it. He 
has never been out of touch with the manufac- 
turing interests of the State since that first 
summer's work at the Falls of St. Anthony. 
Receiving, in 1861, the appointment of Sur- 
veyor General at the hands of President Lin- 
coln, it became necessary for Mr. Washburn 
to remove to St. Paul for a time. It was while 
in this office that his friends acquired the habit 
of prefixing the title "General" to his name; 
a custom so well established that it has con- 
tinued through all the various offices which 
he has held. While Surveyor General, Mr. 
Washburn became familiar with the timber re- 
sources of the State, and, purchasing consid- 
erable tracts, afterwards engaged extensively 
in the lumber business. He formed the firm of 
W. I>. Washburn & Co., built a saw mill at the 
falls, and later one at Anoka, and until 1889 
carried on a very large lumber business. In 
1ST:! he entered (lour milling, and speedily be- 
came an important factor in the production of 
that Minneapolis staple. His interests in flour 



manufacturing were through the original firm 
of \V. ]). Washburn .V: Co. and Washburn, 
Crosby & Co. The firm of W. D. Washburn 
& Co. subsequently, in lsst, was merged in the 
Washburn Mill Company, and in 1889 the flour 
milling division of this business was consoli- 
dated with the Pillsbury interests in the Pills- 
bury- Washburn Flour .Mills Company, forming 
the largest flour milling corporation in i li<- 
world. At (his time there were large acces- 
sions of English capital, bu1 Mr. Washburn re- 
tained — as he does a1 lliis time — a large inter- 
est, and has been cunt inuously one of the hoard 
of American directors of the properties. The 
Minneapolis Mill Company was also consoli- 
dated with the new corporation which after 
wards completed the work of harnessing the 
power of St. Anthony Falls by the construc- 
tion of a new dam and power house a short 
distance below the main falls. This rapid 
sketching of what would seem a life work for 
any man, gives, however, hut one side of the 
business activities of Mr. Washburn — his inter- 
est in developing the two leading industries of 
Minnesota. It has been said id' one of tin- 
greatest of Englishmen that while many men 
"think in parishes" and a few "think in na- 
tions," he "thinks in continents." Applying 
this thought to business it might be said that 
while many men think in single lines of trade, 
a few think in the broad lines of general man- 
ufacturing or jobbing, while only a very lim- 
ited number think through the whole question 
of producing, distributing, financing and trans- 
porting. To the latter class Mr. Washburn be- 
longs, lie has, from time to time, and very 
much of the time, had considerable interest 
in the financial institutions of Minneapolis, in 
wholesale trade, in real-estate. Bui aside from 
his influence in the development of manufac- 
turing his most conspicuous undertakings, and 
those in which the public has been most inter- 
ested, have been the ureal railroad projects 
which he has successfully consummated. The 
early railroad system of the State had devel- 
oped along such lines thai Mr. Washburn, with 

other Minneapolis business men. felt the n 1 

of a railroad running towards the south, which 
would afford transportation direct to Minne- 

apolis, anil which should be controlled in the 
interests of Minneapolis. The result was the 
Minneapolis & St. Louis railroad carried 
through, during the seventies, very largely by 
the efforts of .Mi-. Washburn, who was its presi 
dent for some time. The end desired having 
been accomplished, he retired from the man- 
agement, and early in the eighties commenced 
to agitate the subject of a line direct to tide- 
water and completely independent of the 
domination of Chicago interests. The project 
was a startling one — fascinating by its very 
audacity; to build five hundred miles through 
an unsettled wilderness to a connection with a 
foreign railroad — to do this to free the city 
from the detrimental effects of combinations 
in the interests of competitors! To be finan- 
cially successful the projected railroad must 
depend largely upon its through business, and 
that (dass of business must be mostly export 
flour and wheat — and Minneapolis flour ex- 
porting had then but partially developed. Put 
there was a Washburn behind the plan — and 
it went through. The road was built in five 
years — the Minneapolis, St. Paul & Sault Ste. 
Marie. And, since, it has been extended west- 
ward through Minnesota and North Dakota to 
another connection with the Canadian Pacific, 
thus giving Minneapolis another transconti- 
nental line. Mr. Washburn was president of 
I he "Soo" line during its construction and until 
his election to the Senate, lie still retains 
large interests and has been continuously a 
director. In fact, the Soo line without Mr. 
Washburn would he, to use the familiar simile, 
like the play id' Hamlet with Hamlet left out. 
After a dozen years of the enjoyment of the 
benefits derived from the Soo ( 'anadian con- 
in (lion Willi thi' East, the people of Minnesola 
have come, perhaps, to accept it unthinkingly 
and without remembering the tremendous dif- 
ficulties which ils construction involved, or the 
splendid energy and ability with which ils 
child' promoter carried out the project. Gen- 
eral Washburn's commercial activities con 
liinie. his penchant for pioneering finding 
abundant scope jusl now in the development of 
a I rail of some 115,000 acres of land in North 
Dakota through which he is building a rail- 


1 3'J 

road. Those qualities in Mr. Washburn which 
hare made him a successful railroad builder, 
a great manufacturer and a shrewd developer 
of new country have contributed in large meas- 
ure to his success in political life. The ability 
to "think in continents'' marks the successful 
man in public life as certainly as it does the 
winner in business. A broad conception of the 
commercial needs of the Northwest and a well 
developed creative faculty, together with those 
qualities of mind and manner which aid in 
controlling and winning men, made Mr. Wash- 
burn unusually successful in his public service 
to the State and Nation. He was first 
called to hold office in 1858, when he 
was elected to the Minnesota Legisla- 
ture, then a newcomer in the State and but 
twenty-seven years of age. Three years later he 
received from President Lincoln the appoint- 
ment of Surveyor General of Minnesota. In 
18G6 he was chosen to the school board of 
Minneapolis, and assisted in the early devel- 
opment of the school system so prized by the 
people of the city. The year 1871 found him 
again in the State Legislature, using his rap 
idly growing influence in the support of legis- 
lation looking to State supervision and control 
of railroads. By this time it was conceded 
that he was to take a foremost position in 
Minnesota politics, and in 1873 his friends 
nearly secured his nomination for Governor of 
the State. After the decisive vote in the con- 
vention it was claimed by Mr. Washburn's 
friends that two ballots had not been counted. 
These would have changed the result, but Mr. 
Washburn refused to contest the nomination. 
In 1878 he commenced six years of continuous 
service in Congress, terminating only when he 
declined renomination for the fourth term on 
account of his intention to concentrate his at- 
tention upon the Soo railroad project, which 
he had just then commenced. The completion 
of the Soo line in 1888 made it possible for 
him to withdraw from executive management 
of the enterprise and become a candidate for 
the United States Senate, to which office he 
was chosen in the following year. Again, in 
1895, he was a candidate, but was not elected. 
Trusting in the very positive assurances of 

even those who afterwards opposed him, thai 
there would be no opposition to his candidacy, 
he had confidently expected re-election, and 
frankly admitted his great disappointment. He 
would, under no circumstances, have reap- 
peared as a candidate had he known of the 
opposition which was to develop. In this as in 
all cases where he has not been "on top" in a 
political struggle, Mr. Washburn quietly ac- 
cepted the situation ; he has never been a "sore 
head" or posed as a disgruntled politician. 
When Mr. Washburn went into Congress in 
1878 he was equipped for service as no other 
Northwestern representative had ever been. 
To a wide acquaintance with public men and a 
familiarity with methods and usages at Wash- 
ington, he added a thorough knowledge of the 
country which he was to represent — not only 
a political knowledge, but also a comprehen- 
sive view of its commercial needs. As has 
been said, he had been largely instrumental in 
developing the two great manufacturing indus 
tries of the State, and, with twenty years of 
study, was familiar, in the minutest details, 
with their requirements in the way of trans- 
portation, development of power and supply 
of raw materials. It had been his pleasure as 
well as a necessity of his business to study ag- 
ricultural conditions. He saw the interdepend- 
ence of all the interests of the Northwest, and 
grasped the great principles which have since 
been generally recognized as underlying the 
permanent prosperity of Minnesota and the 
neighboring States. In Congress he set about 
working out the fulfillment of ideas which had 
been gradually taking form, and the accom- 
plishments of the twenty years since he en- 
tered that body have been prolific in the fruit 
of the score of years of earlier experience and 
study. As far back as 1860 Mr. Washburn had 
conceived the plan of impounding the flood 
waters of the upper Mississippi river in great 
reservoirs near the headwaters. It was an 
adaptation of the plan in use on the Merrimac 
river in New England. But it was far more 
comprehensive in form and had four purposes 
in view, where the New England scheme had 
but one. Mr. Washburn had observed the de- 
structive work of the floods in the Mississippi 



and the contrast afforded by the periods of 
extreme low water, when navigation was se- 
riously impeded. To mitigate the floods and at 
the same time save the surplus of water for 
use in seasons of drouth was the central 
thought. Iiut all the results were not fur the 
benefit of navigation and the protection (if 
farmers along the river banks. There was a 
large traffic in logs on the river. The naviga- 
tion of the Mississippi by the common saw-log 
was quite as important as that of the steamer. 
To save the logs from being swept away by 
floods or "hung up" on sand bars in low water 
was an important part of the impounding 
scheme. Again, the water of the Mississippi 
was used for power at Minneapolis and other 
points. In flood times vast quantities of water 
went to waste; in low water seasons the vol- 
ume was not sufficient for the needs of the 
mills. An equalization of the flow was thus 
of the greatest importance to navigation, the 
farmers, the loggers, and the manufacturers. 
Having the project in mind as one sure to be 
realized some day, Mr. Washburn, in 18(39, 
purchased of the Government the forty acres 
at Pokegama Falls, on the upper Mississippi 
river, which his judgment told him would be 
required for the key of the system. When the 
project was finally approved and entered upon, 
Mr. Washburn conveyed this land to the Gov- 
ernment without charge. It was ten years 
after his conception of the plan that Mr. Wash- 
burn commenced his campaign in Congress. 
Like all projects calling for large appropria- 
tions, it required persistent endeavor; but 
finally he had the satisfaction of seeing the 
system of dams and reservoirs completed — a 
system which has been of untold benefit to the 
interests above mentioned. Early in his Con- 
gressional career he also commenced to give 
careful attention to the needs of navigation 
upon the Mississippi from the standpoint of 
direct improvements of the channel, and se- 
cured many appropriations for the work on the 
upper river. He laid the foundations for the 
appropriations for the locks and dams imme- 
diately below Minneapolis, which, when com 
pleted, will give Minneapolis direct navigation 
to the gulf and all the great tributaries of the 

Mississippi. But there were still broader ques- 
tions under consideration. Mr. Washburn had 
a keen appreciation of the relations of the 
Great Lakes to the commercial development of 
the Northwest. He saw distinctly that this 
greal water route to and from the seaboard 
was the key to the commercial problem of his 
State. Cheap transportation would make pos- 
sible such a development (if farming and manu- 
facturing as had never been conceived of. To 
secure the cheapest transportation, however, 
there must be free and unobstructed channels 
through the lake system of such depth that 
vessels of modern build might pass without de- 
tention. And so, as a member of the commit- 
tee of commerce, Mr. Washburn secured the 
first appropriation for the improvement of the 
Hay Lake channel in the Sault Ste. Marie river 
— the beginning of the great ''twenty-foot" 
project which has since made possible the 
navigation of the lakes by a fleet of vessels 
carrying a commerce unequaled on any water- 
way in the world. While these great projects 
received much of Mr. Washburn's thought 
while in the House, he was by no means un- 
mindful of the special needs of his district; his 
success in looking after its interests being 
amply testified to by the frequent renomina- 
tions which came to him. Among the most 
important items of his special work for Min- 
neapolis was the bill for a public building, 
which he successfully promoted early in the 
eighties. These material matters, important 
and engrossing as they were, did not interfere 
with Mr. Washburn's participation in all na- 
tional questions which came before Congress 
during his terms of office. He had always been 
a student of public affairs. Though a life-long 
and consistent Republican, he has a vein of 
independence in his make-up which has been 
perhaps developed through a settled habit of 
looking at things in their broader aspects 
rather than from the point of view of the poli- 
tician who sees only the immediate political 
effects. This habit of thought has brought 
him from time to time into apparent variance 
with his party; but it has usually been ac- 
knowledged, afterwards, thai he was right. 
Perhaps the best example of this political 



characteristic of Mr. Washburn was his oppo- 
sition to the so-called "force bill" while in the 
Senate. It will be remembered that the Lodge 
bill received the support of the Republican 
Senators — excepting about half a dozen "Sil- 
ver Republicans," who had formed a combina- 
tion with the Democrats — and that Mr. Wash- 
burn was the only Senator on that side of the 
house who opposed the measure. Believing 
that it was wrong in principle, and that it 
would not accomplish what it aimed to do, he 
voted against it — and received unstinted criti- 
cism from the party press for his independence 
of thought and action. The years which have 
passed since this episode have served to show 
that Mr. Washburn was right. There are prob- 
ably few men in the Republican party to-day 
who would favor such a measure as that pro- 
posed by Senator Lodge. Mr. Washburn does 
not pretend to flowery oratorical powers; he 
relies upon plain and earnest statements and 
sound logic and reasoning. And in presenting 
a question in this way he is very successful. 
And so, while not among the Congressmen 
whose voices are heard on every topic, he has 
been heard with the greatest respect when he 
has spoken on the floor of the House or Senate 
Chamber. During his Senatorial term he made 
two very elaborate speeches, which would 
have given him a very wide reputation had he 
never taken any other part in Congressional 
debates. One of these efforts was in support 
of the anti-option bill, the championship of 
which measure made Senator Washburn for a 
time the most conspicuous figure in the Senate. 
Believing profoundly in the principle that the 
buying and selling of that which did not exist 
was contrary to the laws of economics, and in 
practice injurious to business and morals, 
while it worked enormous detriment to the 
agricultural interests of the country, Mr. 
Washburn threw himself into the fight for 
the measure with a whole-souled energy which 
could have but one result. For four months the 
bill was the unfinished business in the Senate. 
It was a battle royal with enormous monied in- 
terests to contend with; but the victory was 
finally won. Senator Washburn's principal 
speech in support of this bill attracted wide 

attention in this country and abroad. The bill 
was throttled in the House and Mr. Washburn 
believes there has been a loss of hundreds of 
millions to the country, for which the leaders 
of the House, who prevented the votes, are 
responsible. By far the most elaborate and 
carefully prepared speech which Mr. Wash 
burn delivered while in the Senate was that 
upon the revenue bill of 1894, when he argued 
against the repeal of the reciprocity provisions 
secured by Mr. Blaine in 1890. This speech— 
on "reciprocity and new markets"— was one of 
the most comprehensive discussions of the 
reciprocity principle, the development of the 
commerce of the United States during its two 
years of trial, and the future possibilities of 
the system, which was ever made in Congress. 
While bringing statistics to show the trade 
relations with all American nations, Mr. Wash- 
burn gave special attention to Cuba, showing 
the wonderful increase in trade with that 
island under the reciprocal treaty with Spain. 
It was, of course, a foregone conclusion that 
the Democratic Congress would repeal the 
reciprocity agreements, but Mr. Washburn's 
speech revealed in all its baldness the certain 
result of such action— results which followed 
speedily and surely. Prolonged absence at 
times from his home city have not prevented 
Mr. Washburn and his family from filling a 
large place in the social life of Minneapolis. As 
soon as he had established himself in his new 
home Mr. Washburn returned to Maine, where, 
April 19, 1859, he was married to Miss Lizzie 
Muzzy, daughter of the Hon. Franklin Muzzy, a 
Bangor manufacturer and a man prominent in 
the political life of the State. A modest home 
was established in Minneapolis, and here their 
children, four sons and two daughters, passed 
their early childhood. Realizing that increas- 
ing fortune brought with it increased obliga- 
tion, Mr. Washburn some years ago purchased 
a beautiful tract of land and erected a mansion 
surrounded by most attractive grounds. This 
home, which was named "Fair Oaks," has be- 
come not only a center of social attraction, but 
an object of pride in a city where beauty of 
surroundings and the refinements of life are 
most highly appreciated. October 24, 1859, a 



meeting was held in the village of Minneapolis 
for the purpose of organizing a Universalis! 
Church. On this occasion Mr. Washburn oc- 
cupied the chair, and his connection with the 
Church of the Redeemer dates from that meet- 
ing. It was at first a struggling society; it is 
now one of the leading churches of the denom- 
ination in the country. In its early vicissi- 
tudes and its later prosperity it has continu- 
ally had reason to remember Mr. Washburn's 
constant generosity, for in his church connec- 
tion, as in all other matters, he has been lib- 
eral in his contributions where there has been 
evidence of need and worthy object to be ac- 
complished. Of Mr. Washburn's religious be- 
liefs there could be no better testimony than 
this, from one in a position to know whereof he 
speaks : 

"Mr. Washburn is modest and sparing in his 
religious professions, but deep-rooted in his 
religious convictions. His father and mother 
were earnest Dniversalists, and he inherited 
their faith. To this he has been as loyal as to 
the other parental examples. His creed is 
pretty well summed up in the words. 'Father- 
hood of God and Brotherhood of Man." The 
broad spirit he shows elsewhere blossoms in 
his thoughts on spiritual matters. His daily 
prayer must be, in substance, that all men may 
one day be good, pure republicans of this world 
and saints in the next. Freedom for all and 
Heaven for all are his mottoes.'' 

The same excellent authority describes his 
friend in these words: 

"In personal appearance Mr. Washburn may 
be considered a very elegant gentleman. Neat 
and fashionable in his attire, symmetrical in 
form, inclining to slimness, erect, of more than 
medium height, clear-cut features, and bright, 
earnest eyes, graceful in movement, correct in 
speech, he impresses one even at first as a per 
son who has had always the best surroundings. 
He is dignified in manner, and is not indiffer- 
ent to style in whatever pertains to him. If on 
any occasion he shows abruptness of language 
and is slightly overbearing, difficult to be ap- 
proached, by strangers especially, it is owing 
generally and chiefly to the thorns of business 
he feels at the moment pricking him or to want 
of time to be himself. Hurry sometimes trips 

The latter part of this estimate seems at 
present inaccurate, however true it may have 
been when written — at a time when Mr. Wash 
Iniin was carrying vast loads of care both com 
mercial and political. It may be thai the prog- 
ress of years has softened a manner which still 
retains, however, all its characteristic dignity. 
Mr. Washburn has traveled much. It is almost 
a necessity to a man of his temperament to see 
what is going on in the world outside the lim- 
its of his home city or State. He has from time 
to time visited every part of the United States, 
.Mexico, Cuba and Canada. Six times he has 
visited Europe, on one of these pilgrimages ex- 
tending his journeyings to Egypt and the Nile, 
and on another seeing Norway and Sweden — 
the "Land of the Midnight Sun" — and Russia. 
Three years ago he spent six months in China, 
Japan and other oriental countries, and would 
have completed the "round the world" tour 
had it not been for the prevalence of the 
plague in India. In travel Mr. Washburn finds 
that continued education and those broadening 
influences which every intelligent man wel- 
comes throughout his life. lie has also found 
such rest from the cares of a life of much more 
than ordinary activity and responsibility that 
he is, at the age of sixty-eight, still in his 
prime, and bears himself with the air of a man 
much his junior. He is to-day, as he has al- 
ways been, a growing man. His interest in 
public affairs is unabated, and the attention 
which is paid to his views was very recently 
evidenced, when an interview, in which he de- 
nounced the trust evil, was quoted and com- 
mented upon from one end of the English 
speaking world to the other. 


Judge Greenleaf Clark was born in Plais- 
tow, Rockingham county. New Hampshire. 
August '2-'., 1 *:!.-. He is from Puritan stock, 
and is the son of Nathaniel it he seventh of 
that name in a direct line) and Betsy (P.rickett) 
Clark. The first Nathaniel was an Englishman 
by birth, who settled probably in Ipswich, Mas- 
sachusetts, some time during the first half of 

S*-1/LjZa^iJjL' <*lf- -'^fer^La^y^ 



the Seventeenth Century, and was married on 
November 23, 1663, at Newbury, in the same 
Slate, where he then resided, to Elizabeth 
Somerby, granddaughter, on the mother's side, 
of Edmund Greenleaf, who was of Huguenot 
origin, and came to Newbury in 1635. The pa- 
ternal grandfather of Judge Clark enlisted, on 
March 14, 1781, at the age of sixteen, in the 
war of the Revolution. He was wounded dur- 
ing his service, which was continuous from the 
date of his enlistment to the end of the war. 
The subject of this sketch attended the public 
school of his native town, and was afterwards 
fitted for college at Atkinson Academy, in New 
Hampshire. He matriculated at Dartmouth 
College in 1851, and received the degree of A. 
B. from that institution in June, 1855. Imme- 
diately afterwards he began reading law in 
the office of Hatch & Webster, at Portsmouth. 
New Hampshire, and after a short period of 
study there, entered the Harvard Law School, 
from which he obtained the degree of LL. B. 
in 1857. During the same year he was admit 
ted at Boston to the Suffolk bar. In the fall 
of 1858 he came to St. Paul, Minnesota, where 
he has since resided, and engaged as a clerk 
in the law office of Michael E. Ames. After a 
brief term of service in that capacity he en- 
tered into partnership with Mr. Ames and 
ex-Judge Moses Sherburne, under the style of 
Ames, Sherburne & Clark. The firm was dis- 
solved in 1800, and Mr. Clark became associ- 
ated with Samuel R. Bond — now a lawyer of 
Washington, D. C. — forming the firm of Bond 
& Clark. This connection also was severed in 
1862, when Mr. Bond left the State. Mr. Clark 
then conducted an individual practice until 
1865, when he entered a new partnership, this 
time with the eminent Horace R. Bigelow. The 
business of the firm of Bigelow & Clark de- 
veloped to a great magnitude, and in the year 
1870 Charles E. Flandrau, then an ex-Judge of 
the Supreme Court, became a member of it. the 
firm being Bigelow, Flandrau & Clark. This 
firm continued in business until the year 1881, 
when it was dissolved upon the appointment 
of Mr. Clark as an Associate Justice of the Su- 
preme Court of Minnesota. He served about a 
year in that capacity, during which time there 

was argued at great length, and decided, the 
important case involving the constitutionality 
of the legislative enactments for the adjust 
meat of the Minnesota Slate Railroad bonds. 
Upon leaving the bench, Judge Clark resumed 
the practice of the law, and in 1885 became as 
sociated in business with the late Homer C. El 
ler and dared How (now of How & Taylor), un- 
der the firm name of Clark, Eller & I lew. which 
firm was dissolved January 1. lsss, by the per- 
manent retirement of Judge Clark from the 
practice of his profession. The firms of Bige- 
low & Clark, and Bigelow, Flandrau & Clark. 
although engaged in general practice, were 
largely concerned in corporation business. 
They acted as the general counsel for the St. 
Paul and Pacific, and the First division of the 
St. Paul and Pacific Railroad companies (one 
of the land grant systems of the State), up to 
the time of their re-organization — consequent 
upon the foreclosure of the mortgages thereon 
— into the St. Paul, Minneapolis and Mani- 
toba Railway Company (now the Great North- 
ern i, in 1880. They also acted as the attorneys 
of the Minnesota Central Railway Company, 
extending from St. Paul and Minneapolis 
through Minnesota and Iowa to Prairie du 
< 'hien, Wisconsin, which had a land grant from 
Congress, and of the St. Paul and Chicago 
Railway Company, extending from St. Paul to 
I.a Crosse, Wisconsin, which had a swamp land 
grant from the State, and for the Southern 
Minnesota Railroad Company, extending from 
La Crescent to the western boundary of the 
State, also a Congressional land grant com- 
pany; all three of which afterwards became 
parts of the Milwaukee and St. Paul railway 
system, of which organization, afterwards the 
Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul Railway 
Company, they were also attorneys. These 
services embraced the periods of the construe 
lion of these lines in Minnesota, the acquisition 
of their right of way and terminal grounds and 
facilities by condemnation and otherwise, as 
well as the foreclosure of the St. Paul and Pa- 
cific Railroad Companies, and the Southern 
Minnesota Railway Company, and their 
subsequent reorganization. They involved the 
conduct and defence of a large number of law- 

1 44 


suits, both in the State and Federal Courts, in- 
volving, among other questions, the chartered 
rights, powers, immunities and duties of these 
companies, and in the case of the first division 
of the St. Paul and Pacific Railroad Company, 
its legal corporate existence, as well as their 
rights to lands under these land grants, and 
the adjustment of conflicting grants with other 
companies. After Judge Clark's retirement 
from the bench he returned to general practice, 
and became at once engaged in the service of 
railroad corporations, though not the general 
counsel of any of them. He, and the firm of 
which he was the head, served, in special suits 
and other matters, the St. Paul and Sioux City 
Railroad Company, the St. Paul and Duluth 
Railroad Company, the St. Paul, Minneapolis 
and Manitoba Railway Company, and the 
Great Northern Railway Company. His ser- 
vices were largely engaged in matters con- 
nected with the organization and construction 
of extensions and proprietary lines and prop- 
erties, the preparation of trust deeds and 
securities connected with the financing of the 
various companies, the preparation of leases 
and trackage, traffic and other contracts con- 
nected with their operation and their relation 
to other companies, and to the purchase and 
consolidation of other properties. In 1870 
Judge Clark was appointed a regent of the 
University of Minnesota, which office he has 
continued to hold by repeated appointments, 
from that date to the present time. While 
Judge Clark's period of service on the bench 
was very brief, a number of his opinions deliv- 
ered during that time have become leading 
eases and landmarks in the law. It was a 
source of profound regret to all his friends, as 
well as a great loss to the State that he felt 
compelled, by reason of the impairment of his 
health by his long and arduous labors in his 
profession, to retire from the active practice 
of the law when he was still in the prime of 
life and capable of doing his very best work. 

A leading member of the Minnesota Bar 

"Judge Clark was one of the leaders of the 
bar; no man at the bar of the Northwest ex- 
celled him in soundness of judgment, in power 

of analysis, in grasp of mind or clearness of 
statement. His forte was not erudition or 
technical learning; he was not what is known 
as a case lawyer. He had that rare legal in- 
stinct, or perception, which detects the turn 
ing point or pivotal question, discarding imma- 
terial and collateral inquiries. This is a mark 
of the highest order of legal intellect, and 
only tlie experienced lawyer or judge knows 
how rare it is. His grasp and power of mind 
and patient industry brought him almost-with- 
out exception to correct conclusions. 

Few lawyers ever felt the responsibility of 
their client's troubles more seriously than 
Judge Clark. This forced him to undergo an 
amount of labor which was unusual. He was 
incapable of disposing of questions lightly or 
easily. It was an essential part of his habit 
of mind to treat everything seriously and thor- 
oughly. He was incapable of quitting a sub- 
ject without digging to the bottom of it. His 
important railway contracts and mortgages 
were models, and owe their value to his having 
scanned and weighed their every word, as 
well as to his having understood thoroughly 
every subject with which his contract dealt. 
The writer of this can testify from personal 
knowledge that while he may have known 
lawyers who knew more cases or who had 
more showy accomplishments, he never knew 
one whose judgment was sounder or who was 
more apt to be right on a legal question, par- 
ticularly on a fundamental or great question. 

But without detracting from his other emi- 
nent talents, his highest qualification to be 
called a great lawyer was probably his perfect 
honesty and love of justice. He was both in- 
tellectually and morally honest, which at once 
enabled him to discern what was just, and led 
him to do it. As law is founded on moral jus 
tice, no man can be a great lawyer without 
these qualities. Judge Clark possesses them 
to the highest degree." 


Among those who were the real founders of 
the city of Minneapolis, and who helped to lay 
the foundations of the present greatness of the 
Commonwealth of Minnesota, a well-known 
pioneer, business man and philanthropist of 
the city and State, was Henry Titus Welles. 
This distinguished citizen came to Minnesota 
in 1853, and after a career of usefulness and 
prominence extending over a period of forty- 




five years, died in the city which he had done 
so much to create, March 4, 1898. Henry T. 
Welles was born at Glastonbury, Connecticut, 
April 3, 1821. His father was Jonathan Welles 
and the maiden name of his mother was Jeru- 
sha Welles, his parents being cousins in the 
second degree. He came of a very old New 
England family. He was a direct descendant 
of Thomas Welles, the founder of the family in 
America, who came from England in 1G3G, and 
was subsequently Governor of the Colony of 
Connecticut. Gideon Welles, President Lin- 
coln's Secretary of the Navy, was also a de- 
scendant of Thomas Welles. The English 
branch of the family was established when 
some of its members came in from Prance with 
William the Conqueror, the name at first being 
written De Welles. The paternal grandfather 
of Henry T.Welles married Catherine, a grand- 
daughter of Gurdon Saltonsta.ll, who was Gov- 
ernor of Connecticut from 1707 to 1724, dying 
in office. Jonathan Welles was an industrious 
and thrifty Connecticut farmer, and his son 
Henry T. was reared to young manhood on his 
father's farm, which had been in the posses 
sion of the family for four generations. He 
was brought up to hard work, economy, and to 
deal uprightly and honorably with all men. 
As a boy he was unusually bright and apt, 
fond of study and reading, and quick to learn. 
He soon passed the course of the common 
country school, and when but twelve years old 
entered an academy, and began preparatory 
studies in algebra, natural philosophy and 
Latin. One of his preceptors was Elihu Bur- 
ritt, the celebrated astronomer and linguist, 
known to fame as "the learned blacksmith." 
His education was completed at Trinity Col- 
lege, Hartford, Connecticut, from which insti- 
tution — then called Washington College — he 
was graduated in 1843. Among his classmates 
were Thomas S. Preston, subsequently Vicar- 
General of the Catholic Arch-Diocese of New 
York; William B. Curtis, who became Chief 
Justice of the New York Superior Court, and 
Henry A. Sanford, at one time United States 
Minister to Belgium. His scholastic attain 
ments were very superior. He was especially 
proficient in the classics, and read Latin and 

Greek almost as fluently as his mother lan- 
guage, and he had a profound knowledge of 
mathematics and the other sciences. For a 
time after his graduation he taught the higher 
branches of learning in a select school, lb 
read law and was enrolled among the attor- 
neys of Hartford county. In 1850 he was 
elected to the Legislature. Soon after his Leg- 
islative experience his health became impaired 
and he was advised to seek a change of climate. 
He decided on a trip to the Northwest, and 
after a long journey, arrived at St. Paul, June 
12, 1853. The next day he went up to St. 
Anthony Falls. He at once decided upon a 
permanent location at "the Falls'' in the then 
young Territory, with its clear skies, beautiful 
scenes and magnificent possibilities. In his 
reminiscences of the incident, he subsequently 
wrote : 

"I had reached my destination. I was more 
than satisfied. When I looked down from 
.Meeker Hill on the various landscape of river, 
cataract, prairie and grove, and the mills, 
stores, and dwellings now embraced in the 
city of Minneapolis, I felt a homelike pleasure 
that has continued unabated to this day. The 
loss of my native home was compensated. I 
became a fixture in another. It was the fittest 
place in all the earth for me — as if I had been 
miraculously taken up into the clouds and 
borne westward, and by the guiding hand of 
Providence dropped down upon it." 

It is rare that a man of scholastic tastes and 
accomplishments decides upon an active busi- 
ness career, involving hard and persistent 
labor and endeavor, and the many exactions 
incident to such a life. Most men of the kind 
choose a career of more refinement, and enter 
one of the so-called professions, becoming col- 
lege professors, lawyers, doctors or the like. 
But Henry T. Welles was active and enter- 
prising by nature, and inured to practical work 
from boyhood. He was a man of versatile 
abilities, could adapt himself to surroundings, 
and could do almost anything. Within a few- 
days after his arrival at St. Anthony he had 
formed a partnership with Franklin Steele, 
who then lived at Fort Snelling, in the conduct 
of his saw-mills at the Falls and in the lumber 

r 4 6 


business generally, and was hard at work. 
Franklin Steele and Henry T. Welles were 
both good judges of men. They "took to" each 
other on sight. Their estimates were correct, 
and their partnership was profitable and suc- 
cessful from the start. Within the present 
limits the career of Henry T. Welles in 
Minnesota can only be imperfectly sketched. 
At once upon his arrival here, he became 
a leader among his fellow citizens. In 
1855 he was elected mayor of St. Anthony. 
In 1856 he crossed the river and located 
in what was then called Minneapolis, and 
in 1858, .as president of the town council, 
was the first head of the municipal govern- 
ment. The same year he was president of the 
school board. He and Mr. Steele, as proprie- 
tors of the Minneapolis Bridge Company, in 
1855, built the first bridge that spanned the 
Mississippi river. The bridges lower down the 
river, between Iowa and Illinois, were built 
afterwards. He was naturally an engineer, 
and superintended in fact nearly all of the 
many works of construction in which he was 
interested. Soon after he entered into part- 
nership with Mr. Steele in the saw-milling 
business, the water in the channel of the river 
became so low that the mill-power wheels 
would not turn. Everybody was in despair, 
for the prosperity of the place depended 
upon the continuous operation of the 
saw-mills. Mr. Welles, with his Yankee 
tact, readily conceived a remedy for the 
bad state of things. Constructing some 
frames called "horses," he set them in 
the channel, floated and fastened slabs against 
them, and thus made a "horse and slab"' dam, 
which narrowed the channel, increased the 
volume of water, and the wheels went merrily 
around. He always had an expedient for 
every emergency. His investments in Minne- 
apolis lots and blocks, and other real estate 
in Minneapolis, were always judiciously made 
and proved highly profitable. He early be- 
came interested in railroad building in Minne- 
sota, and he was present at the session of Con- 
gress in 185G-7 for some weeks, earnestly 
urging governmenl aid for projected roads in 
the Territory. At one time he owned a great 

part of the town of Breckenridge, but he gave 
nearly all of his interests away — one hundred 
acres to the town for a park and fair grounds, 
one hundred and sixty acres to the Episcopal 
Diocese of Minnesota, lots to the Catholic and 
Protestant churches, a block for the court 
house, etc. In 1855 he became one of the pro- 
prietors of St. ('loud, and did his share in 
founding that city. His acquirements of 
material interests were large, but his ben- 
efactions in aid of churches, schools, mu- 
nicipalities and his fellow men generally, 
amounted to a large fortune. His gifts 
to the Faribault institutions alone amounted 
to $70,000. In Minneapolis he and Mr. Steele 
gave to St. Mark's church the site of the pres- 
ent Kasota building; to the First Baptist 
church, virtually the site of the Lumber Ex- 
change; to the Second Baptist a large lot on 
Hennepin avenue, etc. To the Episcopal and 
Catholic churches Mr. Welles alone gave $20,- 
000 in cash, besides making liberal donations 
at different times to other churches, hospitals, 
educational institutions and worthy charities. 
If he received fully, he gave freely. He never 
neglected his full duty as a citizen and a man. 
In all public enterprises for the good of his 
city, his county and his State, he was among 
the foremost. It was his efforts which induced 
the people of Minneapolis to vote aid to pre- 
vent the falls from falling to ruin, and mainly 
through his individual efforts the large 
"apron," which protects them, was construct- 
ed. It is said that he always voted at elections 
— and voted as lie pleased. He was not a poli- 
tician as the term is commonly construed, 
but he always had his opinions on matters of 
public policy, and did not hesitate to express 
them. In 1S63 he was the Democratic candi- 
date for Governor of Minnesota, but was de- 
feated by Cen. Stephen Miller. This was during 
the War of the Rebellion, when — whether just- 
ly so or not — the Democratic party was in 
public disfavor, and he knew there was no 
possible chance of his election when he accept- 
ed the nomination. He was, however, a War 
Democrat, earnestly in favor of subduing the 
Rebellion at all hazards, and no impeachment 
was ever made of his loyalty and patriotism. 



He only doubted, at the time, the wisdom of 
certain policies of the Republican party. Ee 
was a friend — but not a foolish friend — of the 
colored people, and in Connecticut he had 
taughf a school where negro children were ad- 
mitted to full privileges with the whites. He 
was wholly unbiased and unprejudiced in all 
his views, so that in politics he was practically 
independent; in religion tolerant and liberal; 
in all tilings charitable. Until the very 
last months of his life he was a very busy 
man. He assisted in organizing the North- 
western National Bank and was for many 
years its president. He was one of the 
organizers of the Farmers & Mechanics 
Savings Bank, and was for a long time promi- 
nent in its affairs. His other interests were 
large and important, and while he gave them 
his individual attention and managed them 
well, he became, in the public estimation, most 
prominently identified with the financial inter- 
ests of the Northwest, and more widely known 
as a financier. This ripe scholar, this public 
citizen, this man of affairs, was a sincere and 
humble Christian and a devout religionist, be- 
lieving and trusting in Almighty Cod and serv- 
ing Him. He had given the subject of religion 
much study and thought from early life, and 
his convictions were as deep as his investiga- 
tions had been thorough. He was a communi- 
cant of the Episcopal Church, but tolerant ami 
well disposed towards all other Christian de- 
nominations. A few days before he left Con 
necticut for the Northwest, on May 3rd, 1853, 
Mi'. Welles married Jerusha Lord, a daughter 
of Joseph Lord, of Glastonbury. To their 
union were born six children. Mr. Welles 
died at Minneapolis, March 4, 1898, at the 
ripe age of nearly seventy seven years. It 
was alnnist in the nature of a divine dis- 
pensation that he was permitted to die in 
the splendid city, where lie had been so long 
and so actively employed, which he had done 
so much to create and build up, so that the city 
itself is practically his besi monument, and 
where there were so many of his fellow men 
who knew him best and loved him most. And 
though he had more than reached the allotted 
span of life to the good man, it was felt that 

his death was untimely and amounted to a 
public misfortune. "So should a man end his 




Hon. William Mitchell, the distinguished 
jurist who has for many years been one of the 
judges of the Supreme Court of Minnesota, was 
born in the town of Stamford, County of Wel- 
land, Providence of Ontario, Canada, Novem- 
ber 1.9, 1832. His parents, John Mitchell ami 
Mary Henderson, were natives of Scotland. His 
early education was received in private schools. 
and he was prepared for college at a private 
academy in his native county. In 1848 he came 
to the United States, and the same year, at the 
age of sixteen, he entered Jefferson College, 
Canonsberg, Pennsylvania, and graduated 
from that institution in the class of 1853. Af- 
ter his graduation he was for two years a 
teacher in an academy at Morgantown, Vir- 
ginia (now West Virginia). He then engaged 
in the study of law in the office of Hon. Edgar 
M. Wilson of Morgantown, and was admitted 
to the bar in that place in March, 1807. 
In April, 1867, a month after his admission, 
he came to Minnesota and located at Winona. 
in the practice of his chosen profession. He 
was in constant and prominent practice until 
ls74. In the meantime he served in the second 
State Legislature, in the session of 1859-60, and 
was subsequently, for one term, county attor- 
ney of Winona county. In the fall of 187-"> 
he was elected -fudge of the District Court 
of the Third Judicial District for a term 
of seven years, and went on the bench 
in January, 1874. He was reelected in 
the fall of 1880, and was in service until 
March, 1881, when he was appointed by Gov- 
ernor Pillsbliry one of the judges of the State 
Supreme Court. He was regularly elected 1o 
that position in the fall of 1881, and by sue 
cessive re-elections he has served continuously 
up to the present time. His term will expire in 
January, 1900, when he will leave the position 
which he has so long and so eminently rilled. 
Upon the eve of his retirement it is but justice 
and truth to say that Judge Mitchell has 

1 4§ 


served in his high judicial position with the 
greatest acceptability. His profound and ex- 
haustive knowledge of the law, his clour intel- 
ligence, and his broad spirit of fairness have 
combined to give him a most exalted reputa- 
tion. His opinions have come to be regarded 
as weighty and standard authorities, and they 
have a wide range over the entire field of juris 
prudence. Some of his decisions have been 
against the interests of the political party with 
which he is connected, but in such instances 
were as promptly and fully rendered as if they 
related lo matters of an altogether different 
character. He has attained to such distinction 
among the lawyers and courts of the North- 
west, that there lias long been a desire for his 
advancement and further preferment. He lias 
done a great deal of hard and exacting work, 
but is splendidly preserved, mentally and phys- 
ically, and is capable of many more years of 
active and valuable service in his profession. 
Originally a Republican, Judge Mitchell has 
been an Independent Democrat since 1807, but 
lias always been elected to office by a non-par- 
tisan vote, and sometimes by a universal suf- 
frage. A distinguished lawyer of St. Paul, who 
was for many years on the Supreme Bench of 
the Slate says: 

"I may here state that Judge Mitchell 
never made any effort in his own behalf 
when he was a candidate for judge, hold- 
ing that it was unbecoming in a judge to do 
so, and (he nominations and elections, there- 
lore, came to him because of the estimation in 
which the people held him as a man and as a 
jurist. As a man, I do not exaggerate when I 
say that no one in our State has been held in 
greater esteem as a man of purity and high 
character. In point of ability, I think then' 
has never been on the bench of our State his 
superior as a judge." 

From an editorial in the "Pioneer Press" 
(Republican), November 2, L89S, we quote the 

"Judge Mitchell was the one man on the Su- 
preme Bench that could least be spared. He 
was put there originally by appointment of 
Governor Pillsbury seventeen years ago, both 
because of the high reputation he had gained 

as a District Judge, and also because lie was a 
Democrat, it being the strong desire of Gover- 
nor Pillsbury to satisfy the prevailing public 
sentiment in favor of a non-partisan judiciary. 
Appointed originally by a 
Republican Governor, lie has been three limes 
nominated by the concurrent action of the state 
conventions of both parties and elected by the 
unanimous vote of the electors of all parties. 
And this not only because he has represented 
the principle of non-partisanship in the judi- 
ciary, but because of his exceptionally high 
standing and reputation as a judge; because 
he united the intellectual and moral qualities 
— the ability, learning and acuteness of a great 
jurist with I he purity and unbending integrity 
of an honest man — which constitute the ideal 
judge. 'Without disparagement to oilier 
judges on the bench, it is safe to say thai, in 
the general opinion of the bar. there is none 
of .lodge Mitchell's associates on the bench, 
and none who have been nominated on either 
ticket, who could not be far better spared than 
he. * * * » And Judge Mitchell's repu- 
tation as a judge extends far beyond the boun- 
daries of his own State. No better proof could 
be afforded of the high estimation in which 
he is held as a jurist by lawyers throughout 
the country, or of the great respect entertained 
for his judicial opinions, than is afforded by 
the following letter received by a leading law- 
yer of Minneapolis soon after the failure of the 
Republican State convention to nominate him, 
from Professor Thayer, of the Harvard Law 

'Cambridge, Mass.. Sept. 2, 1898.— My Dear 
Sir: I am astonished to hear that there is 
doubt of the re-election of Judge Mitchell to 
your Supreme Court. I wish the people of 
Minnesota knew the estimate that is put upon 
him in other parts of the country, and there 
could be no doubt about it then. 

I never saw him and have no personal ac- 
quaintance with him. I know him only as a 
judge whose opinions, like those of all the 
judges in the country, reach me through the 
excellent law reports published in your State. 
In the course of my work at the Harvard Law 
School I have long had to search carefully 
through these reports for cases relating to my 
special subjects. In that way I have long rec- 
ognized .lodge Mitchell as one of the best 
judges in this country, and have come to know 
also the opinion held of him by lawyers com- 
petent to pass an opinion on such a question. 

There is no occasion for making an exception 
of the Supreme Court of the United Stales. 
On no court in I he country to-day is there a 
judge who would not find his peer in Judge 

A, M*£v^$ic 


1 40 

Mitchell. * * * * Pray do not allow your State 
to lose the services of such a man. To keep 
him on the bench is a service not merely to 
Minnesota, but to the whole country and to the 
law. Your State it is that is on trial now before 
the country. The question is: Can Minnesota 
appreciate such a man? Is it worthy to have 
him? I am not going to believe that a State 
which can command the services of one of the 
few judges in the country that stand out 
among their fellows as pre-eminent, that give- 
it distinction, will refuse to accept those serv- 
ices. You lawyers of Minnesota must not let 
party politics work any such result. Surely 
the bar can prevent it if they will. 
Always truly yours 

J. B. Thayer.'" 

Judge Mitchell has been twice married. His 
first marriage was to Mrs. E. Jane Smith, of 
Morgantown, Virginia, in September, 1857. She 
died in September, 1867, leaving three daugh- 
ters, who subsequently became Mrs. J. K. Ew- 
ing, Mrs. Henry L. Staples, and Mrs. Frank A. 
Hancock. His second marriage was in July, 
1*72. to Mrs. Francis M. Smith, of Chicago. 
She died in March, 1801, leaving a son, Mr. 
William De Witt Mitchell, who graduated 
from the Law School of the Minnesota State 
University in the class of 1896, and is now en- 
gaged in the practice of his profession in St. 


The harmonious life of the late Judge 
John Melville Shaw, of Minneapolis, here 
sketched in outline, long identified with 
tlie progressive development of Minnesota, and 
deeply lamented when cut off, was nurtured in 
a rural nest hidden away among the hills of 
Maine. Though born and reared in a retired 
nook, this son of the Pine-Tree Stale possessed 
by birthright all those sturdy and true forces 
tit character which qualify a man to grasp and 
grapple with the complex problems of metro- 
politan life. His remote ancestry was Scotch 
English on the father's side. English on the 
mother's; while nearer, we find the energies 
representative of both sides twining- in numer- 
ous strands among the virile liber of which 

New England was built up. From the paternal 
slock, early colonists to America added their 
quota to the vitality of Massachusetts Bay; 
the grandfather of Judge Shaw was an ardent 
patriot of the Revolution, who, as a boy ser- 
geant, fought at Bunker Hill. Disabled for 
hind service by a wound in the foot, he became 
a privateer, continuing as such until independ- 
ence was declared. Judge Shaw's mother was 
the daughter of Benjamin French, a distin- 
guished physician of Maine, and counted 
among her earlier ancestors a Pilgrim Father. 
Thomas French, and an English rector, Rev. 
Joseph Hull, a graduate of Oxford, who, in 
1621, relinquished his parish in Devon to join 
the young settlement in Massachusetts. From 
each of these settlers sprang families of re- 
pute, in the annals of which we find record of 
successful jurists, including Hon. Daniel 
French of New Hampshire and Hon. Henry 
French of Boston, grandfather and father, re- 
spectively, of the noted sculptor, Daniel Ches- 
ter French. George Shaw, the youthful patriot 
above mentioned, located in the town of Ex- 
eter, Maine, near which his numerous sons and 
daughters also settled, most of them upon 
farms. One of the sons, however, the name- 
sake of his father, eschewing the agricultural 
life, found commercial prosperity in the city 
of Mexico, while John, the eighth child, be- 
came the leading merchant of his little home 
village, which honored him by adopting the 
name of "Shaw's Corner.'' This merchant 
came in time to be the father of a goodly fam- 
ily. Of the three sons, the eldest died in child 
hood. The youngest is Maj. George K. Shaw. 
who has won distinction in the Northwest as 
a journalist. He is a veteran of the Civil War 
and father of Captain Melville J. Shaw of the 
T. S. Marine Corps, who was brevetted in rec- 
ognition of his courageous service at Guanta 
namo. It is with the second of these sons. 
John Melville Shaw, that we are now chieflj 
concerned. He was horn December IS, 18:',:!, 
and passed childhood and early youth in his 
rural home. He attended both the public 
school and the private high school of the vil- 
lage, and was for a few terms a student at 
East Corinth Academy. He was now prepared 



for college, but his ambitions in this direction 
were not to In- realized. Financial reverses 
had conic, and the family decided to seek bet- 
ter fortune in the West. They set out on their 
journey, intending to proceed directly to St. 
Anthony's Falls; but the lateness of the season 
and consequent close of navigation checked 
their progress at Galena, Illinois, where they 
were obliged to spend the winter. Both John 
Melville and his father found opportunities to 
teach during the cold weather, and in April 
the father pushed on up the river. He took 
up lands in the vicinity of St. Paul and Wi- 
nona, sending his sons to hold the former 
claim, while himself retaining the latter. But 
his sudden death a few months later resulted 
in the abandoning of the lands and loss of the 
money invested in them, with the exception 
of a farming tract at Cottage Grove. John 
Melville, though bul nineteen years of age. 
now found himself the head of the family, 
with little capital save his personal abilities. 
His cherished hope for a liberal education 
must be finally renounced, but despair could 
find no vulnerable point in his armor of youth 
ful courage. Continuing to live at Galena, 
in the household for which he fell responsible, 
he toiled for five years as bookkeeper and 
shipping clerk for a wholesale grocery concern, 
in reality working as two men. for the salary 
of one. And there was still a third man in 
him— intellectual, eager, aspiring, who often 
in the watches of the night might have been 
found poring over classics, both literary and 
legal. Though denied the fulfillment of his 
collegiate dream, he determined to master the 
legal profession, and so thorough was his soli- 
tary work to this end that it took bul one year 
of study in a law office to enable him to pass 
I he examination of the Supreme Court of Illi- 
nois and gain admittance to the bar. For two 
years he practiced at Galena; he then went 
to l'lalleville, Wisconsin, and entered into a 
partnership with John G. Scott. The business 
outlook in l'latteville seemed promising, but 
the Civil War was on, and both partners felt 
the call of their country. Together they raised 
Company F, of the Twenty tilth Wisconsin 
Volunteer Infantry, and on September 1, 1862, 

with -Mr. Scott as captain and Mr. Shaw as 
second lieutenant, Company F, with the rest 
of the regiment, marched for the front. First 
serving in the Minnesota Indian campaign, the 
regiment was then sent to Vicksburg to rein- 
force General Grant. Subsequently it was 
changed to the trans -Mississippi department 
and to that of the Tennessee. For upwards of 
a year Lieutenant Shaw served as judge-advo- 
cate of the general court-martial at Columbus, 
Kentucky, having also officiated as first assist 
ant quartermaster. Afterwards, upon the 
death of Captain Scott, he succeeded to the 
vacant post, and with his company partici- 
pated in the Atlanta campaign, and the im- 
mortal march through Georgia. Being again. 
in the spring of 1865, detailed as judgeadvo 
cate, and acting provost marshal of the First 
Division, he served in both capacities until the 
end of the war. As an officer Captain Shaw 
won the respect alike of those he led in battle 
and his superiors in rank; as a soldier-corn 
rade he endeared himself to all. His military 
experiences having undermined his health. 
upon return from the war, he sought its 
restoration in the invigorating atmosphere of 
Minnesota, and in February. 1866, located as 
an attorney at Minneapolis. His practice came 
slowly but surely, drawn by the unfailing mag- 
netism of superior ability and faithful applica- 
tion to duty, and in 1868 he entered into a 
partnership with Hon. Franklin Beebe. In 
1S7."> Judge Beebe withdrew from the firm, and 
Albert Levi and Willard R. Cray entered it. 
Judge Best subsequently becoming a member. 
Other changes occurred later on, and at the 
time of the senior partner's death the firm was 
operating as Shaw. Cray, Lancaster & Parker. 
In July. 1881, Mr. Shaw was ottered a position 
on the Supreme Bench, he having been for sev- 
eral years recognized as the head of the Hen- 
nepin county bar; but for various impersonal 
reasons he decided to decline this honor SO 
fondly cherished in the profession. In the fol- 
lowing year, however, his health showing signs 
of giving wax under the stress of work, he was 
persuaded by his friends to till a position va- 
cated al that tii n the District Bench of 

the county; and at the following general elec- 



tioii he was unanimously chosen for the full 
six-years' term. But ho found this office less 
to his taste than independent practice, and in 
1883, his health having' become much im- 
proved, he resumed and pursued during his 
remaining years his favorite line of work. 
Apart from his judgeship, the only public office 
he ever held was that of city attorney for a 
single term during (he early days in Minne- 
apolis, lie was eminently qualified to compete 
for laurels in public life with I he brightest and 
the best; but although brave, self-respecting 
and aggressive for the right, he was still a 
modest and retiring man. He was a staunch 
Republican, and felt a lively interest in all 
that a Heeled the public weal, but never posed 
as a politician or sought public preferment. 
His life interest was centered in his work, 
which he loved for its own sake — for the sake 
of justice. He was essentially and scrupu- 
lously just. The humblest of his petitioners 
was as secure of an equitable adjustment of 
his cause as was his most influential client ; 
and the same conscientious thoroughness and 
accuracy characterized his preparation for 
minor cases as for the many weighty ones 
through which he became renowned. Justice 
he would have done, even though it entailed 
his own pecuniary detriment. Yet he pros- 
pered. Clients Hocked to him, confided in him, 
accepted his advice as gospel. During the last 
twenty years of his life there were few civil 
causes of prime importance tried in the State 
in which he did not figure prominently. Nor 
was his practice confined to his own State. 
He was frequently associated with distin- 
guished lawyers in New York and other dis- 
tant cities in litigations of magnitude. So 
logical, terse and exact was his written work 
that portions of it have been incorporated into 
•court decisions; and the value of his services 
in the profession is attested in no less than 
fifty volumes of Minnesota State Reports, as 
also in various other legal publications. A.S 
he was a lover of justice, so he was a hater 
of all devices to defeat the ends of justice, 
and, before the bar, his tongue could lie most 
scathing in their denunciation. His was an 
orator's tongue, but in the social circle its 

trenchant edge was softened to a tone of genial 
humor which made him the most entertaining 
and companionable of men. From his pen, 
likewise fluent and forceful, the press gleaned 
many a valuable article on current topics. In 
the meetings of the G. A. R. and Loyal Legion, 
of which Judge Shaw was a member, he was 
always a conspicuous personality, the most 
faithful affection existing between him and his 
old army comrades. Side by side with this 
loyalty in his breast was the more remote loy- 
alty and patriotism handed down by his Revo- 
lutionary grandsire. and a keen interest in 
reformatory movements inherited from his 
father, a man always abreast of the times. In 
September, 1864, during a furlough from mili- 
tary service. Mr. Shaw was united in marriage 
to Miss Ellen A. Eliot, a schoolmate of his boy- 
hood, and a distant relative on the French 
side. Mrs. Shaw and the three children of the 
marriage are living. The two daughters are 
Mrs. Cavour S. Langdon and Miss Rertha 
Shaw; the son, John Eliot Shaw, has grad- 
uated at Yale, and is now a law student in his 
father's former office and at the State Univer- 
sity. Judge Shaw was a loyal son and brother, 
a most devoted husband and father. His home 
was one in which reigned harmony and happi- 
ness. The same noble unselfishness which 
kept his purse open to public charity extended 
to the domestic and social circles. With all 
his simple virtues he had an aesthetic side. He 
reveled in the refined luxuries of culture, mu- 
sic, art, poetry. He possessed a choice library, 
literary as well as legal, and spent many bliss- 
ful hours of retirement among his books. He 
was one of those rare characters "whose hearts 
have a look southwards, and are open fo the 
whole noon of nature; whose weaknesses are 
lovely as (heir strengths, like the white, nebu- 
lous matter between stars, which, if not light, 
at least is likes! light ; men whom we build our 
love round like an arch of triumph, as they 
pass us on their way to glory and to immor- 
tality." Judge Shaw was stricken with heart 
failure and died December 6, 1S!>7, with his 
mind still full of hopeful plans for future ac- 
tivity. Removed from the midst of bereaved 
friends, yet not lost to the world ; for the influ- 



ence of so gracious a life, exerted for three- 
score years, must continue, potentially, deep- 
ening and widening ad infinitum. 


The name of Pillsbury has become so promi- 
nent and so honored throughout this country 
and is so well known abroad that a brief men- 
tion of the ancestry of the Pillsbury family 
may be interesting. The family history 
has been traced back to William Pills- 
bury (sometimes spelled Pillsberry and some- 
times Pillsborough), who was born in the 
county of Essex, in England, in 1615. 
William Pillsbury came to Dorchester, in 
the colony of Massachusetts bay, in 16-40, 
where he married Dorothy Crosby. In 1651 
he settled on a farm in Newbury, Massachu- 
setts, now a part of Newburyport, and this 
farm property lias remained in the possession 
of the Pillsbury family from L651 to the pres- 
ent time. The eoat of arms of the Pillsbury 
family in England, whence came the family, 
bore the inscription, "Labor Omnia Yincit," a 
motto which is suggestive of the industry and 
diligence which has always characterized all 
the branches of the Pillsbury family in this 
country. William Pillsbury died at Newbury 
June 10, 1686, leaving ten children, seven sons 
and three daughters. Moses Pillsbury, second 
son of William and Dorothy Crosby Pillsbury, 
was bom in Dorchester, Massachusetts, and 
in 1668 married Mrs. Susanna Whipple of New 
bury. To them were born six children. Caleb, 
second son of .Moses and Susanna, was born in 
Newbury in L681, and married Sarah Morss in 
1703. Caleb, son of Caleb and Sarah Morss 
Pillsbury. was born in Newbury January 26, 
1717: he married Sarah Kimball of Amesbury, 
Massachusetts, July, 1742, and to them were 
born seven children. Caleb Pillsbury. Jr.. was 
for several years, and at the time of his death, 
a member of the .Massachusetts General Court. 
Micajah, fourth son of Caleb, Jr., and Sarah 
Kimball, was born in Amesbury, Massachu 
setts. May 22, L761, and in 17S1 married Sarah 
Sargent, of Amesbury, and to them were born 

eight children, four sons and four daughters. 
Micajah Pillsbury and family moved from 
Amesbury. Massachusetts, to Sutton, New 
Hampshire, in February, 1705, where he re- 
mained until his death in 1802, occupying 
various offices of town trust. His wife survived 
him several years. Stephen, the oldest son, 
was a Baptist clergyman; the other brothers. 
including John, the father of George Alfred 
Pillsbury, were all magistrates of the town 
of Sutton, New Hampshire. John Pills- 
bury, the father of George A., was born 
in 1789. He was prominent in the town 
affairs of Sutton, being a selectman for several 
years, and representing the town in the State 
Legislature. He was also a captain in the 
State militia, in those days when a military 
commission had a significance. On the 2d of 
April, 1811, he married Susan Wadleigh, a 
daughter of Benjamin Wadleigh, a settler in 
Sutton in 1771. Benjamin Wadleigh was a 
descendant of Robert Wadleigh of Exeter, 
New Hampshire, a member of the Provincial 
Legislature of Massachusetts. On the mater- 
nal side the ancestry was good. The maternal 
grandmother was the daughter of Ebenezer 
Kezar, who, it is related, concealed the girl 
whom he afterwards married under a pile of 
boards, at the time Mrs. Duston was captured 
by the Indians in 1607. He was identified with 
the early history of Sutton in many ways. To 
John and Susan Wadleigh Pillsbury were born 
five children, to-wit: Simon Wadleigh Pills- 
bury, born June 22, 1812; George Alfred. Au- 
gust 20, 1816; Dolly Wadleigh. September 6, 
1818; John Sargent, July 20, 1S27, and Benja- 
min Franklin. March 20, 1831. All the chil- 
dren received the common school education of 
those days; but Simon W., whose natural 
fondness for study distinguished him as a 
young man, gave his attention to special 
branches of study, particularly mathematics, 
in which he became known as one of. if not the 
best, in the State. He delivered the first lec- 
ture in Sutton on the subject of temperance; 
but too much study wore down his health, and 
he died in 1836, cutting short a promising 
future. Of the other brothers, John Sargent is 
too well known to need mention, as he is the 



distinguished ex-Governor J. S. Pillsbury of 
Minnesota. The remaining brother, Benjamin 
F. Pillsbury, remained in Sutton until 1878, 
where he filled many places of trust, being 
elected selectman, town treasurer and a mem- 
ber of the Legislature for a series of years. In 
1878 Benjamin F. Pillsbury removed to Gran- 
ite Falls, Minnesota, where he was engaged 
in an extensive lumber, farming and elevator 
business until his death, in October, 1890. 
George A. Pillsbury, who was born at Sut- 
ton, New Hampshire, August -!», 1810, received 
only the meager common school education of 
seventy five years ago, when the children were 
taught "to read, write and cipher." Of a very 
quick and active temperament, he, in early life, 
formed a determined purpose to enter business 
for himself. At the age of eighteen he became 
a clerk to a Boston merchant. After a year's 
experience there he returned to Sutton and 
entered into the manufacture of stoves anil 
sheet iron ware, in company with a cousin, 
John C. Pillsbury. lie continued in this busi- 
ness until February. 1840, when he went to 
Warner, New Hampshire, into the store of 
John H. Pearson, where he remained until the 
following July, when lie purchased the busi- 
ness on his own account and continued in it 
for some eight years. In the spring of IMS 
he entered a wholesale dry goods house in 
Boston, and in 1S40 again returned to War 
ner and engaged in busiuess there until tin- 
spring of 1851, when he sold out his interest 
and went out of the mercantile business en 
tirely. During his residence in Warner he 
was postmaster from 1844 to 1S4'.I; was select- 
man in 1847 and 1849; town treasurer in 1849. 
and a Representative to the State Legislature 
in 1850 and 1851. He was also selected as 
chairman of the committee appointed to build 
the Merrimack county jail in Concord in 1851 
and 1852, and had the general superintendence 
of the construction of the work, which was 
most faithfully done. In November, 1851, Mr. 
Pillsbury was appointed purchasing agenl and 
adjuster of the Concord railroad, and com- 
menced his duties the following December, 
having in the meantime moved his family tit 
Concord. For nearly twenty-four years lie oc- 

cupied this position, and discharged its duties 
with rare business ability, showing wise judg- 
ment in all his purchases, which amounted to 
millions of dollars, and settling more cases of 
claims against the corporation for alleged in- 
juries to persons and property than all the 
other officers of the road. He had great quick- 
ness of perception and promptness in action, 
two wonderful business qualities, which, when 
rightly used, always bring success. Mr. Pills- 
bury was prominent in the councils of the Dem- 
ocratic party until the War of the Rebellion, 
when he was an ardent supporter of Lincoln 
for President. From that time on lie was 
a strong Republican. During the twenty- 
seven years' residence of Mr. Pillsbury in 
Concord he acquired a position of great 
prominence and distinction in the State 
of New Hampshire. He became one of 
the men of the State to whom were confided 
matters of weight and importance. In busi- 
ness, education, morality and religion his coun- 
sels were eagerly sought. When the high 
school at Concord and other school buildings 
throughout the city were projected and erected 
Mr. Pillsbury, on account of his well recog 
nized business prudence, common sense, judg- 
ment and integrity, was pushed to the front 
to superintend their construction. He was also 
interested in the erection of several of the 
handsomest business blocks upon the principal 
streets of the city; and several fine resideuces 
in the city were built by him. In the year 
1804 Mr. Pillsbury. with others, established the 
First National Bank of Concord. From the 
tirst he was one of the directors, and in 1800 
became its president, which position he held 
until his departure from the State. He was 
also more instrumental than any other person 
in organizing the National Savings Bank of 
Concord in 1807. Of tins bank he was the first 
president, and held the position until 1X74, 
when he resigned. During Mr. Pillsbury's man- 
agement of the First National Bank it became, 
in proportion to its capital stock, the strongest 
bank in the State. Up to December, 1873, 
when the treasurer was discovered to be a de- 
faulter to a large amount, the savings bank 
was one of the most successful in the State; 



but this defalcation, with the general crash in 
business, required its closing up. Its total de- 
posits up to the time mentioned exceeded 
$3,000,000. The bank finally paid its depos- 
itors nearly dollar for dollar and interest, not- 
withstanding the large defalcation by its treas- 
urer. During the years 1S71 and 1872 Mr. 
Pillsbury was again elected a member of the 
Legislature of New Hampshire, and was a 
member of some of the most important Legisla- 
tive committees. For several years he was a 
member of the city council of Concord, and in 
1870 was elected mayor of the city, to which 
position he was re-elected upon the expiration 
of his first term of office. On May 9, 1811, Mr. 
Pillsbury was married to Margaret S. t'arleton. 
To them were born three children, a daughter, 
who died in infancy, and two sons, Charles A. 
Pillsbury. "the flour king." who died Septem- 
ber 17, 189!), and Fred C. Pillsbury. a most 
promising young man, whose sudden death 
from diphtheria on May 15, 1892, was so deeply 
lamented. In 1869 Charles A. Pillsbury came 
to this city and shortly after engaged in the 
milling business. In 1870 his younger brother, 
Fred C. Pillsbury, also located in Minneapolis. 
During all of these years Coventor Pillsbury 
had been a prominent citizen of the State. The 
fact that George A. Pillsbury's sons were en- 
gaged in successful business here and that his 
brother, John S. Pillsbury. resided here, and 
the further fact that he had large business 
interests here, were inducements which led 
him to consider giving up his home in Concord 
and removing to Minneapolis. When it became 
known to the citizens of Concord that he was 
contemplating a removal to Minneapolis every 
effort was made to retain him in Concord. The 
struggle which went on in Mr. Pillsbury's 
mind was intense. The ties which bound him 
to Concord were many, lint finally his regard 
for his suns and brother determined the ques- 
tion, and in 1878 he made the removal. Prob- 
ably nd person ever left the city of Concord 
who received so many expressions of regret as 
did Mr. Pillsbury. Complimentary resolutions 
were unanimously passed by both branches of 
the city government and by the First National 
Panic Resolutions passed by the First Baptist 

church and society were ordered to be entered 
upon the records of each organization. The 
Webster Club, composed of fifty prominent 
business men of Concord, passed a series of 
resolutions expressive of regret for his de- 
parture from the State. A similar testimonial 
was presented to Mr. Pillsbury which bore the 
signatures of more than three hundred of the 
leading professional and business men of the 
city, among whom were all the ex-mayors liv- 
ing, all the clergymen, all the members of 
both branches of the city government, all the 
bank presidents and officers, twenty-six law- 
yers, twenty physicians, and nearly all of the 
business men of the city. On the evening of 
their departure from Concord, Mr. and Mrs. 
Pillsbury were given a public reception and 
were presented with an elegant bronze statue. 
Upon coming to Minneapolis Mr. Pillsbury at 
once entered actively into the milling business 
I in which he had been long interested) in the 
firm of C. A. Pillsbury & Co. His superior 
business ability was at once recognized on all 
sides, and the same prominence which he held 
in Concord was accorded him in Minneapolis. 
In a short time he became identified in many 
public and private matters in the city. The cit- 
izens at once saw his fitness for public position, 
and shortly after his arrival in Minneapolis 
he was made a member of the board of educa- 
tion. On April ::, 188::, he was elected an 
alderman from the Fifth ward, and shortly 
after made president of the city council, lb' 
was also a member of the board of park com 
missioners and of the waterworks board. These 
positions he held until April, 1884, when he 
was elected mayor of the city. These elections 
of Mr. Pillsbury were not of his own forward- 
ing, but he was in both instances chosen by the 
people because of his recognized fitness, and 
he accepted the positions from a sense of pub- 
lic duty. The services which Mr. Pillsbury 
rendered as mayor will ever give him distinc- 
tion. At that time Minneapolis was thickly 
studded with saloons. Not only were saloons 
numerous throughout the settled parts of the 
cily. but they abounded in the suburbs, at Mill 
nehaha and around the numerous beautiful 
lakes which environ the city. Every road 



coming into the city had its two or three or 
more saloons to tempt the traveler and draw 
the sporting classes. The temperance people 
were aroused and the cry on the lips of all 
respectable people was: "What can be done!" 
Only two remedies were suggested, one was 
prohibition, the other high license. But pro- 
hibition could not be realized in Minneapolis 
any more than in any other city of any con- 
siderable size. Then it was that George A. 
Pillsbury conceived a method of dealing with 
the liquor question that had never been at- 
tempted before, and that was the famous "pa- 
trol limit system," — a method which had not 
before entered the heads of the various stu- 
dents of temperance reform. Mr. Pillsbury be- 
lieved in high license, but he did not think 
that sufficient in itself. In his first message 
to the city council he came out boldly in favor 
of an ordinance which should require not only 
a high license, but one which should exclude 
the selling of liquor everywhere in the city 
except on a few "down town" streets, where 
there was a constant and continuous police 
patrol. The practicability and common sense 
of the thing at once commended it to all think- 
ing people. Only the extreme prohibitionists 
and the extreme liquor men were opposed to 
it. Mr. Pillsbury pressed the issue with bold- 
ness and rare business sense. He urged (lie 
advantages that would come to the city and to 
property by making the residential and subur- 
ban parts of the city free from the evils and 
effects of saloons and liquor. He urged the ad- 
vantages that would come by confining the 
sale of liquor to a comparatively small area in 
the business part of the city where there was 
constant police surveillance. The so-called 
"patrol limit" ordinance was passed in re- 
sponse to his suggestion. There is not space 
in this sketch to go into detail as to the con 
troversy which the adoption of this new prin- 
ciple involved. It is sufficient to say that after 
bitter attacks from the extreme liquor men 
and the prohibitionists the method was sus 
tained both by public sentiment and the 
highest courts of the State, and what was orig- 
inally passed as a city ordinance was subse- 
quently ratified by the State Legislature and 

lias now become a part of the permanent char 
tec of Minneapolis, never again to be ques- 
tioned. Minneapolis has become famous 
among students of social science as being the 
first city to adopt this new and practical meth- 
od of dealing with the liquor question. Other 
cities have adopted it and the idea is fast be- 
coming popular. For several years Mr. Pills 
bury was president of the Board of Trade, 
president of the Free Dispensary, and presi- 
dent of the Minnesota Baptist State Associa- 
tion. At the time of his death and for several 
years prior thereto he was president of the 
Northwestern National Bank and one of the 
trustees of the Hennepin County Savings 
Bank. He also held positions in many private 
corporations and societies, and until within a 
few months prior to his death his mind and 
thoughts were occupied with many business 
cares. The last years of Mr. Pillsbury's life 
were passed in caring for his property and do- 
ing good works for others. He took special 
interest in the work of the Baptist Church (of 
which he was a life-long member) both at home 
and throughout the country, and responded to 
its calls both with his time and his money. 
Old age stole gently upon him and he passed 
away peaceably at his home July 17th, 1898. 
Although Mr. Pillsbury was a successful man, 
both in business and as a public official, he 
will be remembered perhaps most of all for his 
work in the line of benevolences. Early in life 
he adopted the principle that a man should do 
as much good as he could in this world, and in 
case he was fortunate enough to accumulate 
property that he should, as far as possible, 
act as his own administrator, a view which met 
the cordial support of his wife and his two 
sons. In an address at Concord in 1891, when 
he presented to the city in the name of his 
wife the magnificent Margaret Pillsbury hos- 
pital, to which we are about to refer, he used 
these words: "I have for many years been 
of the opinion that it was the duty of every 
one, as far as possible, to administer upon his 
own estate. We have had frequent examples 
where the ablest of lawyers have failed to 
draw a will that would be sustained by the 
courts. I have also noticed, during mv some- 



what prolonged life, that property left to chil- 
dren has proved, I think, in a majority of cases, 
a curse father llian a blessing, especially 
where such children are possessed of strong 
bodies and a good education." Consequently 
we find a series of benevolent acts running 
through his career. In Concord he engaged 
actively in establishing the Centennial Home 
for the Aged, making large contributions 
thereto and serving as a trustee. He was also 
a generous giver to the New Hampshire Or- 
phans' Home at Franklin, and was a trustee 
from the time of its foundation until he left 
the State. The magnificent bell in the tower 
of the Board of Trade Building at Concord and 
the handsome organ in the First Baptist 
Church of Concord were gifts from him and 
his son, Charles A. Pillsbury. He also made 
[several large contributions towards building 
and endowing Colby Academy at New Lon 
don, New Hampshire. In 1886 Mr. Pillsbury 
was chairman of the committee of construction 
of the First Baptist church of .Minneapolis, 
and the large and handsome organ uow in that 
church was a gift from Mr. Pillsbury, his wife 
and their two sons, Charles A., and Fred C. 
Shortly after Mr. Pillsbury came to Minnesota 
he became interested in the academy at Owa- 
tonna, of which he was elected one of the trus- 
tees. This academy was established under 
Baptist auspices, by an act of the Territory of 
Minnesota, enacted in L856. Prior to the time 
when Mr. Pillsbury became interested in the 
institution it had not flourished to the degree 
that its friends had anticipated, although it 
had nevertheless done a good work. Mr. Pills- 
bury was always a firm believer in academies, 
"the poor man's college," as a means of edu- 
cation, and when he became interested in this 
institution and saw the held which it might 
occupy if properly managed and endowed, he 
determined to do what he could to put it on 
a satisfactory basis. To do this required not 
only new buildings, but also funds to endow 
and support it. Mr. Pillsbury at once applied 
to the affairs of this institution the same 
thought, attention and business judgment that 
he gave to his private affairs. As the needs 
of the institution impressed themselves upon 

him he determined to meet them. His lirsi 
large gifl to the institution was the erection 
of a ladies' hall, which was named "Pillsbury 
Hall." In 1SS!) Mr. Pillsbury erected for the 
instil ill ion I he new building, which com 
pares favorably with any academy building in 
the country. This building contains recitation 
rooms, library and reading-rooms, offices, 
chemical laboratory, gymnasium, bath-room. 
study-room, chapel and a spacious auditorium. 
Mr. Pillsbury also constructed a music hall, 
which is a gem of its sort. This building is a 
two-story brick structure, 80 by 40 feet. The 
design is very ornate and the building adds 
much lo l he campus. It contains a fire-proof 
library-room and has ample accommodations 
for the music department. In addition to this 
.Mr. Pillsbury erected a spacious brick drill 
hall, which has a clear floor 110 by 05 feet, and 
is admirably adapted to the purpose for which 
it is designed. In addition to the erection of 
the above buildings Mr. Pillsbury gave gener- 
ously to the institution, both of time and 
money. His giving was unostentatious, but 
outsiders who have some means of knowing es- 
timate that of money alone he gave in his life- 
time about $500,000 to the institution. In his 
will there was a further bequest to I he acad- 
emy of a quarter of a million dollars. His will 
also gave generous sums to various benevolent 
and charitable societies. Such acts as these 
sneak of the character of the man far better 
than any words we can add. In his many gifts 
lie went beyond the limits of ordinary benevo- 
lence and in his furtherance of great schemes 
for the support of religion and education and 
those things which make for the peace and 
well being of society he attained to the height 
of philanthropy. And it is no wonder that 
the friends of Owatonna Academy, in recogni- 
tion of his great services to the institution, a 
few years ago caused its name to be changed 
to Pillsbury Academy. In all of his prosperity 
.Mr. Pillsbury never forgot the home and 
friends of his youth, as do too many successful 
men. The towns of Sutton and Warner, in 
New Hampshire, where his early years were 
spent, and also the goodly city of Concord, 
where he passed the years of his maturer man- 


l D/ 

hood, were dear to him, and lie determined to 
show his regard for these places in sonic per- 
manent manner. In the town of Sutton, on 
the public ground and a short distance from 
the house in which he was horn, he erected, 
in 1890, a soldiers' monument in memory of the 
men of Sutton who served in the War of the 
Rebellion. This monument is constructed of 
granite and is surmounted with a granite 
statue, of heroic size, of a soldier at parade 
rest. The height, including the statue, is 
thirty-two feet. The bases, plinth and shaft 
arc handsomely carved with emblems, and a 
suitable inscription sets forth the purpose for 
which the monument was erected. The whole 
effect is very imposing. To the town of War- 
ner he presented the Pillsbury Free Library 
and filled the shelves thereof with books. This 
library is a very complete building of its kind, 
and is pointed to with pride and admiration 
by all wdio see it. The building is constructed 
of handsome pressed brick, with granite trim 
niings, is well lighted and ventilated, ami has 
all of the interior finishings and furnishings 
of the modern library building. In the suburbs 
of the city of Concord, on a pleasant site over- 
looking the beautiful valley of the Merrimac, 
and commanding an extensive view of hills 
and forest, stands a magnificent building of 
which any city might well be proud. This 
building is the Margaret Pillsbury General 
Hospital. A tablet at the entrance bears the 
inscription: "Erected by George Alfred Pills- 
bury in honor of his wife, Margaret Sprague 
Pillsbury, on the fiftieth anniversary of their 
marriage, 1891.'' This building is in ar- 
chitectural effect very imposing. It is 
one hundred and twenty-four feet long and 
seventy-five feet in width at the two ends, 
and is forty-five feet high, having two sto- 
ries and a basement, with slated roof and venti- 
lating cupola. The basement is of granite, and 
the walls of pressed brick with granite and 
terra cotta trimmings, and copper cornices. 
An examination of the interior shows it to be 
a modern and a model hospital, with all the 
arrangements and appliances that the most re- 
cent surgical and medical science could sug- 
gest. The cost of this building was not less 

than $fi0,000. No more graceful compliment 
could any husband ever pay to a faithful wife 
than the gift of a hospital for the sick and 
injured; nor could any more appropriate gift 
be given in honor of fifty years of happy mar- 
ried life than this. In bestowal of all these 
gifts to the public, as well as in the buildings 
at Owatonna, Mr. rillsbury not only furnished 
the means for the erection, but he personally 
superintended the making of the plans and the 
work of actual construction. 


To be elected Governor of the State of 
Minnesota at any time is not a small honor; 
to be the first man elected to the place in op- 
position to the Republican party organization 
is even a more signal victory; to be chosen 
above and beyond partisan lines by the dis- 
criminating judgment of his fellow-citizens, 
at a time when all the other nominees of the 
opposing party, save the gubernatorial, were 
elected by more or less handsome majorities, 
is a distinction such as has been accorded to 
few men in any State. It was under such cir- 
cumstances that John Lind was inaugurated 
Governor of Minnesota in January, 1899. Gov- 
ernor Lind was born at Kanna, Province of 
Smaland, Sweden, March 25, 1851. His par 
ents were Gustav and Catherine (Johnson) 
Lind. Gustav Lind, like his ancestors for sev- 
eral generations, was a farmer, and also filled 
local offices in the community where he lived, 
being deputy sheriff of the borough for several 
years. The family emigrated to America in 
1807, when John was thirteen years of age, and 
settled in Goodhue county, Minnesota. Here 
young John, laboring to assist in the support 
of the family, lost his left hand by an accident 
which, perhaps, turned the current of his ca- 
reer, as now, illy fitted to compete with his 
fellows in the material world, he was urged to 
more assiduity in the pursuit of his studies. 
He spent as much of his time in school as pos- 
sible, and at sixteen he was granted a certifi- 
cate entitling him to teach in the public- 
schools. He taught one vear in Sibley county, 



but not being satisfied with the compensation 
in a new country at that time, he, in 1873, took 
up his residence in New Ulm, where he has 
since resided, respected and honored among 
men. By the dint of hard study, industry and 
strict economy, he was aide to attend the State 
University in 1875 and 1870, having in mind 
then the practice of the law. Utilizing all his 
opportunities for private study and privileged 
as he was to work in the office of a New Ulm 
practitioner, he was admitted to the bar im- 
mediately upon leaving the university, at the 
age of twenty-one. In 1877 he began the prac- 
tice of law and, taking an active interest in 
public life, was chosen superintendent of 
schools of Brown county. This position he 
held for two years, declining a re-nomination 
in order that he might devote himself entirely 
to the profession upon the adoption of which 
he had now fully determined, namely, the law. 
In 1881, under the administration of Garfield 
and Arthur, he was made receiver of the land 
office at Tracy. Lyon county, which position he 
held until the election of President Cleveland, 
still being able, however, to care for his pri- 
vate practice at New Ulm. The country was 
tilling up rapidly and the work of the courts 
incidentally increased. Mr. Lind's natural tal- 
ent and diligence made him a name more than 
local, and his prosecution of several suits, 
notably those against railroad companies, won 
him not a little renown. He was also active in 
the councils ef the Republican parly, and in 
1880 he was nominated to represent the Second 
District in the Federal Congress. The Second 
District then comprised twenty counties — 
practically all of Southwestern Minnesota. 
That was a hard fought campaign, Dr. A. A. 
Ames of Minneapolis coming within a very 
small margin of defeating A. R. McGill for 
Governor, but Mr. Lind was elected by a splen- 
did plurality. Two years later he was re-nomi- 
nated and again elected, his adversary this 
time being Col. Morton S. Wilkinson, a veteran 
leader, who had been one of Minnesota's three 
representatives in the Federal House from 
1869 to 1871, and United States Senator during 
the Avar. He took an active interest in the 
affairs of the Indians and secured the passage 

of a bill establishing seven Indian schools in 
various parts of the country, one of them 
being located at Pipestone, in this State. An- 
other sphere of work of local importance was 
the pushing of some old claims for the depre- 
dations of the Indians during the outbreak of 
L862. He secured the payment of many of 
these for the people of the Second District 
who had suffered during that uprising. One 
of the greatest economies which he secured to 
the people of the State, however, was the pas- 
sage of the bill for the reorganization of the 
Federal Courts of the District of Minnesota, 
which is commonly known to this day as the 
"bind Bill." Previous to its passage all ses- 
sions of the United States Courts in this Stall' 
had been held in St. Paul, entailing long sit- 
tings, delays in trials and long journeys, in- 
creasing the cost to litigants living remote 
from the Capital. Mr. Lind's bill provided for 
terms as now held at Minneapolis. Mankato, 
Winona and Fergus Falls, as well as an St. 
Paul. Mr. Lind was a strenuous fighter for 
the integrity and enforcement of the Inter- 
slate Commerce Act in its efforts to prevent 
discriminations in favor of persons or places. 
He had added to it amendments which made 
it possible for the commission to procure evi- 
dence more efficiently, and also made several 
battles in the courts to secure for the millers 
in the smaller centers of the Stale, rates more 
fair when compared with the millers of Minne- 
apolis, who had been granted certain special 
privileges. Mr. Lind was also instrumental in 
securing a great reform in railroad manage 
ment and equipment, which is saving human 
life and limb hourly. That is, the automatic 
coupler and power-brake bill, so-called, which 
was passed, and directed all railroads to pro- 
vide their cars with automatic couplers of uni- 
form type, and to have at least a certain num- 
ber of cars of each train equipped with air 
or other power brakes, so as to obviate the use 
of hand brakes, which were very dangerous in 
icy or sleety weather. This bill was opposed 
by a strong and insistent lobby, led by the 
Pennsylvania Railroad Company, but after a 
hard contest the lobby was beaten and Mr. 
Lind's bill became a law. Another bill of com- 



menial value to the Northwest made Minne- 
apolis a port of entry. Mr. Lind was a con- 
ceded authority in the House on the subjects 
concerned with the public lauds — Congress- 
man Payson of Illinois being the only man 
on the floor considered his peer in this special 
branch of so much importance to the West. 
In the contest over the tariff Mr. Lind was a 
hard fighter, and showed his independence by 
declining to be bound by the declarations of 
the Republican caucus. He fought the tariff 
on lumber because, as he said, it commit led 
the Nation to the idiocy of destroying its own 
forests rather than those of other people. He 
fought for free sugar, for free materials for 
making binding twine, and for free twine. In 
1890 Mr. Lind was elected a third time, defeat 
ing Gen. James H. Baker of Garden City. In 

1892 he declined to become a candidate again, 
for personal reasons, and the present Congress- 
man, James T. McCleary, then Professor of 
Political Economy in the State Normal School 
at Mankato, was nominated and elected to suc- 
ceed Mr. Lind. The platform adopted at Man- 
kato accorded the retiring Congressman this 
compliment: "We recognize in Hon. John 
Lind, our present Member of Congress, an able 
and efficient representative, and trust that his 
voluntary retirement from the Held of active 
legislative duty will be only temporary." In 

1893 Governor Nelson appointed Mr. Lind, 
who had returned to the practice of law at 
New rim, a regent of the University of Minne- 
sota. Mr. Lind was an early recruit to the 
financial policy espoused by Senator Teller and 
other Silver Republicans. In 1896 the Demo- 
cratic and People's party nominated him for 
Governor, and he made a splendid run, David 
B. Clough defeating him by only a small ma- 
jority of about three thousand votes. In the 
spring of ISO -, when President McKinley 
called for volunteers to defend the National 
honor and avenge the destruction of the Maine, 
John Lind, at the sacrifice of his law practice, 
tendered his services to Governor Clough in 
any capacity in which he might be available. 
Governor Clough, at the request of Colonel 
Bobleter. in command of the Twelfth Minne- 
sota, made Mr. Lind regimental quartermas- 

ter with the rank of first lieutenant. His 
record as quartermaster was attested by his 
popularity with the regiment, which had a 
chance at Chattanooga to compare with other 
standards the efficiency of Mr. Lind's arduous 
labors in keeping the men well equipped and 
provisioned. It was while the Twelfth Regi- 
ment was encamped at Camp Thomas, Chicka- 
mauga National Park, that the Democratic 
People's and Silver Republican parties, in 
State Convention, unanimously nominated Mr. 
Lind for Governor. It was his desire, after the 
defeat of 1896, not to again enter the field of 
politics, but so unanimous was the call, and so 
insistent were the friends who had supported 
him so warmly in previous campaigns, that Mr. 
Lind at last put aside his desire for political 
retirement and consented to make the race, 
subject to the necessary limitations of his mili- 
tary service. With the surrender of Santiago 
and the subsequent return of the Minnesota 
troops from the South, Mr. Lind was enabled 
to make two short series of speeches in a few 
of the cities and towns of the State. There has 
rarely been such a series of popular demon- 
strations of personal admiration and sympathy. 
These tours, brief as they were, were splendid 
auguries of the magnificent vote which the 
men of Minnesota gave him on election day. 
This is the public and political career, epito- 
mized, of the man who has fought his way. 
despite rebuffs and temporary reverses, to at- 
tain success at last and a full realization of 
the fact that "he cannot appreciate victory 
who has not suffered defeat." Governor Lind's 
energies have not been spent alone in politics 
and public affairs. He has had a lucrative 
practice at the bar, and has not sacrificed it in 
the public service. New Ulm is the center of a 
thriving farming community, prettily situated 
in the picturesque valley of the Minnesota, and 
is such a town as might well be selected for the 
home of a man of Governor Lind's character, 
earnest, faithful and unaffected. Governor 
Lind has been identified with some of the best 
institutions of New Ulm. He has served as 
director in the Brown County Bank, and was 
one of the committee of five New Ulm men who 
had charge of the construction of the Minne- 



apolis, New I 1m & Southwestern railroad and 
other enterprises that have materially bene- 
fited his home town. Governor Lind was mar- 
ried, in 1ST!». to Miss Alice A. Shepard, the 
daughter of a then prominent citizen of Blue 
Earth county, since removed to California. He, 
Richard Shepard, was a soldier of the Onion 
army in the Civil War. His father also fought 
for the young Republic in the War of 1812, 
while his grandfather was a soldier in the Rev- 
olutionary War. To Governor ami Mis. Lind 
have been born three children, Norman, Jenm 
and Winfred. The tirst named is now a stu- 
dent at the State University, and with four 
generations of soldiers before him, might be 
looked for to enter a military career rather 
than that of politics, in which his father has 
attained his greatest fame. 


Anthony Kelly, late merchant and represen- 
tative citizen of Minneapolis, was a native of 
Ireland, born at Swinford, County Mayo, Au- 
gust 25, 1832. His early boyhood was spent in 
his native island, but when he was fifteen 
years of age he came with his parents to Amer- 
ica, and settled near Montreal, Canada. Very 
early in life he manifested an ardent taste for 
a life of active usefulness. After acquiring a 
good common school education and the rudi- 
ments of a business training he, while still 
quite young, came to the United States and 
finally located at Macon, Georgia, where he 
opened a retail grocery store, which he con- 
ducted for several years. Having sold his store 
in Macon, Mr. Kelly came to Minnesota on a 
visit to his brothers, then living in Minneap- 
olis. Upon his arrival he was so thoroughly 
impressed with the location, the growing im- 
portance of the young town and the opportu- 
nities it offered for a business career that he 
soon decided to locate there permanently. He 
opened a retail grocery store, associated him- 
self in partnership with his brother, P. H. 
Kelly, and began the business career in Minne- 
apolis in which he became so prominent. The 

Kelly brothers were popular and successful 
from the first. They were energetic and used 
sound sense in the conduct of their business, 
and prospered constantly. In a comparatively 
brief time they had outgrown their original 
limited quarters, erected a more commodious 
building and had largely increased the scope 
and extent of their operations. In 1S(!3, P. H. 
Kelly withdrew from the firm and went to St. 
Paul. Mr. Anthony Kelly continued the busi- 
ness in Minneapolis on his own account for 
three years, when he formed a partnership 
with II. W. Wagner, the firm name becoming- 
Anthony Kelly & Company. It soon became 
the largest grocery house in the city. As time 
passed and business increased Mr. Kelly saw 
the necessity and importance of extending the 
character and field of his operations, and after 
opening up in the new building he abandoned 
the retail grocery business and engaged in the 
wholesale trade. Anthony Kelly was the pio- 
neer wholesale grocer of Minneapolis. The 
venture was so successful aud the business 
expanded so rapidly that in a comparatively 
short time the firm was compelled to find 
larger quarters, and it built and removed to 
the large brick and stone structure which was 
the site of its operations thereafter, and which 
was always recognized as one of the leading- 
business institutions of the city. The business 
of the firm of Anthony Kelly & Company 
developed into large proportions and gradually 
increased until it extended over all the vast 
territory paying business tribute to Minneap- 
olis. Mr. Kelly was always recognized as the 
leading and controlling spirit of the house, 
and it was his master hand which guided aud 
directed its work. So much for Anthony Kel- 
ly's career as a business man. Put during all 
of the long period referred to he contrived to 
find time in the midst of his engrossing busi- 
ness activities to take an active part in the 
local affairs of his city. Energetic, broad- 
minded, public-spirited, liberal in his views, 
and of a high order of intelligence, his aid was 
sought and his hand was in every movement 
to build up the interests and institutions of 
the city. There was never a fight for the wel- 
fare of the city of Minneapolis in which he did 



if. i 

not engage — never a worthy enterprise which 
he did not promote. He was always earnestly 
■ — lint unostentatiously, as becomes a right- 
minded man — interested in every philanthropic 
enterprise and prominently identified with 
every movement of the kind in the city. No 
other man ever gave more liberally of his time, 
energies and money to further worthy char- 
itable objects. Wherever and whenever hu- 
man suffering and misery could be ameliorated 
by anything he could do, he was ready with 
voice and hand and purse, and did what he 
could. He gave freely and liberally, but never 
purposely "to be seen of men," and very many 
of his benefactions and charities were never 
known to the world — and he did not wish that 
they should be. Anthony Kelly was not one 
to vaunt or parade himself. He disliked no- 
toriety, sought no cheap distinctions, and 
hated all insincerity, sham, and pretense. He 
never posed as a "reformer," although no 
other man in the city ever did more for real 
reforms and the improvement of society and 
humanity. People who knew him knew just 
where to find him, and that what he said he 
meant. He had hosts of admiring friends, es- 
pecially among the old settlers and his long- 
time associates, and there was many a deep 
and heartfelt pang of sorrow when, on that 
fine June morning in 1899, the message was 
flashed over the wires throughout the country 
— ''Anthony Kelly is dead." In business af- 
fairs generally Mr. Kelly had become very 
prominent — a factor in the development of 1 1 1 • • 
material interests of Minneapolis. At the time 
of his death he was vice-president of the 
Northwestern National Hank, and, up to the 
time of the reorganization of the Minneapolis 
General Electric Company, had been its presi- 
dent and directing mind. He was also a stock- 
holder in several other important business or- 
ganizations. He was a trustee of the Hill Sem- 
inary, and, for about seven years, was one of 
the directors and vice president of the board 
of managers of the State Institute for Defec- 
tives at Faribault. In politics he was a staunch 
Democrat, but never an office seeker or a po- 
litical office holder. He was a humble, but ear- 
nest and consistent believer in the Catholic 

faith, but tolerant and charitable toward all 
Christian religions. Mr. Kelly was the inti- 
mate friend and confidant, as well as the asso 
ciate, of the best men who have shaped the 
destinies of Minneapolis. He had rare social 
tastes and qualities, and his great fund of in- 
formation, the spice of his ready wit, his fluent 
and animated style of conversation, and his 
charming amiability, made him a most delight- 
ful entertainer and companion. In the sacred 
precincts of his home, however, he was at his 
best. Here his life was an ideal one. He 
loved his family with all the fervor of his 
affectionate nature, and with them he found 
his highest pleasures. He was a profound 
student and very fond of literary pursuits. He 
read and spoke German fluently, and had a 
good knowledge of French and Spanish, and 
had spoken these languages in their native 
countries. Fond of travel and investigation he 
gratified these tastes to a great extent. 
He was familiar with almost every part of the 
United States, had repeatedly visited the land 
of his birth and made several excursions 
through the continent of Europe. With the 
capacity to appreciate and remember what he 
saw, these investigations added to his great 
slock of valuable knowledge. Anthony Kelly 
died in his adopted city, which he had so much 
helped to build. May 31, 1899. His death 
created a feeling of sorrow genuine and wide- 
spread, lie was sixty-seven years of age, and 
in active and successful business life up to the 
time of his death, but somehow it seemed that 
his calling away was untimely. There seemed 
to be much more that he could do for his city, 
his State and his fellow men. The event was 
of public importance; the press, the pulpit, the 
business associations, etc., all expressed the 
general sorrow, and commented upon the char 
acter of the deceased in the warmest terms. 
Said the St. Paul Globe of July 7th: 

"Anthony Kelly was one of the finest types 
of American citizens, and one of the gentlest, 
and, in thought and deed, one of the most 
upright men that ever graced a Christian com- 
munity. He was indeed an ideal man. Re- 
ligious in the truest sense in which the spirit 
of God is made to descend into the hearts of 

1 62 


iiu-ii through the influence of faith in the 
Christian teaching, he was at the same time a 
thoughtful, patriotic citizen, ever devoted to 
the welfare of city, State and Nation, and 
anxious in every way within liis reach to pro 
mote the happiness and temporal welfare of 
his fellow man. 

No man ever heard from the lips of An- 
thony Kelly an unkind or uncharitable ex- 
pression concerning another. His word was 
indeed his bond; and in small matters as well 
as in large, he was the very spirit of manliness 
and personal probity. 

That such a man should have it within him 
to secure a high measure of business success 
is proof that the highest commercial ability 
may be united with those qualities which pre- 
serve men in the faith and innocence and 
purity of their younger days." 

Ex-Governor John S. Pillsbury, who had 

long and intimately known Mr. Kelly, wrote: 

"I have known him as few men knew him. 
We began our struggle in Minneapolis about 
the same time. I can easily recall the vigor- 
ous, intelligent, ambitious, determined young 
man, of fifty years ago. There are none who 
have known him in a social way or in business, 
who can truthfully say that they ever saw him 
do an unmanly or dishonest act. He died, pre- 
sumably, a wealthy man, but what he got in 
the way of worldly goods, he got honestly. He 
was not pulling others down while he was 
building himself up. He was always a great 
respecter of honest toil; he had no patience 
with the idler or the drone. He believed God 
placed man here for a useful career. He was 
thoroughly honest and did not know how to 
act in anything but an honest manner. He 
grew to be a better man every day he lived, 
and you could see it as the years passed by. 
I always found him a high-toned gentleman, 
quiet and unostentatious, and it was a genuine 
pleasure to do business with him. Mr. Kelly 
was always a public spirited man; you could 
always depend upon him to do his part. When 
there were but few of us, we had to look after 
public matters, and we worked together 
through the troubles incident to pioneer days. 
Mr. Kelly was a positive man, and his yea was 
yea. his nay, nay. He was a man who expected 
people to do right by him, for he always did 
right by them, and he would not brook de- 
ception. He was not a visionary man; he 
always lived within his means. He was kind 
to the poor, being especially interested in the 
poor among the people of his own church." 

Mr. Kelly was married in Minneapolis April 
20, 1863, to Annie Willey, widow of U. S. 
Willey, a prominent attorney of the city in 
early limes. .Mrs. Kelly was a daughter of 
Wm. < 'alder Haymond, a renowned lawyer of 
West Virginia, where she was born. Of the 
marriage of Mr. and Mrs. Kelly, always one 
of rare felicity, were born two sons and four 


On the 2d of March, 1632, the good ship 
"William and Prances" sailed from England, 
and on the 3d of June following she landed in 
Boston. In her passenger list were three 
brothers, John, William and Stephen Sanborn, 
and their mother's father, Stephen Bachiller. 
These brothers were the progenitors of the 
great family of Sanborns, scattered through- 
out the United States. They were among the 
early colonists, coming to the new world less 
than twelve years after the landing of the 
"Mayflower," and settling in the town of 
Hampton, New Hampshire, which continued 
to be the undivided home of the family until 
the middle of the Eighteenth Century. 
Stephen Bachiller became one of the famous 
and powerful Puritan ministers, whose stern 
morality contributed much of value to the 
firmness and integrity of the New England 
character. At length, Reuben Sanborn — a 
descendant of William, of the original emi- 
grants — with his sons, Eliphalet and Reuben, 
removed to Epsom, New Hampshire, and ac- 
quired the Sanborn homestead, which has 
remained continuously in possession of the 
family for a hundred and fifty years. Gen. 
John Benjamin Sanborn, the principal sub- 
ject of this sketch, was born on this home- 
stead December 5, 1820, the son of Frederick 
Sanborn, a man of estimable qualities, and 
Lucy L. Sargent, a native of I'ittsfield, New 
Hampshire, whose strength of character and 
purity of life were adorned by exceptional 
personal charms and graces. His great-grand- 
father, Eliphalet Sanborn, served under Gen- 
eral Wolfe in the war against the French and 



#24/ /&^/7/v t W^t, 



Indians, and in the Continental army during 
the struggle for American independence. His 
maternal grandfather, Benjamin Sargent, also 
served in the Revolutionary war, first as a 
drummer boy, aud last as a soldier in the ranks 
of fighting men. Having in his veins the blood 
of patriots and heroes, mixed with that of 
Puritan ancestry, it is not surprising that the 
hoy born at Epsom seventy-three years ago, 
should develop into the strong man, the gal- 
lant soldier and the upright citizen, and 
achieve the eminence in military and civic life 
that General Sanborn has attained. His 
boyhood was passed on his fat tier's farm, 
at the kind of work and in the manner 
which contributed to the vigor of both body 
and mind. His common school education term- 
inated when he was sixteen years of age, and 
for the following six years lie devoted himself 
exclusively to carrying on the farm and the 
manufacture of lumber. At the age of twenty- 
two he suddenly changed his whole purpose in 
life and decided to obtain an education and 
qualify himself for the practice of the law. 
He at once fitted for college at the academies 
of Pembroke, New Hampshire, and Thetford, 
Vermont, and entered Dartmouth College in 
the autumn of 1851, where he remained during 
that term. On account of his mature years 
the leading members of the bar at Concord, 
New Hampshire, Hon. Franklin Pierce, Judge 
Asa Fowler and Hon. Ira Peverley, advised him 
to abandon his college course and devote him- 
self to the study of the law at once. This plan 
he pursued and was admitted to the bar of the 
Superior Court in Concord at the July Term, 
1854, having studied continuously from 1851 
in the office of Hon. Asa Fowler. At this time 
he was twenty-seven years old, and in the 
latter part of November following he left his 
native State, in company with Theodore 
French of Concord, New Hampshire, to estab- 
lish a new home in the more promising field of 
the Northwest. He settled in the City of SI. 
Paul, of which place he has remained a citizen 
continuously from that time to the present. 
and where he has constantly practiced his 
profession, except when engaged in the public 
service. In the ensuing fortv-five years Gen- 

eral Sanborn has become so identified with 
the great Northwest as to be a part of the very 
fibre of its growth, a contributor to its fame 
and a beneficiary of its boundless resources. 
During this period he has been a member of 
the following law firms, viz: Sanborn & 
French; Sanborn, French & Lund; Sanborn 
& Lund; Sanborn & King, at Washington, D. 
C; John B. & W. II. Sanborn, which firm in- 
cluded Edward P. Sanborn as a partner for a 
portion of its existence; and John B. & E. P. 
Sanborn, which firm still exists. The reputa- 
tion and strength of all these firms have been 
far above the average, and each and all have 
been successful ill a marked degree. From 
1854 to 1861 a law business had been estab- 
lished which was equal in its extent, and in 
the profits derived therefrom, to any exist in»- 
in the State at that time, and when General 
Sanborn had terminated his public service in 
1868, he again immediately engaged in the 
practice of the law in connection with the 
firms above mentioned with equal or greater 
success than had attended his efforts prior to 
the War of the Rebellion. In conformity to 
the custom of the new States of the Northwest, 
of making the young lawyers the law makers. 
Mr. Sanborn was elected a member of the 
Lower House of the Legislature in 1859, and 
of the State Senate in 1860. He was made 
Chairman of the Judiciary Committee of the 
House iii 1S59, and aided by his able commit- 
tee, succeeded iii practically reorganizing the 
whole State government during that session; 
school districts, towns, counties, were all re- 
organized upoD a more economical plan, which 
aided to bring credit and prosperity to the 
impoverished State, most of which laws, both 
in letter and spirit, still remain upon the 
Statute book. During this session he was 
voted for in the Republican caucus for candi- 
date for the United States Senate and lacked 
but a few votes of the nomination, which was 
equivalent to an election. At the very opening 
of the Rebellion he was appointed by Governor 
Ramsey to the laborious and responsible posi- 
tion, in time of war. of Adjutant General of 
the State of Minnesota and Acting Quarter- 
Master General, and in that capacity he or 



ganized and equipped the first five regiments 
of volunteer infantry raised in the State. At 
the Hose of tliis service and of the year L861, 
moved no doubt by the martial spirit derived 
from his ancestors, lie entered the military 
service of the United States as colonel of the 
Fourth Regiment, .Minnesota Infantry Volun- 
teers, in which service he remained until the 
last day of June, 1866. During this term of 
military service he held the rank of colonel of 
the Fourth Regiment of Minnesota Infantry 
Volunteers, brigadier general of volunteers 
from August 4, lsi;::, brevet major general of 
volunteers from February. 1865. He com- 
manded a brigade in action at the battles of 
luka, Corinth, in the Yazoo Pass Expedition. 
Raymond, .Jackson, Champion Hills. Black 
River, and in the sieges of Corinth and Vicks- 
burg, and a division at Port Gibson and in the 
Assault on Vicksburg on the 22d of May, lsi;:',. 
In the Battle of luka, September 19, 1862, he 
commanded, under the immediate eye of Gen- 
eral Rosecrans, and held his position, although 
losing 588 men killed and wounded, in an hour 
and ten minutes, out of his command of a little 
more than 2200. He was commended in gen- 
eral orders by General Rosecrans for his 
conduct in this battle, and appointed by Presi- 
dent Lincoln, brigadier general of volunteers. 
The appointment was made while the Senate 
was in session, and was not reached by the 
Senate for its action before adjournment, and 
hence did not become operative, and during 
the Vicksburg Campaign he still commanded 
his brigade and division with the rank of 
colonel only. His reputation acquired at luka 
was fully sustained in all the subsequent bat- 
tles in which he commanded during the war. 
At Champion Hills he received and carried 
into effect orders from General Grant in per 
son at the very crisis of the battle, which 
turned seeming defeat into decided victory. 
He built a pontoon bridge of cotton bales over 
the Black river, by which the army marched 
from Champion Hills to Vicksburg. He 
reached, with the Seventh Division, the ditch 
of the outer works of the enemy in the assaull 
on Vicksburg on the 22d of .May. and as other 
commands failed to gel up to the works, took 

the responsibility of ordering his command 
back under cover from the enemy's fire instead 
of ordering them over the works, which 
course received the approval of General Grant 
and General McPheraon. After the surrender 
of Vicksburg he was again appointed brigadier 
general by President Lincoln, while the Sen 
ate was not in session, and he at once entered 
upon the duties of his new rank, and was 
ordered by General Grant to report, fur 
temporary duty only, to General Scofield, com 
manding the Department of the Missouri. He 
was now assigned to the command of a terri- 
torial district, including southwest Missouri 
and northwest Arkansas. This command he 
retained until the Rebel Army surrender. 
This last promotion was made upon the special 
recommendation of General Grant, and when, 
in February. 1864, General Grant had been 
requested by General Halleck to designate the 
colonels that had been promoted to brigadier 
generals that he thought he must have con- 
tinued — as there were a greater number in the 
list than could be confirmed, with due regard 
to the public welfare — General Grant desig- 
nated fourteen, of whom General Sanborn was 
one. that should be confirmed. No one of the 
fourteen ever knew that General (Irani had 
written such a letter till it was printed in the 
Rebellion Records in recent years. In the 
autumn of 1864 General Sanborn conducted 
successfully, first a defensive and then an 
offensive campaign in Missouri, against the 
army of Gen. Sterling Price. He com 
manded all the cavalry in Hie army west 
id' the Mississippi river in the field — between 
eighl and ten thousand mounted nun — against 
more than double that number of Confederates 
under the command of eight general officers, 
several of whom were graduates of West 
Point, or had served in the Mexican War. The 
campaign was so conducted thai the Rebel 
Army was practically broken up, Generals 
Marmaduke and Cabell captured, with more 
than two thousand prisoners, eight pieces of 
artillery and a large amount of supplies. 
After the surrender of the Rebel armies he 
was ordered to take the command of an ex- 
pedition to the southern plains to terminate 



the disorders, and establish peace with the 
Comanche, Cheyenne, Arapahoe, Apache, and 
Kiowa Indians. This was speedily accom- 
plished and a treaty of peace concluded with 
all those tribes in October of that year. 
Thereupon he was sent to the Indian Territory 
to adjust the relations between the Five Civil- 
ized Tribes and their former slaves. This 
service was successfully accomplished during 
the winter of 1865-6, and thereupon he was 
mustered out of the military service in June. 
1866. After this he was appointed, in ls<>7, 
by the President, one of the commissioners to 
treat with the hostile bands of Sioux Indians, 
with General Sully, General Buford, Mr. 
Beauvais, Judge Kinney, and Colonel Parker. 
This commission was followed by another 
created by an act of Congress, in which Gen- 
eral Sanborn was named as one of the 
commissioners in the act. The commission 
was composed of Generals Sherman, Harney, 
and Terry, Senator John B. Henderson, the 
commissioner of Indian Affairs, Taylor, and 
Samuel F. Tappan. This commission revised 
and changed the whole system of dealing with 
the Indians, and to a greater extent than ever 
before applied the bounty of the government 
to the feeding, clothing and education of the 
Indians and qualifying them to live the life 
of civilized people. General Sanborn has re 
ceived honors at the hands of his fellow- 
citizens, and been elected to the Minnesota 
Legislature for eight years since leaving the 
United States service, lie was a member at 
the session when the second State Capitol was 
provided for, also when the new Capitol was 
provided for and the State Railroad bonds 
paid. He has been elected for two years com 
mander of the Loyal Legion of Minnesota, and 
was honored with the election of first com- 
mander of the (i. A. R. of this State. His 
prominence in business, in letters and social 
life is evidenced by his presidency of the St. 
Paul Chamber of Commerce for a number of 
years, vice presidency of the National German 
Bank, a trusteeship of the State Historical 
Society, and connection with several literary 
and social clubs. General Sanborn is a gen- 
tleman of means and culture, with a pleasant 

home and troops of steadfast friends. He was 
married in March, 1857, to Miss Catharine 
Hall, of Newton, New Jersey, who died in 1860. 
In November, 1865, he married Miss Anna 
Nixon, of Bridgeton, New Jersey — a sister to 
Hon. John T. Nixon, U. S. District Judge for 
that State— who died June, 1878. April 15, 
1880, he was married to Miss Rachel Rice, 
daughter of Hon. Edmund Rice, of St. Paul, 
who is the mother of his four children: Lucy 
Sargent, John Benjamin, Rachel Rice, and 


Richard Chute, deceased, a pioneer and one 
of the most active and prominent of the early 
business men of Minneapolis, was born at Cin- 
cinnati, September 23, 1820. His father was 
Rev. James Chute, a descendant of Alexander 
< !hute, who lived in Taunton, England, as early 
as 1268. The family is of Norman origin, and 
in England would claim rank with those who 
came in with William the Conqueror. Mem- 
bers of the family emigrated to America in 
Colonial times, and were prominent figures in 
the early history of New England. Rev. 
James Chute was a native of Byfield, Massa- 
chusetts; was educated to the ministry of the 
Presbyterian Church; taught a private school 
in < /incinnati, removed to Columbus, Ohio, and 
afterwards, in 18.31, to Fort Wayne, Indiana, 
where he died when Richard was fifteen years 
of age. His mother, .Martha Hewes, was de- 
scended from Capt. Roger Clapp, who in 1664 
commanded the "Castle," now Fort Indepen- 
dence. Boston Harbor. She died in Fort 
Wayne when Richard was about thirteen years 
of age. Richard was the oldest of a family of 
five children. All of his early education was re- 
ceived from his parents. At the age of twelve 
he entered the store of S. & II. Hanna & Co.. 
and was employed by various firms until 1841, 
when he engaged as clerk with W. G. & (!. \V. 
Ewing, who were large buyers of furs and 
skins, dealing with various Indian tribes. In 
the conduct of this business he was sent bv his 

1 66 


employers, in 1844, to establish and build a 
post at Good Road's village, eight miles above 
Fort Snelling, on the Minnesota river. At that 
time he visited the Falls of St. Anthony — Uien 
almost in a state of nature — and was so im- 
pressed with the natural advantages of the 
location that, standing on the bank, he took 
off his hat and exclaimed: "Here is the site 
of a mighty city." The next year lie became 
a partner with the Ewings under the linn 
name of Ewing, Chute & Company, and a few 
years later became interested in the fur busi- 
ness with P. Choteau, Jr., & Company. Though 
a trailer with the Indians, he took a deep inter- 
esi in their welfare and civilization, and aided 
them in several negotiations with the govern- 
ment. He was present at Agency City, Iowa, 
in ISC', a I the making of the treaty with the 
Sacs and Foxes tribe; and in 1S40 was pres- 
ent, at Washington, with the Winnebagoes 
when they sold the "Neutral Ground," in Iowa; 
and in 1851 at Traverse des Sioux and Men- 
dola. when the Sioux concluded the treaties 
which opened Minnesota to settlement. In 
1851 .Mr. Chute took an active part in the pro- 
curing of legislation that resulted in the 
government making treaties by which, in 1855, 
the Ottawas and Chippewas of Michigan ex- 
changed their tribal lands west of the Missis- 
sippi for lands in severalty in Michigan, 
dissolving their tribal relations and becoming 
citizens of that State. The service was not 
official, but altogether voluntary and personal, 
and prompted solely by his interest in the 
welfare of the Indians. Mr. Chute married 
.Miss Mary Eliza Young, at Fort Wayne. In- 
diana. February 28, 1850. She was born at 
Dayton, Ohio, and the only daughter of Rev. 
•lames and Olive (Hubbard) Young, both 
natives of New York. In 1S.~>4 Mr. Chute 
settled permanently in SI. Anthony, and 
engaged in the real estate business. At 
that time the land mi the east side of 
the Mississippi river ai the Falls of St. An- 
thony, controlling the water power, was the 
property of Franklin Steele, of Fort Snelling. 
and other gentlemen. Mr. Chute, in connection 
with Mr. John S. Prince, of St. Paul, purchased 
of .Mr. Steele a one eighth interest in the prop 

erty. In 1856 the St. Anthony Falls Water 
Power Company was incorporated, and the 
property vested in it, and Mr. Chute became 
the agent of the company and manager of the 
property, continuing in that capacity until 
1868, when he became president of the com- 
pany, and continued as such until the sale of 
the property, in 1880, to -las. .1. Hill, of St. 
Paul, and others. Mr. Chute's brother. Dr. S. 
H. Chute, succeeded him as agent and man- 
ager, in 1868, when he became the president 
of the company. These twenty-five years 
were years of activity, of liberal expendi 
ture, with hope long deferred, but finally 
crowned with the success which Mr. 
Chute's prophetic eye had foreseen, and 
his unflagging perseverance and tenacity 
of purpose had conspired to produce. The 
property became the center of an active com- 
munity, and the nucleus and heart of a great 
city. Mr. Chute was the presiding genius and 
engaged actively in whatever seemed of 
promise to benefit the community and build it 
up, mil only in material prosperity, but in 
religious and social life, in education, and in 
attractiveness and beauty as a place of resi- 
dence. In the summer of 1856, with others, he 
expended a large amount of money which had 
been raised by the people, in clearing the 
channel of the Mississippi above Fort Snelling. 
ti> enable steamboats to navigate the river to 
Minneapolis. In November, 1856, he was re- 
quested by Henry M. Rice, I hen Territorial 
delegate to Congress, to go to Washington and 
aid in securing the passage of a railroad land 
grant bill, and after a long legislative contest, 
on the last day of the session, the bill was 
passed, which resulted in the building of 1,400 
miles of railroad in the State of .Minnesota. 
.Mr. ('little was made a charter director in sev- 
eral of the railroad companies, and spent much 
time in promoting them, especially the present 
Cleat Northern system, lie also united with 
other enterprising citizens in organizing a 
Union Board of Trade, in which he was for 
many years a director and its first presi- 
dent. In this service he introduced the system 
of boulevarding I he streets, and the system 
of numbering streets and houses, by which 

«w & 

L* — ■, C-, * f(/^s<L^^Ar^n^T-^) 



their location is so readily comprehended, and 
it was he who, in 1858, purchased 3,300 shade 
trees and had them sot out along the street 
lines, which has added so much to the conil'orl 
and beauty of Minneapolis. Upon the opening 
of the land office in Minneapolis, Mr. Chute, 
in company with Mr. H. (5. O. Morrison, entered 
fifteen hundred acres of land. In lstiii he was 
appointed by Governor Ramsey special quar- 
termaster for troops ordered to Fort Ripley, 
and while there was appointed assistant 
quartermaster of the State, with the rank of 
lieutenant colonel. From 1863 to the close of 
the War of the Rebellion, he was United States 
provosi marshal for Hennepin county. In 1865 
he formed a business partnership with his 
brother. Dr. Samuel II. Chute, which continued 
up to the time of his death. Mr. Chute went 
to Washington in 1868-9, and appealed to Con 
gress for aid in the improvement of navigation 
of the river and in the preservation of the 
Falls of St. Anthony. A bill granting one 
hundred thousand acres of land to aid in I lie 
work was introduced, but failed to pass by one 
vote. The following year he again failed in 
his efforts to pass the bill, but in the spring of 
1870 he succeeded in getting a cash appropria- 
tion of 150.000, and a U. S. engineer was 
appointed to take charge of the work. Subse 
quent appropriations were made by Congress, 
which, with the aid of Municipal subscriptions, 
with those of the water power companies and 
individuals, furnished the means for building 
a substantial concrete dyke under the river 
bed, from bank to bank, which has effectually 
stayed the threatened devastation by the water 
torrent, and made the falls permanent and 
secure. The municipal union of St. Anthony 
and Minneapolis, unpopular with the majority 
of citizens, was so ably advocated by Mr. 
Chute, and a few other leading citizens, that 
the union was effected in 1X72. In 1876 Mr. 
Chute was appointed a regent of the Univer- 
sity, and acted as its treasurer for several 
years, resigning in 1882 in consequence of ill 
health, which made it necessary for him to 
seek a less rigorous climate. Subsequently he 
spent much time in the southern States, and 
became a dose student of the colored race, and 

to problems connected therewith. While 
attending the World's Fair at Chicago, in 
1893, Mr. Chute was taken ill, and after a 
few weeks, died in that city on the first 
day of August, and on the 4th was buried in 
Lakewood cemetery in Minneapolis. Mr. 
Chute had always been an attractive fig- 
ure upon the streets of Minneapolis. A little 
under six feet, of medium build, with fair com- 
plexion, he possessed a native gentleness of 
manner. A heart ever ready to give of its best 
to the world, never willing to judge harshly, 
always looking for the best in his fellow men 
and never so happy as when doing for others. 
His energy of character and his great enthus- 
iasm in whatever he undertook to accomplish 
never failed to bring success, and Minneapolis 
owes much to his enterprise and public spirit. 
He was originally an old-time Whig, and he 
was one of the twenty who, in 1855, organized 
the Republican party in Minnesota. He was a 
member and elder of the Presbyterian church, 
a prominent temperance man in theory and 
practice, and an advocate of female suffrage, 
with educational qualifications for both sexes. 
Mr. and Mrs. Chute were the parents of five 
children, viz: Charles Richard, Minnie Olive 
(deceased), Mary Welcome (deceased), William 
Young, and Grace Fairchild, wife of Major J. 
W. Jacobs of the U. S. Army. Mrs. Chute 
still survives, and the sons, Charles R. and 
William Y.. are both residents of Minneapolis, 
engaged in the real estate business. The 
brother, Dr. S. H. Chute, is also a resident of 
Minneapolis, and a prominent man of affairs. 
A sketch of his life appears in another part of 
this work. 


Xo State of equal age and population has 
made a larger contribution to the glory and 
opulence of the Nation than the far-off State 
of Maine. Her gift is in stalwart men of 
superior intellectual endowments, praise 
worthy ambition, moral and physical courage. 
And in the clear light of impartial history the 

1 68 


family name <>f Washburn is easily the most 
eminent, in the beneficence and duration of 
public service, and the progressive develop- 
ment and judicious conservation of material 
resources. Cadwallader ("olden Washburn 
was the fourth in a family of sgveh brothers, 
born at Livermore, .Maine, and the aggregate 
official public service of five of these brothers 
covers a period of eighty-five years. One be- 
came a major general in the Union army, two 
foreign ministers, two Governors, and four 
members of Congress. The eldest, Israel, rep- 
resented his district in the Slate of Maine for 
ten years in Congress, served his State as 
Governor one term, and filled the office of col- 
lector of the port at Portland for twelve years; 
the fourth, Charles A., served for seven years 
as minister to Paraguay under an appointment 
by President Lincoln; the third. Elihu I?., rep- 
resented an Illinois district in Congress for 
twenty years, was the first Secretary of State 
in Grant's cabinet, and served by appointment 
of Grant eight years as minister to France; 
the youngest brother and the only one living, 
represented the Minneapolis district in Con- 
gress several times, and served one term in the 
United States Senate. Both of the grand- 
fathers, Israel Washburn and Samuel Benja- 
min, were soldiers of the Revolution. C. < '. 
Washburn, with whose deeds this sketch is 
concerned, was born April 22, ISIS. His boy- 
hood was passed at work on his father's farm, 
helping in his father's general store and at- 
tending the district school, in which he 
qualified himself for teaching by the time he 
had reached the age of seventeen. From that 
time until his majority was attained, he was 
employed as teacher at Wicasset, not far from 
his home. The habit of industry was sup- 
ported by the habit of frugality, so that he 
was able to save a pari of the small salary 
earned by a common school teacher sixty years 
ago; and this little accumulation comprised 
his entire financial capital when lie started 
west to make his fortune, on arriving at the 
age of twenty-one. lie first located at Daven- 
port, Iowa, where he taught a private school 
for three months, and then for a year was 
employed by the commission in making a geo- 

logical survey of the State. Having formed 
the resolution to study law, he entered the law 
office of Joseph R. Wells, in Rock Island, Illi 
nois, under whose instruction the text books 
were studied. Incidentally he accepted the 
office of surveyor of Rock Island county, the 
income of which assisted in paying his ex- 
penses while prosecuting his studies. When 
qualified for practice he was admitted to the 
bar and located at Mineral Point, Wisconsin. 
Soon afterwards he formed a partnership with 
Cyrus Woodman, representing the New Eng- 
land Land Company, with abundant capital, 
and the firm of Washburn & Woodman opened 
up and conducted a lucrative business, which 
combined dealing in real estate, entering gov- 
ernment lands, examining and perfecting 
titles, and locating Mexican war land warrants. 
The law and real estate business were very 
profitable, and Mr. Washburn invested his 
accumulations of capital wisely in timber 
lands, which became the foundation of a 
colossal fortune. In 1871 he erected at La 
Crosse mammoth saw-mills, with superb 
modern equipment, and engaged in the manu- 
facture of lumber on a scale theretofore 
unequalled even in Wisconsin. Mr. Wash- 
burn's capacity and fitness for political affairs 
were recognized early, and in 1854 he was 
elected to represent his district in Congress, 
and discharged the duty with such accepta- 
bility as to be re-elected in 1856, and again 
in 1858, serving in the 34th, 35th ami 36tb 
Congresses. After dropping out during the 
war for service in the Union army, lie was 
elected to the 40th and 41st Congresses. It 
is a singular coincidence that among the col- 
leagues of C. C. Washburn in Congress before 
the war were two of his elder brothers — 
Israel, who represented the Penobscot District 
of Maine, and Elihu, who represented the 
Galena District of Illinois. In October, 1861, 
he raised the Second Regiment of Wisconsin 
Cavalry, with which he went to the froni as 
the colonel commanding. Within a year his 
distinguished military service was rewarded 
with a major general's commission. He con 
tinned in the field until the surrender of the 
principal Confederate armies signalized the 



early termination of the war, and resigned to 
devote Ins undivided energies to his vast com- 
mercial interests, soon to be augmented by 
large industrial and manufacturing enterprises 
in lumbering camps, in rafts and in saw-mills. 
His fellow-citizens manifested their partiality 
by keeping him in the public service with 
comparatively short intermissions. Re-elected 
to Congress in 1866, and again in 1868, he was 
advanced to the Governorship of Wisconsin 
at the close of his fifth Congressional term by 
an election in 1871. His executive ability 
qualified him in an eminent degree for the 
administrative and executive duties of Gov- 
ernor, while his substantial integrity and 
conscientious regard for the obligations of a 
public trust assured the purity of his adminis- 
tration. Governor Washburn had the breadth 
of grasp, the clearness of perception, the calm 
foresight and the strenuous application which 
crowned his large undertakings with abundant 
success. He was a leader in establishing and 
developing the flour milling industry at Minne- 
apolis, and among the first to introduce the 
Hungarian system known as the roller process 
of manufacturing flour, since adopted by all 
the best mills throughout the country. The 
Washburn Mills, destroyed by tire in 1878, 
were rebuilt with a capacity and completeness 
unknown before in the history of the world. 
Mr. Washburn's name is inseparably asso- 
ciated with the fame of Minneapolis, because 
largely through his instrumentality it enjoys 
distinction as the greatest flour-producing 
center of the world. He was a good man, 
eminently practical and useful; hospitable to 
fresh thoughts and new ideas. He was 
generous, tolerant, charitable, public-spirited. 
He gave the Washburn observatory to the 
University at Madison, and the Free Public 
Library to La Crosse. As a memorial to his 
mother, he left in his will $375,000 for the 
erection and endowment of the Washburn 
Orphan's Home in Minneapolis. In recogni- 
tion of modesty and virtue he donated to the 
Catholic Sisters, for educational uses, his 
beautiful home at Edgewood, near Madison. 
His beneficence was conceived in a catholicity 
of spirit, and directed by intelligent sympathy 

and wise foresight, so as to conserve and dis- 
tribute its blessings in the years and centuries 
to follow. 


The life of Judge George Brooks Young may 
be considered as divided into two distinct and 
nearly equal parts, the latter half belonging 
to Minnesota, the former half to the East — to 
Boston. It is not necessary to seek for him 
a noble extraction in foreign lands. Few of 
our countrymen can claim a lineage at once 
more pure and more typically American. His 
parents were both descended from early set- 
tlers in the Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay 
colonies, and represented families of conse- 
quence in the annals of New England. His 
father, the late Rev. Alexander Young, of 
Boston, was for twenty-eight years the pastor 
of the New South Unitarian church of that 
city, and his paternal grandfather, also Alex- 
ander Young, was senior member of the firm 
of Young & Minns, which for many years pub- 
lished the New England Palladium, a promi- 
nent organ of the Federal party. His mother 
was Caroline James, daughter of Eleazar 
James, Esq., one of the leading lawyers of 
Worcester county, Massachusetts, who resided 
at Barre, but whose native place was the 
picturesque old town of Cohasset. George 
Brooks Young was born at Boston July 25, 
1S40. He attended the common and Latin 
schools of the city, proceeding, in 1856, from 
the latter to Harvard College, where he 
graduated at the end of a four years' course. 
In the fall of 1860 he entered the office of Hon. 
Henry A. Scudder, under whose direction he 
lead law for about a year. 1861 found him 
back at Harvard, in the Law School, from 
which institution he graduated two years later. 
In 1S6J he went to New York City, and was 
for several months engaged in post-graduate 
study in the office of William Curtis Noyes, 
and in December of that year he was admitted 
to the bar. He next held, for a time, the posi- 
tion of managing clerk for David Dudley Field, 
after which he pursued an independent prac- 



tice during the remainder of his residence in 
the East. Mr. Young was thirty when, in April 
of 1870, he came in search of a new home in 
the Northwest. Locating at Minneapolis, lie 
gained admission to the bar of the Slate, anil 
during the thirty years of his citizenship in 
Minnesota he has been a most earnest and 
efficient member of the profession. In April. 

1574, Mr. Young was appointed Associate Jus- 
tice of the State Supreme Court to till a 
vacancy which occurred through the resigna- 
tion of Chief Justice Ripley and Hie consequent 
promotion of Associate Justice McMillan to 
the higher post. In the ensuing November 
election, however, Hon. F. R. E. Cornell was 
made Associate Justice, so that Judge Young's 
tenure of the office ceased at the beginning of 

1575. In the following May. he left Minne- 
apolis and established himself, both as resident 
and legal practitioner, in St. Paul, which city 
has since been his home and the scene of his 
professional labors. I'pon locating here, he 
associated himself with Stanford Newel, under 
the style of Young & Newel. Subsequently 
this partnership was dissolved, and the firm 
of Young & Lightner formed, which is com- 
posed of three members, viz: George B. 
Young, William II. Lightner and Edward 
Blake Young, and has had a long and 
prosperous career. From his first coming to 
St. Paul, in 1875, until the spring of 1892, Mr. 
Young was reporter of the Supreme Court, 
and twenty-seven volumes of the State reports, 
i. e., volumes 21 to 47 inclusive, were compiled 
by him. For a number of years Judge Young 
has been engaged as a lecturer on the Conflict 
of Laws in the Law School of the State Univer 
sity. A few months after coming to Minne- 
sota, in 1870, Mr. Young returned to Boston, 
and, on September 28th, was married, at 
Edgartown, Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts, 
to Miss Ellen Fellows, only daughter of the 
late Daniel Fellows. Esq., of Edgartown, and 
a descendant of Governor Thomas Mayhew, 
who, in Kill, became, not only Governor, but 
patentee and proprietor, as well, of the beau- 
tiful islands of Martha's Vineyard, Nantucket, 
and the Elizabeth Isles. Mr. and Mis. Young 
have no children. 


Hon. Thomas Wilson, formerly of Winona. 
Minnesota, now of St. Paul, was born in County 
Tyrone, Ireland, May It!, 1S27. He was the 
son of Daniel and Fanny (Cuddy) Wilson, who 
removed to the United States in 1839, and 
settled on a farm in Venango county, Pennsyl- 
vania. Here Thomas spent his time until he 
was twenty, alternately working on the farm 
and attending the common schools of the 
neighborhood. He then entered Alleghany 
College, Pennsylvania, from which institution 
he graduated in 1852. Immediately afterwards 
he took up the study of law with Hon. John 
W. Howe, of Meadville, Pennsylvania, where 
he was admitted to the bar in February, 1855. 
Two months later he removed to the Territory 
of Minnesota, where he opened an office for 
the practice of his profession, at Winona. He 
was a member of the convention that framed 
the Constitution in accordance with which 
Minnesota was, in 1858, admitted to the Union. 
In the fall of 1857 he was elected Judge of 
the District Court of the Third Judicial Dis- 
trict, which office he held for six years. One 
year before his term as District Judge expired, 
he was appointed, by Governor Miller, Asso- 
ciate Justice of the Supreme Court of the 
State; and the subsequent autumn — 1864 — he 
was elected Chief Justice of the Supreme 
Court. The latter office he held for four and 
one half years, when he resigned, on July 11, 
1869, to resume the active practice of the law. 
He was a member of the House of Representa- 
tives of the State in 1880-1, and of the State 
Senate in 1883-5. In 1881 he was nominated by 
acclamation as the Democratic candidate for 
the United Stales Senate. He was unanimous 
ly nominated for Congress in 1884, but for 
business reasons declined the nomination. He 
was again unanimously nominated in 1886, and 
though there was a majority of over five 
thousand against his (Democratic) party, in 
die district, he was elected by over 2, Slid ma- 
jority. He was nominated for reelection in 
the fall of isss. when Mr. Cleveland was a 
candidate for the second term, but was de- 
feated by the Republican candidate, the Hon. 




Mark H. Dunnell, by a majority of 1,800— the 
Republican majority in the district then being 
between five and six thousand. In 1890 Judge 
Wilson was nominated by the Democratic 
party for GoTernor of Minnesota. The returns 
showed a plurality of 2,267 votes in favor of 
Hon. William R. Merriam, the Republican 
candidate — the normal Republican majority in 
the State being about 10,000. In the autumn 
of 1802, Judge Wilson was appointed general 
counsel for the Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis 
& Omaha Railway Company, a position In- 
still occupies. A distinguished member of the 
Supreme Bench says of Judge Wilson: 

"For more than forty years he has been a 
prominent citizen and attorney of Minnesota, 
and during the greater part of that time he has 
stood in the foremost rank of the legal profes- 
sion of the State. The clientage which he has 
commanded has been unsurpassed, perhaps un- 
equaled, both in importance and extent; and 
this statement is in no sense derogatory to the 
achievements of his brother attorneys." 

On December 26th, 18(10, at Winona, Judge 
Wilson was united in marriage to Miss Louise 
Bennett, a native of Rome, New York, daugh- 
ter of Allanson Bennett, Esq., a prominent 
lawyer of that city. Five children were born 
of this marriage, four of whom died in infancy. 
One daughter, Louise, grew to womanhood, 
and was married September 7, 1887, to Lloyd 
W. Bowers, one of the ablest young lawyers of 
Chicago. He was appointed general counsel of 
the Chicago & Northwestern Railway upon 
the death of Hon. William C. Gowdy, in 180::. 


James Shoemaker was born in Northampton 
county — now Monroe county — Pennsylvania. 
June 0, lN2."k He was the son of Jacob and 
Hannah (Trach) Shoemaker, both parents 
being natives of Pennsylvania, and of German 
ancestry. His father, Jacob Shoemaker, was 
an influential citizen, well known in the State 
of Pennsylvania. He conducted a large farm 
and two flouring mills, one in Monroe county, 
New York, and the other in Flatbrookville, 

New Jersey. He was treasurer of the county in 
which he lived for many years, and was a prom 
inent man in public affairs. His forefathers 
were residents of Pennsylvania before the days 
of the Revolution, and some of them were sol 
diers in the war for independence. The subject 
of this sketch was one of a family of seven sons 
and four daughters. He received his early 
education in the common country schools, liv- 
ing and working on his father's farm and in 
the flouring mill until he was twenty-one years 
of age, when he went to Easton, Pennsylvania, 
and found employment as clerk in a general 
store, where he remained four years. He was 
then connected with a foundry business and 
the manufacture of stoves, for about one year, 
after which, with a partner, he started a drv- 
'A Is store in Easton, Pennsylvania, and re- 
mained in that business up to 1856. In 1857 
he came to Minnesota and landed in Mankato 
on the 9th of May. In 1858 he was appointed 
on the board of county commissioners. In 
1859, he opened an auction and commission 
store, which he conducted for only one year. 
He then sold out his business and went to the 
Rocky mountains at the time of the Pikes Peak 
gold excitement, where he spent the summer 
in prospecting and mining — but he did not find 
a fortune. He returned in the fall to Mankato 
and was elected a member of the city board 
of education. He was the first president of 
the board of trustees of the Glenwood Ceme- 
tery Association, and has been one of the board 
of directors ever since. He was one of the 
original members of the board of trade, or- 
ganized in 1869, and has been president of the 
board for the last three years, and also a mem- 
ber of the board of public works. He is 
president of the "Old Settler's Territorial 
Historical Association," which society was 
organized by him. Mr. Shoemaker served as 
city assessor for sixteen years — was appointed 
in 1S78, and retired in 1894. In 1884-5, he 
served as manager of the Mankato Exhibit at 
the New Orleans Cotton Exposition. Mr. 
Shoemaker published a directory of the City 
of Mankato in 1878, and a directory of the city 
and county in 1881 and also in 1888. At the 
time of the Indian outbreak, in 1862, Mr. Shoe- 


maker was appointed commissary sergeant in 
('apt. William Bierbauer's company from .Man 
kato, and participated in the New Ulm fight, 
under Col. Charles E. Flandrau, where his 
horse was killed from under him during the 
engagement. After the evacuation of New 
rim. on the 25th of August, the citizens were 
brought to Mankato, and a hospital was estab- 
lished. On its reorganization, August 31, 1862, 
Mr. Shoemaker was elected second lieutenant 
of a company of thirty days' volunteers under 
State authority, and was for a time stationed 
at South Bend. He was with a part of the 
company that was detailed, under Captain I !ox, 
to build Fort Cox, acting as quartermaster, 
and remained there until they were relieved 
by a company of United States soldiers. 
Lieutenant Shoemaker was present with his 
company, on the 26th of December, lsr.2, when 
thirty-eight of the condemned Indians were 
hung on one gallows, which was erected on 
the present site of the C. & N. W. freight 
depot in Mankato. In politics Mr. Shoemaker 
has been a Democrat, but has never sought 
public office, though he has served for several 
years as county coroner, first by appointment 
and afterwards by election. For over forty 
years Mr. Shoemaker has been conspicuous in 
every public undertaking, laboring unselfishly 
for the purpose of promoting the welfare of his 
town and fellow-citizens. Scarcely an enter- 
prise in the history of Mankato but owes some- 
thing of its success to his earnest, unselfish 
labor. He is a man of sterling integrity, con- 
scientious and kind hearted to a fault. Though 
not gifted with too much of this world's goods 
— and such men seldom are — no one in mis- 
fortune appeals to him in vain. James Shoe- 
maker's name is unsullied, his integrity 
unquestioned, and no man can point to a mean 
or unbecoming action in his long and eventful 
career. Mankato may have had men who ac- 
complished greater things for her prosperity, 
but none who worked more sincerely, con- 
scientiously and unselfishly than James SI 

maker. He was married May 30, 1867, to 
Frances V. King, daughter of John A. King, a 
native of New York. Their only child and son, 
Charles J. Shoemaker, died in Duluth, Minne- 

sota, December 1G, 181)0, of typhoid fever, at 
the age of twenty-two years. He was a gradu- 
ate of the University Law School at Ann 
Arbor, Michigan, and studied law witli Mr. J. 
I.. Washburn, in Mankato, and after his 
graduation, in 1890, commenced the practice 
of his profession as a partner with Mr. Wash- 
burn in Duluth. He was a young man of 
superior ability and great promise of future 
success and usefulness, loved and respected 
by all who knew him. 


Hon. Walter Henry Sanborn, LL. I)., Judge 
of the United States Circuit Court for the 
Eighth Judicial Circuit and ex-officio Judge 
of the United States Circuit Court of Appeals 
for that circuit, was born on Sanborn's Hill, 
in Epsom, New Hampshire, October 19, 1845. 
The ancestral farm on which he was born has 
been occupied as a homestead by his lineal 
ancestors since 1752, and is now owned by 
Judge Sanborn and his uncle. Gen. John B. 
Sanborn, of St. Paul. It comprises three hun- 
dred acres of land, and upon it stand two huge 
houses, one of which, the Sanborn homestead 
(which has been the summer residence of 
Judge Sanborn for many years), is more than 
a century old and stands upon the Hill, so that 
Mount Washington is visible from its veranda. 
•Indue Sanborn is the eldest sou of Hon. Henry 
F. Sanborn, of Epsom, New Hampshire, and 
Eunice Davis, of Princeton. Massachusetts, 
who were married in 184."!. He is a son of the 
American Revolution. His direct lineal an- 
cestor on the father's side, Eliphalet Sanborn, 
served as a soldier for the Colonies in the 
Revolution, and died from the effect of injuries 
he received in that service. He was elected 
and re-elected town clerk of Epsom in the 
memorable years 177:*., 1775, 177<i and 1777. 
and was one of its selectmen in 1772, 1773 and 
1771. Judge Sanborn's great-grandfather. 
Thomas Davis, served under Prescott at Bun- 
ker Hill, participated in the battle at White 
Plains, was one of the Colonial Army which 



compelled and witnessed the surrender of Bur- 
goyne, continued his service until the close of 
the war, and was one of the soldiers present 
whom Webster addressed as "venerable men" 
at the laying of the corner stone of Bunker 
Hill monument in 1825. Hon. Josiah Sanborn, 
the son of Eliphalet, was elected a member of 
the New Hampshire State Senate for three 
terms, a member of the House of Representa- 
tives of that State for eight terms, and a select- 
man of his native town for twenty years. Hon. 
Henry P. Sanborn, the father of the Judge, 
entered Dartmouth College, but failing health 
compelled him to abandon a professional 
career and he returned to the farm. When 
the State Senate of New Hampshire was 
composed of but twelve members he was 
elected to that body in 1866, and was re-elected 
in 1867. He was elected a member of the 
House of Representatives of that State in 1855 
and a selectman of his native town for six 
years. In his boyhood. Judge Sanborn worked 
on his father's farm in New Hampshire and 
fitted himself for Dartmouth College by attend- 
ing the academies and high schools in his vicin- 
ity. When sixteen years of age he commenced 
to teach school to obtain money to pay for his 
education. He entered Dartmouth College in 
1803, taught school during each winter of his 
college course, was chosen, in 1866, by all the 
students of the college one of two participants 
in the annual college debate, led his class for 
the four years of the course and was graduated 
with the highest honors, as its valedictorian, 
in June, 1867. In February of that year he 
had become the principal of the high school 
at Milford, New Hampshire, and lie held this 
position until February, 1870, when he declined 
a proffered increase of salary, resigned his po- 
sition and went to St. Paul, Minnesota, where 
he was admitted to the bar in the Supreme 
Court of that State in February, 1871. Dart- 
mouth College conferred upon him the degree 
of LL. D. on June 19, 1893. He had before 
received from this college the degrees of A. B. 
and A. M. On the 1st of May, 1871, he formed 
a partnership for the practice of law with < len. 
John B. Sanborn, under the name of John B. 
& W. H. Sanborn, and continued to practice 

as a member of that firm until February 10, 
1892, when he was nominated United States 
< Jircuit Judge by President Harrison. He was 
one of the attorneys in more than forty-four 
hundred lawsuits and the leading counsel in 
man}- noted cases. In 1881 he was one of the 
counsel for the defense in the famous impeach- 
ment trial of Judge E. St. Julien Cox before 
the Senate of the State of Minnesota. In 
1889 he discovered the fact that the law under 
which the city attorney, Hon. William P. Mur- 
ray, was elected was unconstitutional, caused 
the city council to meet and elect Hon. O. E. 
Holman corporation attorney, and then con- 
ducted through the courts the quo warranto 
proceedings which resulted in triumphantly 
seating Mr. Holman. his client. State vs. Mur- 
ray, 41 Minn. 123. It was he who argued the 
unconstitutionality of the "dressed beef act" 
of the Minnesota Legislature of 18S9, and when 
the first arrest for its violation was made he 
obtained a writ of habeas corpus from the 
United States Circuit Court, and in that court, 
and in the United States Supreme Court, sus- 
tained his position that the law was in 
violation of the commercial clause of the Con- 
stitution and void. In re Barber, 39 Federal Re- 
porter 41; Minnesota vs. Barber, 136 U. S. 313. 
In 1885 he was elected treasurer of the State 
Bar Association of St. Paul, and in 1889 he 
was selected by the attorneys of the city by 
ballot as one of four candidates from whom 
the Governor should select two District Judges 
for the county of Ramsey, but he was not 
chosen by the Governor. In 1890 he was elected 
President of the St. Paul Bar Association. In 
Freemasonry he was respected and honored. 
In 1886, 1887 and 1888 he was elected and re- 
elected Eminent Commander of Damascus 
Commandery No. 1, of St. Paul, the oldest or- 
ganization of Knights Templar in the State, 
and one of the strongest and most famous in 
the country. In 1889 he was elected Grand 
Commander of the Knights Templar of the 
State of Minnesota, and in the great parade 
at Washington at the Triennial Conclave in 
October of that year he was marshal of the 
Eleventh Division, and organized and led the 
Templars of ten States. In the municipal af- 



fairs of the city of St. Paul he played no 
unimportant part. In 1878 he was elected a 
member of the city council, and was then its 
youngest member. In 1880 he removed liis 
residence from the ward which he then repre- 
sented to St. Anthony Hill, and in 1885 he was 
again elected a member of the city council 
from that district, which was the wealthiest 
and most influential in the city. From that 
time until his elevation to the bench he re- 
mained a member of the council and only re- 
signed his position to enter upon the discharge 
of his duties as Circuit Judge. During his 
service in the city council he was elected its 
vice-president and was the leading spirit on 
the committees that prepared, recommended 
and finally passed the ordinances under which 
the electric and cable systems of street rail- 
ways in that city were introduced and arc now 
operated. When he entered the council there 
was not a foot of pavement or cement sidewalk 
in the St. Anthony Hill district, but under his 
energetic supervision a tract of one hundred 
and sixty acres, including Summit avenue, was 
paved, boulevarded and supplied with cement 
sidewalks, until it is said that no city can beast 
of a single residence tract so large that is so 
beautifully, expensively and uniformly im- 
proved. In politics Judge Sanborn is a Repub- 
lican. In 1890 he was president of the Union 
League of St. Paul. In the same year he was 
chosen chairman of the Republican city con- 
vention, and in every political contest for the 
fifteen years preceding his elevation to the 
bench he was active, energetic and influential. 
In 1879 he delivered the 4th of July oration 
in the city of St. Paul, and his services as a 
public speaker have been frequently in de- 
mand. On November 10, 1874, Judge Sanborn 
was married to Miss Emily F. Bruce of Mil 
ford, New Hampshire, and their family con 
sists of two daughters, Nellie Grace and 
Marian Emily, and two sons, Bruce Walter and 
Henry F. Sanborn. The family residence at 
No. 143 Virginia avenue, on St. Anthony Hill, 
stands in spacious grounds, shaded by more 
than twenty old oak trees, and was built by 
Mr. Sanborn in 1879. On February 10. 1802. 
he was nominated by President Harrison 

Judge of the United States Circuit Court for 
the Eighth Judicial Circuit, and en March 17. 
following his appointment, was confirmed by 
the unanimous vote of the Senate. By virtue 
of this appointment he became one of the three 
members of the United States Circuit Court 
of Appeals for that circuit, the tribunal next 
in rank to the United States Supreme Court. 
The Eighth is the largest judicial circuit in 
the United States, and comprises the St a hs 
of Minnesota, North Dakota, South Da- 
kota, Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Nebras 
ka, Iowa, Kansas, Missouri and Arkansas, 
and the Court of Appeals takes jurisdic- 
tion over these States and over the Indian 
Territory, Oklahoma and New Mexico. This 
circuit has the largest population of any 
circuit in the United States. The Court of 
Appeals of this circuit has been called upon 
to consider the greatest number of cases, em- 
bracing the most diversified and important lit- 
igation of any of the United States courts of 
the same rank, and in the performance of their 
work the judges who have constituted this 
court have all demonstrated their great ability. 
Judge Sanborn came not unprepared for the 
work. Clearness of perception, generosity of 
labor in research, accuracy in detail and state- 
ment, strength in diction, intuitive sense of 
justice, and knowledge of the law. are qualities 
and characteristics which he possessed in a 
high degree. The combination of these quali- 
ties made him a great lawyer, and with his 
long experience in a large and exacting prac- 
tice at the bar added to these qualifications, 
Judge Sanborn was fully equipped for his task, 
and he entered upon it with a zeal and courage 
which assured the splendid results which have 
followed. Many of Judge Sanborn's opinions 
since he has been upon the bench are of great 
importance, and some of them are original in 
their authority. The first cases argued at the 
May, 1S!I2, term of the Circuit Court of Ap- 
peals for the Eighth Circuit were the Omaha 
Bridge cases, which are reported in 10 U. S. 
App. 98, 2 C. C. A. 174, 51 Fed. 309. These 
cases involved great interests, and presented 
nice distinctions of law, that were pressed 
upon the court by most able and persistent 



counsel. The Union Pacific Railway Company 
had made contracts with the Chicago, Rock 
Island and Pacific Railway Company and the 
Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway Com- 
pany by which it leased to each of these com- 
panies for the term of 999 years the joint and 
equal possession and use of its tracks over its 
bridge across the Missouri River, al Omaha. 
Alter these contracts were partially executed 
the Union Pacific Company refused to perform 
and undertook to repudiate them. The Rock 
Island Company and the St. Paul Company 
brought suits and obtained decrees for their 
specific performance. The Union Pacific Com- 
pany appealed from these decrees, and insisted 
that the contracts were ultra vires of the Pa- 
cific Company, that the specific performance 
thereof could not be enforced in equity because 
the acts to be performed under them were so 
numerous and complicated, and because the 
contracts were unfair. The opinion of 
Judge Sanborn was exhaustive, but so clear, 
vigorous and convincing that it challenged 
the attention of the bar and placed him 
at once upon a high plane of superiority, 
from which he has steadily risen as his 
work progressed. It opened with a concise 
statement of the limits of the powers of corpo- 
rations created under legislative grants. It 
then reviewed the decisions of the Supreme 
Court upon the powers of such corporations, 
and carefully analyzed the contracts and dem- 
onstrated that it was not beyond the ordinary 
powers of a railroad corporation to let to an- 
other the use of its lines so long as it was not 
thereby disabled from the full performance of 
its duties to the State and the public. The 
acts of Congress relative to the construction 
and use of railroad bridges over the great riv- 
ers were examined and shown to have fairly 
empowered the Pacific Company to make its 
contracts of lease. Each of the ques- 
tions presented in these cases was treated 
in the most masterly manner. The de- 
crees below were affirmed, and the opinion 
of Judge Sanborn has since been reviewed 
and affirmed by the Supreme Court. In 
Barnes vs. Poirier, 27 U. S. App. 500, 12 
C. C. A. 9, 64 Fed. 14, Judge Sanborn delivered 

an opinion on the assignability of additional 
homesteads, which was quoted with approval 
by the Supreme Court in Webster vs. Luther, 
16 Sup. Ct. Rep. 963-6, and which seems to 
have settled that question. In this opinion 
is shown the disposition of the judge to avoid 
the pitfall of technicalities, and to give to the 
law the breadth of construction necessary to 
the accomplishment of the original intention. 
It would seem that the multitude of cases and 
decisions involving the law of negligence 
would have exhausted all possibilities of nov- 
elty in facts and interest in opinions, but in 
cases where Judge Sanborn has delivered opin- 
ions upon this branch of the law he has, by 
his careful statement of the principles, his 
clear-cut discrimination in their application, 
and his free use of the faculty of common 
sense, created new leading cases. Examples of 
these are: Union Pacific Railway Co. vs. Jarvi, 
10 U. S. App. 439, 53 Fed. 65, involving the 
questions of defective appliances and contribu- 
tory negligence; Bohn Mfg. Co. vs. Erickson. 
12 U. S. App. 200, 55 Fed. 943, which discusses 
with remarkable clearness the question of 
latent danger; Gowen vs. Harley, 12 U. S. 
App. 574, 56 Fed. 97::. which treats of nearly 
every question likely to arise in a case of per- 
sonal injury occurring to an employe in his 
employment; What Cheer Coal Co. vs. John- 
son, 12 U. S. App. 490, 56 Fed. 810, upon the 
question of vice principal, and the distinctions 
to be made by reason of extent or grade of 
authority; City of Minneapolis vs. Lundin, 7 
O c. A. 344, 58 Fed. 525, which is a very strong- 
case on the doctrine of "fellow servant" and 
the application thereof to conditions arising 
from the performance of work by a municipal- 
ity through its official servants; and Chicago, 
St. Paul etc., Ry. Co. vs. Elliott, 12 U. S. App. 
381, in which Judge Sanborn defines "proxi- 
mate cause"' as understood in law, states the 
rules for its discovery and the reason for these 
rules, and illumines the entire subject with 
clearness of statement and wealth of illustra- 
tion. Questions arising upon municipal bonds 
have been much before the court, and Judge 
Sanborn has written many opinions in these 
cases. In National Life Insurance Co. vs. Board 



of Education of the city of Huron, 27 U. S. 
App. 244, his opinion contains the most ex 
haustive review of the authorities upon the 
effect of the usual recitals in such bonds, and 
the most concise and complete statement of 
the established rules for their construction to 
be found in the books. The opinion is, in fact, 
a most thorough and satisfactory treatise on 
the subject, and outside of its purpose as a 
decision in the case will be of the greatest 
value to the bar and investors in municipal 
securities. The leading case under the Slier 
man anti-trust act, as il applies to traffic con- 
tracts and transportation companies, is United 
States vs. Trans-Missouri Association, 19 U. S. 
App. 3G. Certain railway companies entered 
into a contract forming a freight association, 
agreeing to establish and maintain such rates, 
rules and regulations for freight traffic be- 
tween competitive points as a committee of 
their own choosing should deem reasonable, 
but providing that the rates and rules so es- 
tablished should be public and be subject to 
change at any monthly meeting upon notice, 
and that any member might disregard the 
same and even withdraw from the association 
upon notice. It appeared that the effect of the 
operation of the association bad been to di- 
minish rather than to increase rates. In this 
case Judge Sanborn held that the contract was 
in accord with the policy of the Interstate 
Commerce Act as tending to make competition 
open and fair, and was not void, in an opinion 
which contains a most complete citation and 
review of authorities, and is undoubtedly the 
most thorough discussion of the effect of the 
anti-trust act upon association contracts that 
has been delivered by the courts. This decision 
was subsequently reversed by the Supreme 
Court by a vote of five to four, but a majority 
of the judges to whom the question was pre- 
sented in the course of the litigation, from its 
inception to its close, agreed with Judge San- 
born. The character and effect of the decisions 
and conveyances of the land department of the 
United States have probably never been so 
carefully considered, or so clearly stated, as in 
Judge Sanborn's opinion in United States vs. 
Winona & St. Peter Ry. Co., 15 C. C. A. 96. His 

opinion in Minneapolis vs. Reum, 12 U. S. App. 
446-481, has probably awakened more interest 
and created more public comment than has any 
oilier case in the court. The point involved 
was the exclusive right and power of Congress, 
under the Constitution, to fix the rules and 
requirements upon which a foreign subject 
may become a citizen of the United States, or 
of a State. Beyond all this, the great value of 
his practical business knowledge and expe- 
rience has been shown in the management of 
the receiverships of the Union Pacific Railway 
Company and its allied companies in this cir- 
cuit, of which he has had charge and super- 
vision since early in 1894. 


Dorilus Morrison was born in the town of 
Livermore, Oxford county, Maine, on the 20th 
of December, 1814, and died in Minneapolis 
June 26, 1897. His father, Samuel Morrison, 
was of Scotch lineage and one of the early set- 
tlers of the State of Maine, where he married 
Betsy Benjamin. Dorilus was the second son 
of a family of four brothers and two sisters. 
His first business venture was as a merchant 
in his native State, furnishing supplies to lum- 
bermen at Bangor. This brought him in con- 
tact with men in that line and gave him an 
insight into the needs and methods of that 
business. It was with the purpose of locating 
pine lands for himself and others that Mr. Mor- 
rison visited Minnesota in 1854. He was so 
favorably impressed with the country, espe- 
cially with its advantages for lumbering, that 
he returned to Maine and disposed of his busi- 
ness. He came to St. Anthony to make a per- 
manent location in the spring of 1855, and at 
once engaged in active business, which he con- 
tinued with great success up to the time of his 
death. Mr. Morrison first took a contract to 
supply the mills with logs, and in the following 
winter fitted out and sent into the pineries, on 
Rum river, a crew of men to cut the timber, 
and, in the spring, brought the winter's cut 
into the booms. This business was continued 
for many years. After the completion of the 





dam of the Minneapolis Mill Company he built 
a sawmill, opened a lumber-yard and engaged 
extensively in the lumber business. He con- 
ducted all the operations, from cutting the 
logs in the woods to the sale of the manufac- 
tured lumber, until the accumulating interests 
induced him to resign the business to his 
sons, George H. and Clinton, who continued 
it under the style of Morrison Brothers. 
Upon the organization of a Union Board of 
Trade, in 1850, to stimulate the business inter- 
ests of St. Anthony and the incipient town 
of Minneapolis, Mr. Morrison was chosen presi- 
dent and was also a director for several years. 
In the several trade organizations which suc- 
ceeded the pioneer board he was an active co- 
operator. In lSG-t Mr. Morrison was chosen to 
represent the District of Hennepin, West, in 
the State Senate, occupying the position during 
that and the following year. His colleague 
from Hennepin East, during both sessions, was 
Hon. John S. Pillsbury, and in the House of 
Representatives, during the latter year, were 
Hon. Cyrus Aldrich and Judge F. B. E. Cor- 
nell. Hennepin county, always ably repre- 
sented in the Legislature, never sent to that 
body a more brilliant representation. Upon 
the incorporation of the city of Minne- 
apolis, in 1867, Mr. Morrison was chosen its 
first mayor. The succeeding year the office 
was held by Mr. H. G. Harrison, but, in lsc.O, 
Mr. Morrison was again elected, and gave to 
the duties of the office the careful attention 
and decisive action which characterized all his 
public life, and made the city government so 
successful in its early years. When the 
building of the Northern Pacific railroad 
was undertaken a construction company 
was formed, consisting of Mr. Morrison 
associated with others, to which company was 
awarded the contract to construct the first 
section of 240 miles of the line, from the St. 
Louis river to Red river. The work was pushed 
with vigor, and the completed road turned 
over to the company in 1872. Again, 
in 1S73, Mr. Morrison was associated with 
other parties to construct the next section 
of 200 miles of road, from Bed river to Hie 
Missouri river. At its completion the financial 

affairs of the company were in such a condition 
that no money could be obtained to pay for the 
work. Mr. Morrison assumed the shares of his 
associates, and cancelled the indebtedness, re- 
ceiving in payment a large tract of the com 
pany's lands in northern Minnesota which was 
covered with pine timber. This land proved a 
source of immense profit, and contributed 
largely to the already ample fortune which his 
industry and sagacity had accumulated. 
Mr. Morrison built the Excelsior flouring 
mill in 1S78, and leased it to Charles A. Pills- 
bury & Company. This mill was totally de- 
stroyed by fire December 4, 1881, but was 
immediately rebuilt and operated by Mr. Morri- 
son. Mr. Morrison associated with him E. V. 
White, and built the Standard flouring mill. 
Mr. White retired from business after a few 
years, and Mr. Morrison operated the Excelsior 
and Standard mills alone until 1889, when the 
firm became the Minneapolis Flour Manufac- 
turing Company, with Mr. Morrison as presi 
dent — having consolidated with Morse & Sam 
mis, operating Hie Standard, Excelsior and St. 
Anthony mills — with a daily capacity of 3,400 
barrels. In 1871 Mr. Morrison was elected for a 
term of two years a member of the board of 
education, and was re-elected in the year 1878, 
for a term of three years, and was chosen presi 
dent of the board. At the organization of the 
board of park commissioners of the city of 
Minneapolis Mr. Morrison was appointed a 
member of that body, and afterwards held the 
office by election. The magnificent park s \ s 
tern of the city, which has done much to make 
it an attractive and healthful place of resi- 
dence, owes much to the labor and counsel 
which Mr. Morrison gave to this board. He 
was also interested in the Athenaeum, the 
predecessor of the present city library, serving 
on its board of managers, and sometimes as its 
president. He greatly aided in building up the 
institution and thus fostering literary taste in 
the community. Among the enterprises with 
which Mr. Morrison was identified during his 
long business career in Minneapolis was the 
Minneapolis Harvester Works. He applied to 
it his careful business methods, supplied the 
needed capital and made it a success. For 



many years il was among the largest manu- 
factories of agricultural machinery in the 
country. Mr. Thomas Lowry, who probably 
knew Mr. Morrison as intimately as any of the 
younger business men of Minneapolis, says of 
him : 

"Dorilus Morrison was one of the most gen- 
erous and public spirited citizens Minneapolis 
ever possessed. A man of large means, he was 
always ready with his capital and brains to 
assist and stand behind any public enterprise 
which would in any way tend to benefit the 
city of his home. He was particularly liberal 
and generous in assisting young men to start 
in business, and in aiding them from his own 
persona] resources. Few* charities in Minne- 
apolis escaped Mr. Morrison's notice. His 
friends and the public generally always felt 
that for any charitable institution of merit his 
purse was always open. He was also a great 
benefactor in a quiet way. and tried to conceal, 
rather than advertise, his donations and chari- 
ties. As a business man. Mr. Morrison was 
one of the ablest that ever came to the State 
of Minnesota. His judgment was clear and 
unerring. In times of financial distress his 
unusual financial ability, together with his 
courage, always carried him through, and 
was a source of strength and encourage- 
ment to others. As is w r ell known by the older 
residents of Minneapolis, Mr. Morrison and Col. 
William S. King were the fathers of the park 
system of this city. Mr. Morrison was one of 
the main men in the organization of the Athe- 
neum, and in its support up to the time it was 
absorbed by the Minneapolis Public Library." 

In politics he was Republican, but not a 
partisan. In religion he was attached to the 
Universalist faith. He was twice married, first 
in 1840, in Livermore, to Miss Harriet K. 
Whittemore, who accompanied him to Minne- 
apolis, and was the mother of his three chil- 
dren, Clinton, George H., now deceased, and 
Grace, wife of Dr. H. H. Kimball of Minneap- 
olis. Mrs. Morrison died in 1881, at Vienna, 
Austria, while on a European trip. One who 
knew Mrs. Morrison intimately during her 
whole married life says of her: "She was dig- 
nified and courtly in her manners, yet 
kind-hearted and sympathetic to all. I always 
regarded her as a queen among women — one 
of the loveliest characters I ever knew." He 

married as his second wife Mrs. Abby < '. <'la; 
stone of Massachusetts. 


The late Hon. George Barnard Sargent, of 
Duluth, Minnesota, was a native of Massachu- 
setts, bora at Boston in the year ISIS. He 
was descended from ancestral Sargents in Eng- 
land by many intervening generations. He be- 
gan life in circumstances admitting of few ad- 
vantages, but his elementary schooling was 
sufficient as a basis for the broad, practical 
education later acquired by self-culture. Civil 
engineering was his early-chosen vocation, and 
by close application to his work and the prac- 
tice of careful economy he laid by, while yet 
very young, a considerable amount of money 
to be used as the foundation of future under- 
takings. In 1836 he left Massachusetts for the 
^Yest, and located at Davenport, Iowa, where 
he established himself as a banker. In his 
early voting days Mr. Sargent was a Whig, be- 
coming a Republican on the formation of that 
party. During the administration of Millard 
Fillmore, and after he, Mr. Sargent, had fol- 
lowed the banking business for about sixteen 
years, he received the appointment of Surveyor 
General for the district comprising the States 
of Minnesota, Wisconsin and Iowa. In 1S57 
he was elected mayor of the city of Davenport, 
and served for a term of two years. Upon the 
expiration of his official life he resumed finan- 
cial business in the two centers, Davenport and 
Boston. In 1863 he went, with his family, to 
reside in New York City, and was for six years 
engaged in Wall street as a banker and broker. 
In 1869 he returned West, located in Duluth. 
and at once organized the banking house of 
Geo. B. Sargent & Co. This firm acted as 
western agent for Jay Cooke & Co., of New 
York, and other banking houses of prominence 
in the East. About a year after coming to 
Duluth he was appointed financial agent of 
the Northern Pacific Railway Company, and 
in 1S70-71 made a European tour in the inter- 
est of that company, transacting for it various 
important deals. Mr. Sargent was a man of 

^e* -/3A 



exceptional judgment and foresight, and these 
native qualities became highly developed by 
his business and official experience. Many of 
Dulutli's early improvements received their 
first impulse from him, and were directed 
toward a successful consummation l>y his tire- 
less energy and tact. Reared in the East, he 
was conversant with its advanced institutions 
and methods, and he had many friends there 
whose moral supporl and financial influence he 
could count upon in his Western enterprises. 
He was strong in his own might, with the 
strength of individual will, energy and pur- 
pose, and he was doubly strong in the co-oper- 
ation of such forces as -lay Cooke & Co., Dodge 
& Co. and .7. S. Morgan & Co.. of Wall street. 
Although bound by many ties and associations 
to the East, from the day when he became a 
resident in the Northwest he threw himself 
into its interests with all the enthusiasm of 
the most devoted citizenship. And while he 
acquired a handsome competency for himself, 
he contributed vastly towards the enrichment 
of his community, lie laid out the London 
addition to the city of Duluth, which is now ;i 
beautiful suburban section; he aided the 
growth of the city by attracting to it good 
citizens from all directions; he was instru- 
mental in bringing about the tide of immi- 
gration which set towards it during the years 
1869 to 1ST:', inclusive; he encouraged the erec- 
tion of fine buildings, and progressive enter- 
prise generally, often to the extent of contrib- 
uting from his individual capital. Mr. Sargent 
was manned in the year 1836 to Mary Perin. 
Of the ten children born to them all but two 
are deceased. Those living are; William < '.. 
whose biography, also, is included in this col- 
lection and .Mrs. F. W. Paine, now living in 
Duluth. In tin' home mansion built by Mr. 
Sargenl in Duluth he resided for three years, 
and after his death, which occurred in 1875, 

until 1897 it continued to b 'cupied by his 

family. A quarter of a century has passed 
since the decease of George B. Sargent, but he 
still lives in many a monument to his pro- 
gressive labor, and in the grateful memory of 
his contemporaries. As merely suggestive of 
his earnest endeavor towards the upbuilding 

of the Northwest, and his wonderful foresight 
in comprehending and appreciating its vast 
resources more than forty years ago, we give 
below an extract from a lecture delivered b\ 
him before the Chamber of Commerce at Tie 
niont Temple, Boston, February 24, 1858; 

"Seated at the mouth of the St. Louis river, 
at the southwestern extremity of Lake Supe- 
rior we are as near the tide waters of the 
Atlantic, within tive-and-twenty miles, as we 
are at Chicago; and we are some four hundred 
miles nearer to St. Paul and the immense conn 
try commanded by that city of marvelous in- 
crease. From this point of lake navigation oil 
this continent we have a navigable highwav, 
by the Sault Ste. Marie, the Welland canal and 
the St. Lawrence, that brings our men of trade 
into direct communication with the greal 
marts of Europe. Westward through Minne 
sota, Dakota and Washington Territory must 
stretch, ultimately, an important branch of 
the Northern Pacific railroad that will bring 
the riches of the East to this depot for inter- 
change and transhipment. At this very spot, 
at the mouth of the St. Louis, Europe and Asia 
will meet and shake hands in the genial months 
of summer, while they may continue to meet 
in winter at Panama. At this point must cen- 
ter the trade of twenty American Stales ye1 
unborn, and the British trade of the Bed river 
settlements and of Hudson's bay. The unde- 
veloped wealth of this lake region offers re- 
ward beyond calculation to those who have the 
energy and enterprise to secure it. Two hun- 
dred years ago it was known to the French 
■b'suils and the Indians that the shores of the 
'Great Lake' abounded in copper; but it was 
as late as 1844 that the discoveries were made 
which have since demonstrated the existence 
there of the most extensive and productive 
copper mines in the world, with solid masses 
of pure copper in view of more than a hundred 
tons' weight each. It is the opinion of the 
official explorer of the Government that the 
iron region of Lake Superior will prove ulti- 
mately of equal value with the copper regions; 
and the details of their reports demonstrate 
that the ores are here developed on a scale of 
magnitude, and in a state of purity, almost 
unprecedented. To descend to smaller but not 
unimportant interests: The fisheries are ex 
haustless, and would of themselves provide 
remunerative occupation for thousands. When 
the lumbering business is fully developed it 
will employ large numbers — and miners, lum- 
bermen and fishermen will call for fanners. 
The iron to build the railroads of northern 

i So 


Wisconsin and Minnesota must be shipped 
from England and landed at Chicago and Su- 
perior, or, what is more reasonable and prob- 
able, it must be dug out of the mines of Lake 
Superior, and at some point near its south- 
western extremity be manufactured into rails 
to be delivered and laid down as the roads are 
extended westward and southward. And as 
they are extended the farms will be developed, 
and the immense wheat-fields of northern Iowa 
and .Minnesota will, ere long, be taxed to their 
utmost capacity to supply the local demand for 
their productions, required by the diversified 
industrial interests that are to be presently 
d( veloped. and are now developing, in the al- 
most uninhabited and unexplored regions, of 
which we know so little, except that they 
abound in uncounted wealth. As vet we have 
made bur a few surface scratches on a small 
section of the mineral region, from which there 
were shipped in the year 1S5C not less than 
;!,<><>(> tons of copper, valued at two millions of 
dollars. As to climate, no portion of the 
United Slates surpasses the southern shores 
of Lake Superior in healthfulness during the 
summer months. The winter weather is un- 
doubtedly severe; but we have the experience 
of the oldest settlers that it is a dry cold that 
acts like electricity on the human body — 'ex- 
hilarates the blood, and gives just such a zest 
to physical enjoyment, to the appetite and to 
the muscle," as suits the Anglo-Saxon race. It 
is sometimes said that the important commer- 
cial point to which I have alluded is subject to 
two or three drawbacks, which must prevent 
its realizing the sanguine expectations of its 
settlers. The severity of its climate, the want 
of a fertile back country, the dangerous navi- 
gation of Lake Superior and the want of good 
harbors, are objections most frequently urged 
against the future greatness of a city at the 
southwestern extremity of Lake Superior. 1 
might give some weight to these considerations 
if I did not know that they had all been 
raised in regard to Chicago, and disposed of 
by its wonderful history." 


Daniel William Lawler was born at Prairie 
dii Chien, Wisconsin, March 28, 1859. His fam- 
ily is one of the oldest and most prominent in 
the Northwest. His father, the late (Sen. John 
Lawler, was for years a leading citizen of 
southern Wisconsin. He was one of the pro- 

jectors of the enterprise to build one of the 
first bridges across the Mississippi, and was a 
well known public character, a man of honor, 
distinction and usefulness, and the son is 
worthy of the sire. Mr. Lawler was carefully 
trained to be of use in the world. His early 
education was received in private schools and 
completed at Georgetown College. 1). C., from 
which justly celebrated institution he grad- 
uated '"with honors,'" receiving the degree of 
M. A. He then pursued a thorough course of 
study in the Vale College Law School, was 
graduated therefrom, and at its hands has re- 
ceived the degrees of LL. B. and M. L. He 
came to St. Paul in 1SS4 and began the prac- 
tice of his chosen profession. From the first 
he was successful, and soon attained to promi- 
nence and distinction. In 1886 he was ap- 
pointed 1". S. District Attorney, and held the 
position two years, resigning in 1888. In 
March, 1801, he was elected by the common 
council of St. Paul corporation attorney, and 
served one term of two years. Meanwhile he 
had been active in politics as a Democrat, had 
rendered many services to his party, and had 
become very popular in its councils. In 1892 
his party honored him by nominating him as 
its candidate for Governor. He accepted and 
made a most brilliant canvass, his eloquent 
addresses at various points in the State estab- 
lishing his reputation as a public speaker sec- 
ond to none in the Northwest. With the over- 
whelming odds against him, he did not expect 
an (lection, and when he received several 
thousand more votes than did his ticket as i 
whole, he was entirely satisfied. It was during 
his canvass of the State this year that he 
coined tlie expression now so common in po- 
litical parlance: "I am no man's man and 
wear no man's collar." In 1896 he was chosen 
I he member of the National Democratic Com 
mittee from Minnesota, but by reason of his 
opposition to Mr. Bryan and the Chicago plat- 
form refused to qualify for the position. In 
1S9.'! he became chief counsel of the legal de- 
partment of the Chicago Great Western Kail 
way. which position he still holds. Though he 
is no longer a politician in active service, Mr. 
Lawler has not lost his interest in political 



matters, and especially in political campaigns. 
In the Presidential campaign of 1896 he was 
opposed to the platform of the Democrats 
made at Chicago, and was what was termed a 
"gold Democrat," taking a somewhat active 
part in behalf of the Palmer and Buckuer tick- 
et. Of .Mr. Lawler's forensic abilities, one of 
his associates at the bar, a political opponent, 
but a personal friend, says: 

"Daniel W. Lawler is one of the most pol- 
ished and best equipped orators in the ^Yest. 
As a political speaker lie has no peer in his 
party in the State. If any man could persuade 
me to be a Democrat, I think he could. As an 
advocate before a jury he has few equals. He 
is always earnest — and eloquence is but ear- 
nestness given expression — so that he is always 
eloquent, whether addressing a jury of twelve 
men on the subject of a common lawsuit or a 
vast concourse upon the leading public ques- 
tions of the day. Personally he is universally 
popular wherever known. 1 remember thai 
when he was a candidate for Governor he ran 
very largely ahead of his ticket here in St. 
Paul, where he was best known." 

In 1886 Mr. Lawler married Miss Elizabeth 
O'Leary, daughter of the late Hon. John J. 
O'Leary, a prominent citizen and business man 
of St. Paul. To them have been born three 
children, two of whom, named, respectively, 
Samuel Fahnestock and Margaret Elizabeth 
Lawler, are living. A son. named John Daniel 
Lawler, died in infancy. 


Clinton Morrison, one of the leading busi- 
ness men and bankers of Minneapolis, was 
born at Livermore, Maine, January 21, 1842. 
He is the iddest son of Dorilus Morrison, one 
of th.e early settlers of Minnesota, and the first 
mayor of Minneapolis. The father's biography 
appears in another part of tins book. Though 
a native of New England, Clinton Morrison's 
training and residence from youth have been 
in Minneapolis, he having accompanied his 
parents when they removed hither in IS.").". lie 
attended the public schools of Minneapolis and 
received his business training as assistant to 

his father, with whom he was always closelj 
associated in his extensive commercial opera 
tions. In 1863, with his brother, George 11. 
Morrison, he engaged in merchandising in a 
general store in Minneapolis, principally for 
the outfitting of lumbermen. He naturally 
followed his father's line of investments, which 
were in pine lands, mills and lumber, and soon 
drifted into lumbering. The Morrison Broth- 
ers operated a water-power saw mill at the 
Falls of St. Anthony, opened a lumber yard, 
and carried on a large lumber business until 
the death of George II., which occurred Jan 
nary I'!). 1882. After tin- death of his brother. 
Clinton Morrison gave his attention more ex- 
clusively to assisting his father, who had be- 
come extensively engaged in business con- 
nected with the Northern Pacific Railway, and 
in the Minneapolis Harvester Works. The lat- 
ter business was especially entrusted to Clinton 
Morrison, who was vice president of the corpo- 
ration, and who gave it (lose and constant 
attention and brought il to a condition of great 
prosperity. They manufactured mowers, har- 
vesters and binders, and when the twine 
binder was perfected by Mr. Appleby — who 
was in the employ of the Minneapolis Com 
pany — it was adopted for general use, and the 
new invention proved a great success. Mr. 
Morrison has been for many years a trustee 
of the Farmers & Mechanics' Savings Bank of 
Minneapolis. In 1886 he was made its presi- 
dent, and has continued in that position to the 
present time. This bank has become the larj; 
est one of its kind, not only in Minneapolis', 
but in the entile Northwest, and its phenom- 
enal growth and success are the best evidence 
of the ability of its acting head and manager. 
The building erected and occupied by this in- 
stitution on South Fourth street is perhaps 
the finest and most perfectly equipped count- 
ing-house in the State, and its deposits have 
reached the enormous sum of f7,000,000. One 
of the leading attorneys of Minneapolis who 
has known Mr. Morrison intimately for many 
years says of him : 

"Clinton Morrison is a man of quick percep 
tions and has a wonderful grasp of business 
affairs. His plans are all carefully matured in 

I 82 


advance, and when he is ready to execute them 
there is no hesitation or delay. He is a very 
positive man and lias a wonderful grasp of 
details. His mind operates quickly, and lie 
does not care for lengthy explanations of any 
business proposition. Mr. Morrison is very 
charitable, lint his giving is always iu a quiet 
and unostentatious way." 

One of the leading bankers of Minneapolis 
says of Mr. Morrison: 

"As a financier of the highest order Mr. Clin- 
ton Morrison stands pre-eminent. Very few 
men of this country have made so few mis- 
takes, and a long life of undeviating success 
attests tins fact. Mr. Morrison's insight into 
a business proposition is phenomenal, and a 
few hours' cogitation brings him to a correct 
conclusion, where ether men of equal expe- 
rience require days to arrive at a decision. Mr. 
Morrison has been either vice president or 
president of the Fanners & Mechanics' Sav- 
ings Bank for twenty-five years, and his able 
guidance and counsel have been largely instru- 
mental in making this what it is — the largest 
moneyed institution in the Northwest." 

Mr. Morrison was married in February, 1873, 
to Miss Julia Washburn, daughter of Nehe- 
miah Washburn, then a resident of Minneap- 
olis, but a native of Boston, Massachusetts. 
Mrs. Morrison died October 11, 1883, leaving a 
daughter, Ethel, and a son, Angus Washburn 
Morrison. Mr. Morrison is a Republican in 
politics without personal ambition for political 
honors or responsibilities. He is a strong sup- 
porter of the Universalist Church, as his father 
was before him. He is a prominent member, 
and vice president of the Minneapolis Club. 


Thomas Lowry. of Minneapolis, was born on 
a farm in Logan county, Illinois, February '21, 
L843. His father. Samuel R. Lowry, a native 
of Londonderry, Ireland, emigrated to America 
when a young man and located in Pennsyl- 
vania. Here he married Miss Rachael Bullock, 
a native of Harrisburg, who died in early 
womanhood. The lather, by his energy and 
industry, acquired a fair competence, and, in 

Is.! 4, removed to the West, traveling from 
Pittsburg to Springfield, Illinois, on horse- 
back. A man of commanding presence, great 
dignity of character, courtly manners, and act- 
ive in business affairs, he soon became promi- 
nent in his section of the Slate, and was one 
of Abraham Lincoln's early friends and clients. 
Mr. Lowry has in his possession, and prizes 
highly, personal letters written to his father 
by Mr. Lincoln, when he was a plain, country 
lawyer, unknown to fame. In 1849 Samuel R. 
Lowry removed to Schuyler county, Illinois, 
where he at once took front rank among the 
leading men of that part of the State. It was 
in this new home that the boy Thomas began 
his lessons in life, and, like all boys of his 
time, was put to work on his father's farm in 
the summer, attending the village school dur- 
ing the winter months; and. fortunately, his 
educational facilities were exceedingly good 
for that time. In 1863 he entered Lombard 
University at Galesburg, Illinois, but owing to 
ill health was forced to leave that institution 
before graduating. After leaving college he 
entered the law office of John 0. Bagby, at 
Rushville, Illinois, with whom he studied until 
May, 18U7, when he was admitted to practice 
in all the courts of Illinois. Thus equipped 
with a good education and a profession, young 
Lowry turned his face to the new Northwest 
to lit gin for himself the battle of life. While 
seeking a location, in the spring of lstiT, he 
came to Minneapolis, and was so favorably im- 
pressed with the thriving village that he at 
once determined to settle there. lie at once 
began (he practice of law, and continued his 
professional career successfully until about 
1SS4, when the large personal interests he had 
secured in various important enterprises, per- 
taining to the growth and development of both 
the cities of Minneapolis and St. Paul, forced 
him to abandon his chosen profession. Sue 
cessful as Mr. Lowry had been in the (practice 
of law, he had no sooner accepted the respon- 
sibilities of these new interests than he at once 
developed that wonderful talent in the admin 
istration of business affairs which has since 
contributed ill a most remarkable degree to 
the marvelous growth and prosperity of the 



"Twin Cities" of the Northwest. Most conspic- 
uous among the many important interests with 
which Mr. Lowry lias been identified, and has 
largely controlled, are the street railway sys- 
tems of the cities of St. Paul and Minneapolis. 
Taking control of the street railways of these 
cities iu their early infancy, when the one was 
but barely self-supporting and the other in 
helpless bankruptcy. Mr. Lowry lias carried 
them forward until the short tramway lines, 
operated by "one-horse" power, of a few years 
ago have grown into the most extensive and 
thoroughly equipped electric street car system 
to be found in the world. In addition to his 
street car interests Mr. Lowry has been prom- 
inently identified with the railway enterprises 
of the Northwest, contributing largely to the 
construction of the Minneapolis, St. Paul & 
Sault Ste. Marie Railway, of which he is now 
the president. With many of the local enter- 
prises of the city in which be lives Mr. Lowry 
has been prominently connected, and its gen- 
eral business growth and its commercial and 
manufacturing interests have been greatly pro- 
moted by his public spirited influence and 
helping hand. 

A prominent journalist, statesman and au- 
thor who has known Mr. Lowry intimately for 
many years says of him: 

"Something more than stereotyped phrases 
are needed to describe the altogether excep- 
tional characteristics of Mr. Lowry. The fact 
is, he is sui generis — a remarkable man in 
many ways. Among the thousands of his ac- 
quaintances all over the country there are 
none who do not regard him as a prodigy of 
endurance as well as of pluck and persever- 
ance. Tt is a general remark that the strain 
which lie has often undergone with seeming 
case would kill most men. Yet to all outward 
appearance he remains unvexed and unwear- 
ied. Let the skies be cloudy or bright, it is 
all the same. The anxieties of business do not 
rol> him for a moment of that smile and hearty 
handshake with which he greets all. 

Capital is not sentimental, but Mr. Lowry 
has succeeded in enlisting it more than once 
through the friendship entertained for him by 
hard headed business men whose admiration 
conquered their prejudices and made him suc- 
cessful where most others would have failed. 
And the pleasant thing about it is that these 

impulses of friendship proved financial wis- 
dom, for investments thus made were never 

Mr. Lowry has an aptitude for story-telling 
to illustrate a point scarcely inferior to that 
of Abraham Lincoln, and many is the victory 
he has won at the bar, before legislative com- 
mittees, and with boards of aldermen by the 
happy application of a story which clinched 
an argument better than an hour of eloquent 

Mr. Lowry's capacity for work is wonderful. 
One would naturally look for scores of clerks, 
messengers and agents about his office and ex- 
iled to encounter delay in securing an au- 
dience; Imt instead of this a couple of quiet, 
capable men, as unassuming as himself, are 
found in the outer rooms, and it is very rarely 
that a caller is kept waiting beyond a few 
minutes. Yet ask for a document relating to 
business in which you are concerned, and 
which yon may think he, as well as you has 
well-nigh forgotten, and in almost less time 
than it takes to write it the paper is forth- 
coming, and the facts are recalled by him with 
a particularity that astonishes you. 

If asked to name the most popular man in 
his home city, there would be one voice in se- 
lecting Mr. Lowry. And this popularity 
extends far beyond business circles or personal 
acquaintances. Thousands who have never 
met him are familiar with his jokes, his gener- 
osity, his benevolence, and take pride in his 
name and success. 

If he had turned his attention to politics he 
could have commanded almost any position in 
the gift of the people. He is abundantly 
equipped for public service, for his head is a 
store-house of facts, and few men are better 
posted on the political events of the last thirty 

While familiar with humble life and the hard 
digs of fortune, his home is one of elegance, 
where hospitality is dispensed with a lavish 
hand, and where the refinement and culture 
displayed has often astonished the cosmopolite 
wlio looked only for rude prodigality in the 
homes of Western millionaires. 

Charles Lamb used to say that the most en- 
joyable thing in life was to do good by stealth 
and be found out by accident. If this is true. 
Mr. Lowry has been exceedingly fortunate, for 
many of his benefactions have found him out 
in spite of his efforts at concealment. But 
hundreds of his kind acts are known as yet 
only to the recipients, and will never come to 
light except through accident or the betrayal 
of grateful hearts. 

I have sometimes regarded Mr. Lowrv as 

1 84 


one of the strongest links between labor and 
capital to be found in the West, if not in the 
whole country. No person of all the thousands 
in his employ could meet him and not feel thai 
he intended to be fair 'between man and man.' 
There is such a positive absence of assump- 
tion, such a plain, straightforward way of put- 
ting things, such an evidence in all his man- 
agement of keeping the 'live and let live' motto 
to the front, that few could withstand and 
none could doubt his sincerity. With probably 
as large an acquaintance all over the land as 
any man in the United States, Mr. Lowry has 
more friends and fewer enemies than any one 
it has ever been my fortune to meet." 

Mr. Lowry has always been a Republican, 
but was never a candidate for any office. In 
1870 he was married to Beatrice M., daugh- 
ter of Dr. C. G. Goodrich of Minneapolis. 
To them have been born two daughters and 
one son, Mary, the wife of H. P. Robinson of 
"The Railway Age," Chicago; Nellie, wife of 
Percy Hageman of Colorado Springs, Colorado, 
and Horace Lowry, a student at the State Uni- 


Horace Ransom Bigelow was born in Water- 
vliet, Albany county, New York. March 13, 
1820, and died in St. Paul, Minnesota. Novem 
ber 14, 1804. He was the son of Erastus and 
Statira Ransom Bigelow, who came from Con- 
necticut and settled in Troy, New York, when 
Horace was an infant; a few years later they 
removed to Oneida county, where the son re- 
ceived his literary education, mainly at the 
public schools of Sangerfield and the gymna- 
sium at Utica, in that county. His grandfather, 
Otis Bigelow, was a patriot soldier in the Rev- 
olutionary War, and a member of the agricul- 
tural class. His father, Erastus Bigelow, was 
also a farmer, and Horace, during his youth 
and early manhood, aided his father in the 
farm work during the summer months, at- 
tended school, and later taught school during 
the winter season. After reaching his twenty 
first year he decided to follow a professional 
career, and with this object in view he com- 

menced the study of law. He read with Charles 
A. Mann and with John H. Edmonds of Utica, 
and was admitted to the bar in that city in 
1847. He then opened an office, together with 
Edward S. Brayton, for the practice of his pro- 
fession in Utica, and from the first they were 
successful. Mr. Bigelow was for a time clerk 
of the Recorder's Court and other courts in 
Oneida county. In the autumn of 185:! he de- 
cided to seek a new location, and in company 
with Charles E. Flandrau, came to Minnesota. 
They landed at St. Paul, November 2, of that 
year, and immediately launched the firm of 
Bigelow & Flandrau, attorneys at law. St. 
Paul was at that time a village of about 2,500 
inhabitants, and the opportunities for law 
practice were quite limited, and he found it 
necessary to look for other employment. The 
first winter he taught in the public schools of 
the town, and afterwards acted as agent for 
the sale of "Benton's Thirty Years in the 
United States Senate." Judge Flandrau went 
to St. Peter after a few months and resided 
there until his election to the first Supreme 
Court bench of the State, in 1858. Mr. Bigelow 
resumed the practice of the law in St. Paul 
in partnership with the late John B. Brisbin, 
under the firm name of Brisbin & Bigelow, 
which firm continued for several years, and 
had a large general practice. After its disso- 
lution he was for a time associated with Oliver 
Dalrymple as Bigelow & Dalrymple, whose 
business was largely confined to the prosecu 
tion, before the Department at Washington, 
of Indian claims, growing out of the Sioux 
massacre of 18(52. In 1805 he formed a part- 
nership with Greenleaf Clark, under the firm 
name of Bigelow & Clark. The business of 
this firm increased rapidly, and in 1870 Judge 
Flandrau returned to St. Paul, and the firm of 
Bigelow, Flandrau & Clark was formed, which 
continued in business till 1881, when Mr. Clark 
was appointed to the Supreme Bench. Upon 
the retirement of Mr. Clark, George C. Squires 
was admitted to the firm, the firm name being 
Bigelow, Flandrau & Squires, which partner- 
ship continued until 1887, when Mr. Bigelow 
retired from the active practice of the law. 
Mr. Bigelow was known as an able and skill- 

The Onlury PubUShvig & Cnymvmj Co Chdcapor 




fu! lawyer. He gave the closest attention to 
his profession, and rose step by step until he 
had but few peers, and no superiors, as an 
attorney in the State of Minnesota. He had 
an intuitive grasp of legal questions, and con- 
ducted a general practice, embracing all the 
branches of the profession, save criminal law. 
Although a clever and forcible reasoner and an 
easy speaker, he had no taste for advocacy of 
cases before a jury, always preferring the 
presentation of the legal aspect of a litigation 
to a court. Before the courts of last resort his 
practice was very extensive and successful, 
never failing to engage the attention and com- 
mand the respect of those courts to a remark- 
able degree. For twenty-seven years he gave 
his individual attention very largely to rail- 
road and corporation law, during which period 
he was the leading counsel of some of the most 
influential corporations in the Northwest. No 
man stood higher in the legal profession of 
Minnesota than Horace R. Bigelow, and the 
bar attested their appreciation by electing him 
president of the Bar Association during his 
more active career. He was entrusted with 
the most important litigation which came be- 
fore the courts while in active practice, and the 
clearness with which he grasped abstruse legal 
questions, and the vast fund of information 
acquired by his studious life, made him a most 
formidable competitor at the bar. Loved and 
respected by all who knew him. he lived a pure 
and honorable life, an example for generations 
to come. Politically Mr. Bigelow was an old 
line Whig, joining the Republican party when 
it was first established. He was never active 
in politics and never sought office, though he 
was candidate for Chief Justice of the State in 
1857, the nomination coming to him unsought. 
He was defeated by Judge Emmet. Mr. Bige- 
low was married in June, 1862, to Cornelia 
SluiTill, of New Hartford, Oneida county. 
New York. They were the parents of five 
children, three sons and two daughters. The 
third son, George, died in early youth. The 
first son, Lewis, is now a resident of New York. 
employed on the local staff of the New York 
Journal. Horace, the second son, is an able 
lawyer, in the practice of his profession in 

St. Paul, and now county attorney of Ramsey 
county. The daughters are Alice (Mrs. Ethan 
Allen of New York City), and Cornelia, the 
youngest, now living with her mother in St. 


Hon. Thomas Simpson, a prominent member 
of the bar of Winona, Minnesota, was born in 
the north of England, May .SI, 1836, the son 
of Anthony and Elizabeth (Bonson) Simpson. 
He is descended from Scotch ancestry, though 
his father and father's father were both born 
on English soil. His maternal grandfather, 
Robert Bonson, was a doctor by profession; 
bin both grandfathers were interested in min- 
ing, Nathan Simpson in the mother country, 
while Robert Bonson, who visited America in 
1825 and remained here for several years, did 
some pioneering in our mining industry, found- 
ing the first lead furnace at Galena, Illinois, 
and also the first at Dubuque, Iowa. Anthony 
Simpson — son of Nathan — as a young man 
superintended an English lead mine in Swale- 
dale, Yorkshire. About 1837, and while the 
subject of this sketch was an infant, he brought 
his family to America and settled in Dubuque, 
Iowa. There he became engaged in the mining 
and smelting business, at the same time con- 
ducting the farm upon which he lived, and 
where he died in 1866, his wife surviving him 
until 1871. While in England, Anthony and 
Elizabeth Simpson had been members of the 
Wesleyan church. In America they identified 
themselves with the Methodist Episcopal 
church, in the official activities of which An- 
thony long tool; a leading part. He was much 
respected as an upright and responsible citi- 
zen, and was early drawn into prominence in 
secular as well as religious affairs. His son 
Thomas, to whose life and achievements this 
sketch will now confine itself, was one of ten 
children, six of whom are still living. Thomas 
grew u]> in Dubuque, attending school and 
assisting, as his age and strength permitted, 
in flu- farm work and the mining and smelting. 


His public school education was but a founda- 
tion for the diversified practical knowledge 
later acquired by his studious mind. He in 
dulged an early bent for both civil engineering 
and legal study, and in the former look a 
course of training from the Rev, E. S. Nonas, 
a clergyman of distinction, who had at a 
former period been State Surveyor of Maine. 
Mis studies were completed in 185:!, and in 
the following year, Mr. Norris having received 
from the United States Surveyor General at 
Dubuque the contract for running the guide 
meridians and standard parallels — the basal 
lines for government survey of Minnesota 
Territory — he engaged young Simpson to ac- 
company him as one of his corps of assistants. 
Soon discovering that his ex-pupil, though but 
seventeen, was competent to take charge of 
the work, he turned it over to our subject, who 
carried it on to its completion in 1855. This 
work is on record in the office of the United 
States Surveyor General at St. Paul. In this 
connection it may be stated that in December, 
1899, Mr. Simpson read before the Minnesota 
Historical Society, at St. Paul, a paper pre- 
pared by him on "The History of the Early 
Government Land Survey in Minnesota West 
of I lie Mississippi River." The reading was 
listened to with intense interest, and the 
paper, which was recognized as a most valu- 
able contribution of data to the early history 
of the State, will be published by the His 
torical Society. Shortly alter completing his 
surveying task, in 1855, Mr. Simpson was 
commissioned by the government to go to 
Green Bay, Wisconsin, to determine the boun- 
daries of the Menominee Indian reservation. 
with a view to protecting the Red Men in their 
timber and lumber rights. Since the beginning 
of 1856 Mr. Simpson has been a resident of 
Winona. For the first few years after locating 
here he was engaged in real estate and loan 
operations; but his previously acquired knowl- 
edge of law had not been forgotten, nor his 
legal ambition abandoned. In 1858 he was 
admitted to the bar of Minnesota, and has 
since been in active and successful practice. 
During this time he has been a member in 
two law partnerships; the first with Judge 

Aimer Lewis, which was dissolved in 18(14, and 
the second with George 1'. Wilson, who was 
subsequently elected Attorney General of the 
State. Mr. Simpson's political tenets are Re- 
publican, and he has been made the incumbent 
of various public offices. Shortly after coming 
of age he was elected justice of the peace in 
the city of Winona. After his two-years' term 
of service, he was made secretary of the con- 
solidated school districts of the city. He has 
served three terms as alderman, and was the 
first presiden! of I he city board of education. 
In L864 he was appointed on the Normal 
School Board of Minnesota, and retained his 
membership for twenty years, serving during 
a large portion of that period as president of 
the board. In 1866 he was elected to the State 
Senate, and his record as a member of the 
General Assembly is an honorable one. 
Throughout his mature life he has been a com- 
municant of the Methodist Episcopal church. 
Hi' was superintendent of the Sunday school 
of the Central Methodist church of Winona 
from 1856 to L892, and has rendered a variety 
of important official services to the church. 
Mr. Simpson was married October 30, I860, to 
Isabella Margaret Ilolstein, a Pennsylvania 
lady. Three sons were the fruit of their union 
— George T., .lames K. and Earl. Mrs. Simp- 
son died December 21, 1888. The development 
of Mr. Simpson's career has been intimately 
associated with that of his city and his State. 
When he settled in Minnesota its population 
was sparse, probably less than six thousand, 
and, taking at once the attitude of a wide- 
awake citizen, with the good of his community 
at heart, he came rapidly into touch with 
varied phases of its industry and progress. He 
has been prominent in promoting the manu- 
facturing interests of Winona; was among the 
organizers of the Second National Bank, and 
for many years served as ils president; con- 
tributed strongly to the forces which estab 
lished the Winona & Western Railroad, and 
is now secretary and general counsel for the 
company. He has controlled extensive landed 
interests in the State, and is counted among 
the substantial and leading men of southern 






Among the ablest jurists and foremost citi- 
zens of St. Paul is Charles Eugene Flandrau, 
a resident of the Territory and State of Minne- 
sota for nearly half a century. He was born 
in the city of New York, July 15, 1828. The 
name suggests his French origin, and, indeed, 
the nativity of his paternal ancestors was 
France. They were Huguenots, conscientious 
in their religious convictions, and tenacious as 
John Calvin in their adherence to the faith. 
They emigrated from La Rochelle, in France, 
and settled in Westchester county, New York, 
where they founded the town of New Rochelle. 
His father, Thomas H. Flandrau, was born in 
this town, but removed early to the city of 
Utica, where he entered the profession of law. 
He subsequently removed to New York City, 
and for some time was associated in partner- 
ship with that able lawyer, eminent scholar, 
conspicuous politician and adventurer, Aarou 
Burr. His mother was Elizabeth Macomb, the 
half-sister of Gen. Alexander Macomb, who 
was commander-in-chief of the army of the 
United States from 1828 to 1841. In early 
boyhood Charles E. Flandrau attended school 
at Georgetown, in the District of Columbia, 
and while so occupied, at the age of thirteen, 
sought to enter the U. S. Navy as midshipman. 
Failing, on account of youth, served only to 
stimulate his desire and fix his determination 
to become a sailor. Accordingly he shipped as 
a common seaman on the United States rev- 
enue cutter "Forward," where he served a 
year, and then shipped for another year in the 
"Van Buren." The realities encountered in 
actual service on board a government ship 
were not such as had been foreshadowed in 
his youthful dreams of a sea-faring life, and 
a few voyages on different merchant vessels 
satiated his longing for naval distinction. 
With cheerful content he returned to his books 
at Georgetown, but only for a brief period. 
He was restless, as well as ambitious, and 
wanted to make his energy productive at once. 
The delay incident to preparation at school 
was irksome, and to his youthful mind the 
compensation was doubtful in comparison with 

the immediate earning capacity of his muscle. 
Moved by this utilitarian idea, he returned to 
New York, and followed the trade of sawing 
mahogany veneers for a period of three years. 
By this time young Flandrau had arrived at 
the age which qualified him to exercise dis 
cretion wisely. His mind reverted to his 
father and his father's profession. On reflec- 
tion, he became convinced that the law alone 
was adapted to his taste, and in that he must 
succeed. With a firm and steadfast resolution 
he entered his father's office in the town of 
Whitesboro, New York, whither the family 
had removed, and began the study of text- 
books as a man who has tried experiments 
and is conscious of doing the right thing. He 
studied earnestly and laboriously under the 
direction and instruction of a teacher inter- 
ested in his proficiency and permanent success, 
rather than his ability to answer questions 
selected for an examination. A conscientious 
father charged with the duty of instructing 
his son in the law, is actuated to a degree both 
by family pride and professional honor. He 
cannot afford to send out an indifferent, half- 
baked lawyer to prey upon the public, dis- 
parage his own family name, and discredit the 
profession in which his own standing is good. 
So he naturally fixes a higher standard of 
proficiency for his son as a student, than 
would be fixed for students in whom he had 
no other than a passing interest, young men 
permitted to have a desk in his office, and to 
use his books as a sort of accommodation. 
Charles E. Flandrau, therefore, applied him- 
self strenuously to study for several years 
before admission to the bar, and when author- 
ized by that formality to practice in the courts 
of New York, formed a partnership with his 
father. This was terminated in two years, 
because of his determination to anticipate the 
advice of Horace Greeley by going West. The 
fame of the new Northwest had reached the 
East, and the Territory of Minnesota was 
already attracting for settlement within its 
borders some of the brightest minds and most 
enterprising men of New England and New 
York. In November, 1853, Charles E. Flan- 
drau and Horace R. Bigelow settled in St. 

1 88 


Paul, and formed a partnership for the prac- 
tice of law. There was not much business for 
a lawyer at the time; the town was small and 
the settlers not inclined to be litigious. Advice 
was cheap, and a young man in the profession 
was obliged either to have what horsemen 
call staying qualities, or capacity for other 
kinds of work, in order to live. Mr. Flandrau 
was fortunately favored with both, and, be- 
sides, had a desire to obtain by personal 
observation a knowledge of the resources of 
the territory in which he had established his 
home. He traveled extensively, and at length 
settled in the village of Traverse des Sioux, in 
the beautiful valley of the Minnesota river. 
On the frontier, in an agricultural communily, 
there is one class of inhabitants. They are all 
"settlers," as different from the mixed and 
changing population of a mining community 
where speculation rules, as the sturdy Missis- 
sippi is different from the restless, rushing 
mountain brook. They fraternize and help 
one another. The lawyer is the leader, de- 
pended upon to direct affairs and to hold the 
offices. Mr. Flandrau became identified with 
the community quickly and thoroughly. He 
was chosen a member of the Constitutional 
Convention of 1857, under which the State 
Government was organized, and had previous- 
ly been a member of the Territorial Council. 
Politically he was a Democrat, and in favor 
with two administrations at Washington be- 
fore the war. President Pierce appointed him 
Indian agent for the Sioux nation in 1856, and 
the following year President Buchanan ap- 
pointed him Associate Justice of the Supreme 
< !ourt for the Territory. In the former position 
he rendered valuable service in punishing the 
Sioux Indians implicated in the massacres at 
Spirit Lake and Springfield, and in rescuing 
and returning safely to their homes the 
women captives taken at the time of the mas- 
sacres. The latter position was the stepping 
stone to that of Justice of the Supreme Court 
of the State, to which he was elected as a 
Democratic candidate. As a member of the 
first Supreme Court, his labor was arduous 
and exacting, in arranging the details for the 
organization of the judiciary and formulating 

a system of practice in the courts, and con- 
struing the statutes framed under the 
Constitution. For this work Judge Flandrau 
was peculiarly qualified by service in the Con- 
stitutional Convention. He had participated in 
the discussions and understood thoroughly the 
intent of that body in framing and adopting 
each article of the instrument. His interpre- 
tation of the Constitution was practically 
authoritative, and his construction of the laws 
enacted to carry its provisions into effect was 
accepted; his judgment as to the conformity 
of the statutes to the fundamental law was 
tin- judgment of an expert. The judicial 
opinions written by him are expressed in clear, 
terse and vigorous language. They are free 
alike from ambiguity and pedantry, and so 
plain and simple as to be readily comprehended 
by a layman. They are found in the first nine 
volumes of the Minnesota Reports. Judge 
Flandrau resigned the office of Justice of the 
Supreme Court in 1804, and removed to Carson 
City, Nevada, where he resumed practice as 
a member of the bar. He moved thence to St. 
Louis, Missouri, where he formed a partnership 
with Col. R. H. Musser, of that city, but the 
experiment was so unsatisfactory that the 
partnership was terminated, and he returned 
to Minnesota before sufficient time had elapsed 
to gain a residence in St. Louis. Locating 
first at Minneapolis, he became associated in 
partnership with Judge Isaac Atwater, and 
soon afterwards was elected city attorney, and 
later was chosen president of its first board 
of trade. At length, in 1870, he resumed his 
residence in St. Paul, after an interval of more 
than six years, and settled dowm with serene 
contentment to the practice of the law, first 
as a member of the firm of Pigelow, Flandrau 
& Clark, and after that as senior member of 
Flandrau, Squires & Cutcheon, and now alone. 
An incident, related of the outbreak of the 
Sioux Indians in ISlii', illustrates at once 
Judge Flandrau's courage, intrepidity and 
promptness to act in emergency at a time of 
manifest public peril. While at his home in 
Traverse des Sioux on the morning of the 18th 
of August, 1862, he received information that 
the terrible tribe of Sioux was on the warpath. 



murdering settlers who could not escape. 
Without other authority than tin* instinct of 
self-preservation and the impulse to save his 
neighbors from massacre by the savages, he 
proceeded to assemble, arm and equip a com- 
pany of volunteers. Before noou of the same 
day he was ou the march to New Ulm, in 
command of a company of one hundred and 
fifteen men. On arriving at the exposed and 
threatened town, he was chosen commander- 
in-chief of all the volunteer forces assembled, 
and his brilliant, successful defense of New 
Ulm, in a desperately contested battle lasting 
forty hours, forms a thrilling chapter in the 
history of Minnesota. He was a hero and a 
patriot, loved, praised and revered by the 
helpless settlers he had rescued from death at 
the hands of the most cruel and blood-thirsty 
foes. The incident is without precedent, in 
the fact that the principal actor was instantly 
transformed, by his own volition, from a calm, 
conservative jurist, to a military leader and 
executive officer. His movement was so 
prompt and effective that he was requested 
by the Governor of the State to remain for 
some time in command of the volunteers, and 
was empowered to enroll additional troops for 
the defence and protection of the southern 
hoi-der of (lie State. Judge Flandrau has been 
frequently honored with nominations by his 
party, which were accepted with loyal sub- 
mission to the party's will, when there was 
no hope of election because of the overwhelm- 
in" Republican majority. Once he was nomin- 
ated for Governor; another time for Chief 
Justice of the Supreme Court, and acted as 
chairman of the Democratic State Central 
Committee. While a Democrat of the Jeffer 
sonian school, he places fidelity to principle 
above fealty to party, and refuses to follow 
after strange gods at the behest of a packed 
convention ruled by a spirit of fanaticism. In 
the campaign of 1890 he declined to support 
the platform and presidential ticket of the 
Chicago convention. Entering the canvass as 
president of the Sound Money Club of Saint 
Paul with enthusiasm, he labored earnestly 
on the stump for the defeat of his party, and 
no speeches more able and effective were de- 

livered that year in Minnesota than those 
which he made. His speeches were the more 
entertaining because of his familiar acquaint- 
ance with the people of every locality and his 
accurate knowledge of local history. He had 
a story for every place, by which he won the 
sympathy of his auditors, and was then able 
to hold their attention while he proceeded to 
indoctrinate them. His memory and his 
faculty for appropriate anecdotes are marvel 
ous. Recalling incidents at will and associat- 
ing them accurately with places, tend to invest 
his political oratory with a peculiar charm, 
and lend an additional element of power to 
his advocacy. As a lawyer he is strong in the 
preparation of cases, clear and convincing in 
argument. Judge Flandrau's personal popu- 
larity, springing naturally from his human 
sympathy, his kindness of heart and genial 
manner, is evidenced by his wide acquaintance 
throughout the State, and the voluntary ex- 
pressions of citizens who have known him most 
intimately. Always busy, he is never too busy 
to welcome a friend. He never wastes time 
by working without a definite purpose. 
Promptness with him is a principle. What 
he engages to do is done without delay. He is 
a clear thinker and a ready writer. Whatever 
he writes is first carefully considered and then 
tersely expressed. His facts are verified at 
any cost of time or trouble, and hence their 
statement in the form of history is valuable. 
History is not written or read for the amuse- 
ment of a passing hour, but for information 
land instruction. Its value depends upon its 
accuracy, which is by no means inconsistent 
with elegant style and rhetorical embellish- 
ment. Judge Flandrau has traveled much, 
having visited nearly all the countries of the 
world. He is strong in his profession, strong 
in his convictions and regard for principle, 
strong in the affectionate esteem of his fellow- 
citizens. He has a large library in his home, 
and reads the best books. His culture is broad 
and varied. He was married August 10, 1S59, 
l«i Miss Isabella R. Dinsmore, of Kentucky, 
who died June 30, 1867, leaving two daugh- 
ters, one of whom subsequently married Tilden 
R. Selmes and the other F. W. M. Cutcheon. 



February 28, 1871, he was married to Mrs. 
Rebecca B. Riddle, daughter of Judge William 
P.. McClure, of Pittsburg, an eminent jurist, 
whose memory is honored throughout the 
Slate of Pennsylvania. Two sous born of ihis 
marriage are Charles M. Flandrau, and Will- 
iam Blair McC. Flandrau. 


Judge Isaac Atwater was born at Homer, 
Cortland county, New York, May 3, 1818. 
His father was Ezra Atwater, a farmer, a 
native of Connecticut, of English extraction, 
whose ancestors settled in New Haven about 
the year 174S. His mother was Esther Learn- 
ing, also a native of Connecticut, of English 
descent. Isaac received his early education 
in the common schools, and later prepared for 
college at Cazenovia Seminary and in Homer 
Academy. He entered Yale College in 1S40. 
It was by his own exertions that he secured 
his education, as he never had a dollar except 
what he earned himself by teaching school 
during the time he was preparing for college, 
his father not being able to assist him. After 
his graduation from Yale, in 1844, he went to 
Macon. Georgia, and taught a preparatory 
school, earning money to meet his expenses. 
After one year he returned to New Haven and 
entered the Yale Law School, where he re- 
mained eighteen months. He was admitted 
to the bar of New York City in 1847, and com- 
menced the practice of his profession there 
the following year. His success was from the 
first very flattering, but on account of ill- 
health his physieian advised him to seek a 
change of climate. He was married in 184!) to 
Miss Permelia A. Sanborn, daughter of John 
Sanborn, a business man of Geddes, New 
York. In 1850, he came with his wife to Minne- 
sota and settled in St. Anthony Falls, and for 
one year was associated in the practice of law 
with John W. North. In 1851 he opened an 
office by himself, having meanwhile taken 
the position as editor of the St. Anthony Ex- 
press, which he continued to edit for several 
years, giving it what time was necessary, but 

not to interfere with his legal practice. In 
1851 he was appointed by the Territorial Leg 
islature one of the regents of the University, 
and was secretary of the board until he was 
elected Associate Justice of the Supreme 
Court for the new Stale, in 1857, when he 
resigned from the board of regents, lie was 
elected county attorney for Hennepin county 
in 1853, and was appointed by the Governor 
reporter of the decisions of the Territorial 
Supreme Court, lie served on the Supreme 
Bench six years, and, in 1864, resigned on 
account of the meager compensation. He then 
went to Carson City, Nevada, and opened a 
law office in connection with Judge Charles 
E. Flandrau, who had also resigned from the 
Supreme Bench of Minnesota about the same 
time. He located in Carson City in the spring 
of 1804, and remained there until the fall of 
1S00. when he returned to Minneapolis and 
resumed the practice of law in partnership 
with .Judge Flandrau. This partnership was 
dissolved in 1871, after which he continued 
in practice by himself, and in connection with 
others at various times, up to 1880, since which 
he has devoted his time to his private business 
and real estate interests. . lodge Atwater has 
always taken an active and prominent part in 
all local public affairs. He has served his 
city as alderman, and was a member and presi- 
dent of the Hoard of Trade for several years; 
was also a trustee of the Seabury Seminary 
at Faribault, and was for many years a mem- 
ber of the school board and president of the 
board of education. When Judge Atwater 
first settled in St. Anthony, he bought a block 
of land for |800, entirely on credit. He paid 
for this in two years from his legal business. 
The first winter after his arrival, there was 
much excitement about settling on the west 
side of the river, in what was then the Fort 
Snelling reservation. In December, 1850, John 
H. Stevens and Franklin Steele urged him to 
go over and take up a claim. ( >n one stormy 
December day he staked out a claim of about 
one hundred and sixty acres, which included 
the land on which the West Hotel now stands. 
The next spring and summer he put up a 
shanty and spent about flOO in improving the 

The- Century Puilisfiinf & Cnyiminy CO chicaner 

~y*~K^ <, ^yfc^-ciAjJ^Z 



claim. In 1852, he sold this claim, and bought 
another of one hundred and sixty acres below 
where the court house now stands; this he 
held and preempted as soon as the land was 
in market. Here lie laid out Atwater's Addi- 
tion to the city of Minneapolis, most of which 
has since been sold in city lots. lie purchased 
other property, and was one of the largest real 
estate owners in the city, and he still holds 
large interests and property in lots and build 
ings. While attending to his profession and 
other business affairs, he has found much time 
to devote to literary pursuits. He has been 
a frequent contributor to the secular press, to 
the standard magazines of the country, and in 
1802 edited "The History of Minneapolis," a 
valuable contribution to local history. He has 
ever occupied a distinguished position among 
his professional brethren, and his native abil- 
ity and scholarly attainments have commanded 
a prominent place in the community where he 
has lived so many years. Although he has 
passed his four-score years, his mind is still 
clear and vigorous, and he lias, mi doubt, many 
years of usefulness before him. Mrs. Atwater 
is still living in the enjoyment of good physical 
and mental health. They are the parents of 
four children, only one of whom, a son, is now 
living — John B. Atwater — who is one of the 
most prominent and successful lawyers of 
Minneapolis. Mr. Atwater is an active mem- 
ber of the Gethseinane Episcopal church. He 
lias been a prudent contributor to all worthy 
charities, distributing his means judiciously. 
He has been a Mason since 1851, being the 
first apprentice initiated in Cataract Lodge, 
No. 2, of St. Anthony. The above facts con- 
cerning the life of Judge Atwater are prin- 
cipally obtained from his old associate on the 
bench and partner, Judge Flandrau, and the 
only regret his biographer has, is, that space 
limits a full narration of the excellent qualities 
and valuable services of the Judge during his 
long career. 


The subject of this sketch was born July 
11, 1830, at Dover, Stratford county, New 

Hampshire. He is the son of Thomas E. anil 
Elizabeth (Watson) Sawyer, both of English 
descent and natives of the Granite State. His 
father was a lineal descendant, through eleven 
generations of Quaker stuck, of William Saw 
yer, who, with two brothers — Edward and 
Thomas — came to this country from England 
about 1636, and who located at Salem, Massa- 
chusetts, in 1640, removing later to Newbury, 
in the same State. Thomas E. Sawyer was 
prominent as a member of the bar and in 
politics, having for a number of terms repre- 
sented the city of Dover in the New Hamp- 
shire Legislature, and having once been 
nominated as Whig candidate for the office 
of Governor of the State. He was the father 
of seven children, of whom Edward, our sub- 
ject, was the fourth. Edward Sawyer attended 
the common and high schools of Dover, and 
soon after completing his education entered 
upon the active business career, the events 
of which this sketch will now record. His 
work has lain largely in the field of financial 
business, and he has filled many responsible 
and honorable posts. His initial position was 
that of cashier of the Farmers and Mechanics 
Hank, of Rochester, New Hampshire, which 
he held for two years, beginning with May, 
1858. In June of that year he secured, also, 
the office of assistant clerk in the House of 
Representatives of the State Legislature. In 
1S(>(> lie was advanced from assistant clerk to 
clerk, and served for another two years in the 
higher capacity. In February, 1802, he became 
cashier of the Merrimack County Bank, at Con- 
cord, New Hampshire, and continued as such 
for three years. He then, in February, 1805, 
removed to Dubuque, Iowa, to fill the position 
of cashier of the Northwestern Packet Com 
pany. In October of the following year this 
concern became consolidated with the North- 
western T r nion Packet Company — Davidson's 
line — and this occasioned Mr. Sawyer's re- 
moval to St. Paul, Minnesota, which city has 
since been his home. In 1868 he severed his 
connection with the Consolidated Packet Com- 
pany, and was for the next two years asso- 
ciated as cashier with the banking house of W. 
F. Davidson & Co. For a brief period, in 1871, 



he served as cashier to the late Jared Benson, 
collector of internal revenue for the St. Paul 
District. Afterwards, by appointment, he be- 
came secretary of the land department. St. 
Paul & Sioux City Railway Company. In this 
position he remained until August, 1878, when 
he received the appointment from the United 
States Circuit Court as receiver in the case of 
Northern Pacific Railway Company vs. St. 
Paul & Pacific Railway Company, a large area 
of land being involved in litigation. In this 
capacity he served until 1894, when the suit 
was finally adjusted. In the meantime— 1879 
— Mr. Sawyer had been elected secretary and 
treasurer of the St. Paul, Minneapolis & Mani- 
toba Railway Company; and ten years later, 
upon the organization of the Great Northern 
Railway, he was elected treasurer and assist- 
ant secretary of that company, which is his 
present dual office. Mr. Sawyer has held many 
positions of trust, and it is a fact indicative of 
his character that each change he has made 
has been a voluntary one, made for advance- 
ment or other wise reasons, and that in each 
post relinquished he has left regretful friends. 
The following cordial words are quoted from 
an old-time acquaintance of Mr. Sawyer, who 
is one of the leading citizens of St. Paul: 

"I have known Mr. Sawyer ever since he 
came to Minnesota. He is an exceptional man 
in many ways. In all the positions he has 
held, he has' proved to be wonderfully com- 
petent, and has shown unusual fidelity. He is 
a genial and kind-hearted man, and all who 
know him speak well of him. He is a great 
reader of good works, and possesses a fine 
library. His every idea is well considered, and 
his conclusions just and correct. He is in 
every sense an honorable and trustworthy 

On November 29, 1859, at Rochester, New 
Hampshire, Mr. Sawyer was united in mar- 
riage to Miss Frances Putnam Kelly. Mrs. 
Sawyer is a lady of superior intellect and 
attainments, which, by the delicate health of 
their possessor, have been to a great extent 
excluded from the social realm they would so 
fittingly adorn. In spite of her sufferings and 
privations, however, she has preserved a rare 

sweetness of temper, and has attached to her 
a large circle of sympathetic and admiring 
friends. Three daughters were born to .Mr. 
and Mrs. Sawyer — Ruth Edna, Fannie Ela. 
and Elizabeth — of whom the two former were 
deceased in infancy. Elizabeth grew to 
womanhood and married the late Edward 
Pea ice. of Providence, Rhode Island. 


The present Chief Justice of the Supreme 
Court of Minnesota. Charles Monroe Start, is 
a native of Vermont, born at Bakersfield, 
Franklin county, October 4, 1839, but has 
passed more than half of his life — or more 
than thirty six years — in Minnesota. He is a 
son of Simpson G. and Mary S. (Barnes) Start, 
and comes of old New England stock. His 
parents were both of English descent, his re- 
mote paternal ancestors emigrating from the 
south of England to America in 1G52. His 
father was a sturdy Green Mountain farmer, 
and the Judge's early life was spent on the 
paternal homestead. When he had come to 
young manhood he passed the summer seasons 
at work on the farm and the winter in teach- 
ing school, to obtain the means for a better 
education. For a time he attended the 
academy at Barre, Vermont. After leaving 
the academy, he studied law in the office and 
under the instruction of Judge William C. 
Wilson, at Bakersfield, and was admitted to 
the bar in 1860. He was engaged in the 
practice of his profession when the War 
of the Rebellion came. In July, 1802, he 
enlisted in the Union army as a member 
of Company I, Tenth Vermont Infantry. 
He was commissioned first lieutenant of 
his company August 11, but on Decem- 
ber 1, following, he resigned on a surgeon's 
certificate of disability. In October, 1863, 
Judge Start located at Rochester, Minnesota, 
where he engaged in the practice of his pro- 
fession, and where he has since permanently 
resided. His established character as one 
learned in the law may be best understood by 
his official record. He was county attorney of 
Olmsted county for eight years. In 1879 he 

^^Pl^>, Jc. c h^U^O 




was elected Attorney General of the State, and 
served from January 1, 1880, until March 12, 
1881, when he resigned to accept an appoint- 
ment to the office of Judge of the Third 
Judicial District of the State. To this position 
he was elected without opposition for three 
successive terms, and was still in service, 
when, in 1894, he was nominated on the Re- 
publican ticket and elected Chief Justice of 
the Supreme Court. He took his seat January 
5, 1895, and his term expires in 1901. He has, 
therefore, been connected with the judicial 
system of the State as a public official for 
nearly thirty years, and until he has reached 
the highest rank obtainable in that branch of 
our State government. It is a matter of truth 
and notoriety, moreover, that his distinctions 
have come to him without any effort on his 
part to obtain them. A distinguished jurist, 
who has long known Chief Justice Start, says 
of him: 

"The people of the Third Judicial District, 
over whose courts he presided so long, enter- 
tained so high an admiration for his character 
as a man, and for his ability as a jurist, that 
he could doubtless have retained his position 
as District Judge as long as he desired. When 
he came to St. Paul to assume his duties as 
Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, his high 
reputation as a man and a jurist had long 
preceded him; and while this may be neither 
the time nor place to speak at length of his 
services in his present position, it is sufficient 
to say that he lias in all respects fulfilled the 
expectation of the people and the bar through- 
out the state. Judge Start possesses in a pre- 
eminent degree, the essential characteristics of 
every great lawyer or judge — both moral and 
mental honesty, which enables a man both to 
discover what is just and to do it. Possessed 
of a strong love of justice, he scorns everything 
that savors of fraud or unfairness in dealings 
between man and man. These qualities, con- 
nected with his clear and bright intellect, could 
not fail to render him a good judge." 

Judge Start was married August 10, 1805, 
to Clara A. Wilson, of his native village of 
Bakersfield, Vermont, daughter of his early 
preceptor, William C. Wilson. Judge and Mrs. 
Start have one child, a daughter, named Clara 
L. The Judge is an attendant of the Congre- 
gational church. 


Among the prominent lumbermen of the 
United States there is probably none more 
widely known than Frederick Weyerhaeuser, 
of St. Paul, Minnesota. As the senior member 
of the firm of Weyerhaeuser & Denkmanu, of 
Rock Island, Illinois, he was well known 
throughout the West, prior to his election, in 
1872, as the president of the Mississippi River 
Logging Company and its associate corpora- 
tion, the Beef Slough .Manufacturing. Booming, 
Log Driving and Transportation Company. 
These companies practically consolidated the 
timber land and logging interests of all the 
largest saw-mills of the Mississippi valley be- 
low Lake Pepin, and handled and controlled 
almost the entire log output of the Chippewa 
river. They furnished an ideal field for the 
exercise of his untiring energy, his keen busi- 
ness insight, his quick grasp of every important 
factor in submitted propositions, his instant 
recognition of profitable opportunities, his un- 
erring judgment and his dispatch of business 
through a marvelous executive ability. The 
companies referred to in their various ramifica- 
tions and offshoots, and the numerous allied 
undertakings, either in corporate capacity or 
as individual ventures of their members, have 
all proceeded under the immediate direction 
of Mr. Weyerhaeuser, and have for the most 
part originated with him. This fact may pos- 
sibly account for the habit into which the 
daily press has fallen, of attributing every 
important movement in lumber circles to a 
"Weyerhaeuser syndicate." Though, of course, 
frequently incorrect in this, the fact indicates, 
as well as can be done, the position occupied 
by Mr. Weyerhaeuser in the lumber world. 
The timber holdings of the various interests 
of which Mr. Weyerhaeuser is the recognize d 
controlling spirit probably exceed rather than 
fall short of 15,000,000,000 feet— a quantity 
which approximates fully one half of the re- 
maining res ources of the white pine forests 
of the Northwest. In addition to his tim- 
ber lands, logging and lower Mississippi 
interests, he is actively interested in eigh- 
teen extensive manufacturing concerns, among 



which may be mentioned the Chippewa 
Lumber and Boom Company, Chippewa 

Falls: the Shell Lake Lumber Company, 
Shell Lake, Wisconsin; the Pine Tree Lumber 
Company, Little Falls; and Northern Lumber 
Company, Cloquet, Minnesota, and also large 
interests at Pock Island. Recently, in re- 
ferring to the basis of his success, Mr. Weyer- 
haeuser stated that he attributed it to the fact 
that lie had "always thought more of his credii 
I han of his clothes." This stales the I ruth 
partially. Unquestionably habits of industry 
and frugality at the outset, and the constant 
maintenance of an unsullied credit must un 
derlie all permanent success in legitimate 
commercial enterprises, but for the attainment 
of phenomenal success there must be fortuitous 
circumstances and suitable opportunity, cou- 
pled with the ability to foresee the largest 
possibilites. and the ambition, energy, courage 
and determination which are essential to their 
realization. All of these elements find abun- 
dant illustration in Mr. Weyerhaeuser' s career. 
One feature of his operations which should be 
mentioned, is the fact that his associates have 
always mutually and fully shared with him 
in the results attained. His efforts have 
always been for the success of the common 
undertakings, and all the parties in interest 
have had a just proportion of the outcome 
realized. Mr. Weyerhaeuser is in every way a 
typical business man, unpretentious, active, 
easily approached, of few words, and quick to 
decide every question that may arise. He has 
,i store of ready wit and a happy faculty of 
illustration, or in adapting some trite maxim 
or story to the question at issue. Of Mr. 
Weyerhaeuser in his private and home life it is 
a pleasure to speak. His business career has 
not been more marked by uprightness, 
integrity and honor than has his private char- 
acter by honesty, sincerity and the character- 
istics of the most worthy manhood. And his 
home has been such as of right belongs to such 
a man. With an utter absence of ostentation, 
it has ever been in the center of the highest 
leiineinent and of the most generous hospital- 
ity. -Mrs. Weyerhaeuser, as the devoted wife 
and mother, has been no less successful in the 

management of the household than lias been 
her worthy husband in the commercial world. 
Their family consists of four sons and 
three daughters, who have each received a lib- 
eral education and are most worthy representa- 
tives of this model American borne. The sons 
have each assumed positions of responsibility 
in lumber organizations, and their marked 
ability effectually disproves the popular notion 
which limits rich men's sons to mediocrity and 
destines them to indifferent success. Chrono- 
logically. Mr. Weyeihaeuser's career may be 
set out as follows: He was born in Nieder- 
saulheim. near Mainz, in southern Germany. 
November 21, 1834; received a common school 
education until he was thirteen years of age; 
worked on his father's farm until lie was 
seventeen; emigrated to America and landed 
in New York July 1, 1852; settled in North 
East, Erie county, Pennsylvania, and came 
west in 1856. He commenced the lumber and 
grain business in Coal Valley, Pock Island 
county. Illinois, and, in 1800, he and Mr. F. C. 
A. Denkmann bought what was known as th" 
Pock Island Saw-Mill, aud organized the part- 
nership, which has ever since been known as 
Weyerhaeuser & Denkmann. In the latter part 
of the sixties they bought what was then, and 
is still, known as the Upper Mill, in Pock 
Island, and in the seventies they consolidated 
that mill with that of Mr. J. S. Keator, and 
organized the Pock Island Lumber & Manu- 
facturing Company. Shortly afterwards they 
bought out the interest of Mr. Keator, and 
have since continued the operations of said 
company. Mr. Weyerhaeuser was married to 
Miss Elizabeth P.ladel, October 11, 1857. In 
April, 1891, he became a resident of St. Paul, 
where he and his family now reside. 


Dr. Chute was born at Columbus, Ohio, De- 
cember C, 1830. His father was Rev. James 
Chute, and bis ancestry is sketched elsewhere 
in the biography of his brother, the late Rich- 
aril Chute, the eminent citizen whose career 
was so prominently identified with the early 
history of Minnesota aud the Northwest. The 



Doctor received his scholastic education in 
the common schools of Indiana and at Wa- 
bash College, Crawfordsville, Indiana. After 
leaving college he, for four years, engaged in 
the study of medicine under the tutelage of Dr. 
C. E. Sturgis, a noted physician and surgeon 
of Fort Wayne, and as a student in the Ohio 
Medical College at Cincinnati. From the lat- 
ter institution he was graduated in February, 
1852. In March following his graduation Dr. 
Chute set out on an overland trip 1 for the 
distant Territory of Oregon. After a long and 
toilsome journey of over 2,000 miles, occupying 
seven months and fraught with hardships, in- 
teresting incidents and adventures, he arrived 
at the then little village of Portland. Later 
lie went on horseback from Portland to Yreka, 
in northern California, where he was engaged 
in the practice of his profession and in mining 
operations for about four years. He then de- 
termined to leave the Pacific Coast for "t In- 
states, " and after a long sea voyage over the 
Pacific and Atlantic, crossing the Isthmus of 
Panama en route, arrived at New York City. 
Making a short stay in New England, he 
returned to Fort Wayne, Indiana, in March, 
1857, after an absence of five years. Dr. Chute 
has been a resident of Minnesota since the 
spring of 1857. He landed at St. Paul from 
the firs! steamboat of the season on May 1 of 
that year. (In the same day he came to what 
was then called "the Falls" of St. Anthony, 
and two months later purchased of John W. 
North — the founder of the town of Northtield, 
etc.,— for the consideration of f 10,000. the tract 
of land known in the records as "Block 17 of 
the town of St. Anthony Falls." On this tract, 
in a frame dwelling house which is still stand- 
ing, he look up his abode, and this was his 
home residence for more than thirty years. 
Upon his location at St. Anthony Falls mow a 
part of Minneapolis) he abandoned the active 
practice of his profession and engaged in the 
real estate business, and with this pursuit, 
after more than forty-two years' residence in 
Minneapolis, he is still prominently identified. 
Subsequent to his location at St. Anthony, 
he became so intimately associated in business 
affairs with his brother, Richard, that in 1865 

the copartnership of Chute Brothers was 
formed, and into the business of this firm t In- 
most of the individual interests of the two 
brothers were merged. With the early history, 
and especially with the growth and develop- 
ment, of Minneapolis, from an insignificant 
frontier village to a city of metropolitan pro- 
portions. Dr. Chute has always been intimately 
and inHueiitially connected and identified. A 
leading feature of Dr. Chute's identification 
with the material interests of Minneapolis has 
been his connection with the development and 
utilization of the water power of St. Anthony 
Falls — the greatest factor in the city's up- 
building and greatness. When, in 1850, the St. 
Anthony Falls Water Power Company was or- 
ganized, his brother, Richard Chute, who had 
secured the company's charter, became its 
agent, and continued in this position until 
LS68. In that year Dr. Chute, by virtue of a 
power of attorney, became the agent in place 
of his brother, and so acted up to 1880, when 
the property was sold to .1. J. Hill and others, 
although he continued to serve under the new 
owners for a year thereafter. At one time tin 
Chute Brothers owned the entire stock of the 
water power company, and the Doctor was a 
director in the company for some time before 
lie became its agent. When the greatest and 
most valuable improvements were made in 
the falls, Dr. Chute was supervisor of the work 
of construction and had general charge of the 
work; the engineer was .1. T. Stevens. He had 
charge of all the improvements until the Gen 
oral Government took charge of the work, 
with Colonel Farquhar as superintendent. 
While the work of repairing the great ''apron'' 
in aid of the preservation of tin- falls was in 
progress the Doctor, as executive officer of the 
board of construction, was in charge, with Mr. 
J. T. Stevens as engineer. During the long and 
active career of his brother, Richard, the Doc- 
tor had entire charge of the details of the busi- 
ness of the firm of Chute Brothers. They 
erected several blocks of business houses, con- 
spicuously some of the most substantial strut- 
tures of the kind on the St. Anthony or east 
side of the river; they graded streets; 1 1 1 1 ■ \ 
planted thousands of shade trees, and made 



large expenditures in establishing other public 
improvements of utility and adornment. The 
firm is now styled Chute Unit hers Company, 
and is still regarded as one of the most impor- 
tant business institutions of the city. Its 
members are Samuel II. Chute, president; Wil- 
liam Y. Chute la son of Richard), vice-presi- 
dent; James T. Chute (a brother), secretary 
and treasurer. Dr. Chute has in time past been 
prominently connected with the official affairs 
of his adopted city. As long ago as 1858 he 
was supervisor of the poor, serving without 
pay. He served several terms as a member of 
the board of aldermen, and for some time was 
city treasurer. He was the author of a reform 
that was of great and substantial benefit, and 
which saved the county of Hennepin large 
sums of money, for it was by his personal ef- 
forts and influence that the county commis- 
sioners were induced to purchase the county 
poor farm and erect thereon a poor house for 
the support and care of the poor and indigent. 
He was also one of the founders of the city's 
public school system. For a long time he was 
president of the board of education, and he 
has always taken an active interest in school 
matters. In politics he has always been loyal 
to the principles of the Republican party, al- 
though in early manhood he was a Democrat. 
He is known as a high-minded, honorable gen- 
tleman, a public spirited citizen, always a 
leader in public affairs, a willing and liberal 
contributor to every enterprise for the public 
good, and no other man stands higher in gen- 
eral esteem in the great city, which he has 
helped so much to build. Dr. Chute was mar- 
ried May 5, 1858, to Miss Helen E. A. Day. He 
has a family of three daughters and two sons: 
Mary, Agnes, I Jessie, Louis 1'. and Fred B. — 
both the sons are in the practice of law in 


Measured by the results of his labor — the 
growth of the university and the elevation of 
its educational standard — Cyrus Northrop, 
LL. D., president of the University of Minne- 
sota, is one of the foremost educators of Amer- 
ica and one of the most influential citizens of 

the Northwest. Mr. Northrop is a native of 
Connecticut, the sou of Cyrus Northrop, a 
farmer of that State, and Polly B. Fancher, 
a native of New York. He was born at Ridge- 
field, September 30, 1834, on the farm. His 
education was carefully supervised from child- 
hood, and as thorough in its preparation for 
the larger duties and more responsible posi 
tions in life as the best institutions of New 
England could make it. He first attended the 
primary common school, and at the age of 
eleven he was placed in an academy at Ridge- 
field, under the tuition of H. S. Banks and Rev. 
Chauncey Wilcox, both of whom were gradu- 
ates of Yale. After an attendance of six years 
in this school, which is remembered with a de- 
gree of sentiment, because it was held in tin 
house in which "Peter Parley" was born, he 
finished in one year his preparatory work in 
the famous Williston Seminary at East Hamp- 
ton, Massachusetts, and in the fall of lSr>2, at 
the age of eighteen, entered Yale. His habit 
of study was so fixed as to render it easy for 
him to master the classical curriculum. As 
evidence of thoroughness it may be stated that 
he was graduated third in a class of one hun- 
dred and eight members. His relish for col- 
lege life was keen, and his talent sufficiently 
versatile to appropriate all that it offers for 
culture and social entertainment, in addition 
to the regular courses of study. He had mem- 
bership in four Creek fraternities, and in the 
rather exclusive "Skull and Rones." Re was 
also first president of the "Brothers of Unity." 
a literary society of high repute and wide pop- 
ularity. Before his graduation, in 1N.">7. Mr. 
Northrop had definitely formed the purpose of 
entering the legal profession, and in pursuance 
of that purpose he entered the Law School of 
Yale the same year and remained two years to 
complete the regular course of study, mean- 
while discharging the duties of tutor of Greek 
and Latin in a private school, and preparing 
two classes for the literary course of the uni- 
versity. On leaving the law school lie con 
tinned his preparation for practice in the law 
office of tin' Hon. Charles Ives of New Haven. 
It was on the eve of that memorable political 
contest between the forces of libertv and slav- 


t q; 

cry, to be followed immediately by the more 
desperate military struggle to determine which 
of the two policies should have permanent 
ascendancy in the government. Lincoln had 
said, in 1858, with the prevision of a prophet. 
that the time would come when the territory 
of the United States must be either all slave 
or all free, and however disguised by specious 
platform declarations, there was a deep con- 
sciousness in the people. North and South, that 
the sentiment phrased by Lincoln was in some 
vital sense under Providence, the issue in- 
volved in his election to the Presidency. Mo- 
mentous consequences hinged on the issue. 
The tension was inordinate. Capable, edu- 
cated young men felt the stress and were 
impelled to declare themselves. Mr. Northrop 
participated in the campaign with his con 
science, his ability and his energy, for liberty 
and the individual union of all the States. 
Law studies were abandoned and future pros 
pects put aside for the graver questions of 
public concern. The consideration of National 
politics was recognized as the paramount duty 
of the individual, and active prominence in 
the work of the campaign naturally identified 
Mr. Northrop with State affairs for the time 
being. He was first appointed assistant clerk 
of the Connecticut House of Representatives, 
and the next year made clerk, and the year 
after clerk of the Senate. While this political 
service was foreign to his original purpose, it 
was compensatory in affording the opportunity 
to become familiar with practical politics and 
form an acquaintance with men prominent in 
affairs. And so it was not surprising that he 
gave up his law office in 1862 — opened at Nor 
walk for practice the previous year — and en- 
gaged for one year as editor of the New Haven 
Daily Palladium, the leading and most influ- 
ential Republican newspaper of the State. The 
labor of this position was arduous, but at the 
same time it was great in the measure of influ- 
ence, the clear and forcible discussion of the 
grave and original questions of public policy 
raised by the exigencies of the Civil War. 
What was at first intended to be only a tem- 
porary interruption of his course of life pre- 
viously determined upon, served at last to 

change its current, broaden its sweep and mul- 
tiply its beneficent influences. In 1863 he was 
called to the chair of rhetoric and English 
literature in Yale, which he filled with marked 
ability and distinction for a period of twenty- 
one years. The place came to him without his 
seeking, and as a result of his superior quali- 
fications, known to the president and trustees 
of the university. In 1884 he received a unan- 
imous call to the presidency of the University 
of Minnesota, without having in any sense been 
an applicant for the place, and indeed, without 
any knowledge of the consideration of his 
name. Previous to that time he made a single 
trip to the Northwest, and that was with his 
family, for pleasure, in 1881. President North 
rop was admirably qualified for his new 
responsibilities by broad and thorough schol- 
arship, by knowledge of the principles of the 
law, by familiar acquaintance with great men. 
by active participation in political affairs for 
twenty-five years, by sympathy with the ambi- 
tions and aspirations of the young, by com- 
plete practical understanding of the system, 
the aim and method of university education, 
and by a high order of executive ability. 
Added to all these qualifications are the qual- 
ities of mind and heart which attract individ- 
uals and masses to him. His greeting is 
cordial, his manner frank, his intercourse dig 
nified and sincere. He is gifted with the rare 
and gracious assemblage of faculties by which 
the lovable man is enabled to acquire and hold 
the affection and confidence of students and 
others with whom intimate relations are main- 
tained. The growth of the University of Min- 
nesota and its high standing among the great 
universities of the country attest the posses 
siiin by its president of the highest capability 
for the position. When he was installed the 
total enrollment of students was less than 
three hundred; in 1898 it was twenty-eight 
hundred and ninety. The number of college 
buildings has been increased twenty fold, and 
the number of departments is adequate to the 
complete functions of a first-class university. 
fie has a well balanced mind and a well 
ordered life, lie is progressive always. A 
member of the faculty of another univer- 



sity says: "He is ;i man of great tact, of 
warm-hearted disposition, sterling common 
sense and transparent integrity." Many de- 
mands arc made upon his time for lectures and 
public addresses, and his custom is, whenever 
practicable, to comply with these demands. 
His oratory extends the fame of the university. 
In 1886 the degree of LL. D. was conferred on 
him by Yale. Dr. Northrop is an orator com- 
bining the grace and exactitude desirable on 
the college rostrum, the polish and amplitude 
essential to the lecture platform, the logic, 
humor and force required on the hustings, the 
versatility and adaptation which flx his reputa- 
tion as the most popular after-dinner speaker 
of the entire Northwest. In Connecticut he 
was once a candidate for Congress, and for 
eight years, under Presidents Grant and 
Hayes, he was collector of the port of New 
Haven. Now, instead of the expenditure of 
personal energy in partisan discussions on the 
stump, his political influence is more widely 
and effectively exerted through the many thou- 
sands of young men who come under his in- 
struction. Dr. Northrop is a Congregationalist 
and has been very prominent in the affairs of 
that denomination. In 188!) he was moderator 
of the National Council held that year in Wor- 
cester, Massachusetts. He was also a delegate 
to the International Congregational Council 
held in London, England, in the summer of 
1891, and lie was one of the two vice-presidents 
appointed from America. He was married. 
September 30, 1862, to Miss Anna Elizabeth 
Warren, daughter of Joseph Warren of Stam- 
ford, Connecticut. Their eldest daughter, Min- 
nie, died at the age of ten years and six 
months; their son, Cyrus, Jr., is a graduate of 
I be University of Minnesota; their daughter. 
Elizabeth, entered the University, but on ac- 
count of ill health did not graduate. 


The late Judge Charles Edwin Vanderburgh, 
of Minneapolis, was born in Saratoga county, 
New York, December 2, 1820. He was ex- 
tracted from thrifty Holland-Dutch stock, and 

his father was a tiller of the soil. His child 
hood was passed on the home farm, where, 
through rural activities, he developed a robust- 
ness of physique befitting as a foundation to 
that mental vigor which has made the name 
of Vanderburgh one of the most distinguished 
in the history of Minnesota. Beginning his 
education in the neighboring country schools, 
he took a preparatory course at Homer Acad 
emy, New York, and in 184!) was ready for 
college. Having decided upon Yale for his 
alma mater, he entered that institution, grad- 
uating in the class of 1852 with a full share 
of the honors. During the next three years he 
was engaged as principal of the academy at 
Oxford, New York. Along with his pedagogic 
duties, however, he found time to pursue a 
course of law-reading under the direction of 
the famous attorney, Henry R. Mygatt. In 1855 
he was admitted to the bar, and soon after- 
wards set out for the West, little knowing 
what successes he was to achieve, yet, perhaps, 
vaguely anticipating them through the subtle 
sense of power which great abilities give, even 
to tlie most modest. Tile winter of 1855-6 he 
spent in Chicago, proceeding in the following 
April to Minneapolis. Soon after his arrival 
there he entered into a legal partnership with 
E. R. E. Cornell, who was subsequently Justice 
of the Supreme Court. Within three years the 
excellencies of his character and his work had 
so enlisted the general confidence and esteem 
that, although not yet turned thirty, he was 
elected Judge of the Fourth Judicial District. 
This was in 1859, at the first election after 
Minnesota had been admitted to the Union, 
and young Vanderburgh was the first resident 
of Minneapolis upon whom this compliment 
was conferred. The district over which lie was 
to have jurisdiction at that time comprised 
fifteen counties, and extended north to the 
British possessions, lie received three re- 
elections to this post, in 1866, 187:5 and 1880, 
respectively, and was for eighteen years the 
only judge sitting at Minneapolis. In 1876, 
however, A. II. Young was appointed Asso- 
ciate Justice. In 1S81 Judge Vanderburgh 
resigned his position as a district functionary, 
being at that time elected to the Supreme 


2> La_cXa^\^ 



Judgeship. This lie retained until 1S!)4, being 
re-elected in 1887. In the election of 1892 he 
was renominated l>y the Republicans, but the 
Populists united with the Democrats to swell 
that memorable Cleveland wave, and Vander- 
burgh was defeated, Ruck and Canty being the 
winning candidates. But Judge Vanderburgh 
had already been upon the bench, District and 
Supreme, for over thirty-five years, and had 
made a record not easy to rival. When he en 
tered the judicial field the youthful State had 
as yet no settled code of jurisprudence, and 
upon Judge Vanderburgh there necessarily 
devolved the responsibility of helping to estab- 
lish precedents for such a code by broad origi- 
nal research and action. So able and con- 
scientious was he in this independent work, 
however, that it is said not one of the thou- 
sands of causes which were brought before him 
for adjudication was decided other than to the 
perfect satisfaction, not only of the winning 
snitor, but of the unsuccessful party as well. 
But it was in the determining of fine points in 
equity that his discriminating and adjusting 
faculties reached their highest play; and it 
was through the superiority of his work in this 
class of cases that he gained his broadest rep- 
utation. Atwater's History of Minneapolis, 
which contains a sketch of the Judge, makes 
the following confident assertion: ''Judge Van- 
derburgh was the greatest administrator of 
equity jurisprudence the State ever saw." 
Judge Vanderburgh was twice married, fir^t, 
in 1857, to Miss Julia Mygatt, daughter of Wil- 
liam Mygatt, a wealthy, retired resident of 
Oxford, New York, and second cousin of Henry 
K. Mygatt, under whom, as a youth, our sub- 
ject had read law. This wife died in 1863, 
leaving two children, a boy and a girl, and ten 
years later the Judge was united in marriage 
to Miss Anna Culbert, of Broadalbin, Fulton 
county, New York. The only child of this 
latter union, Isabella, died in 189?.. Mrs. Van 
derburgh is still living, and resides in Minne- 
apolis. Of the two children of the former 
marriage, the daughter was early deceased. 
The son. William H., resides in Minneapolis. On 
March 3, 1898, Judge Vanderburgh passed out 
of this life, leaving behind him a record of 

integrity and professional achievement which 
wiin for aim exceptional honor while living, 
and which his contemporaries in Minnesota 
hold up as a worthy and brilliant example to 

the rising generation. 


Judge Martin B. Koon, of Minneapolis, sen- 
ior member of the well-known law firm of 
Koon, Whelan & Bennett, was born January 
22, 1841, at Altay, Schuyler county, New York. 
His ancestry on his father's side is, Scotch, 
and on his mother's side Connecticut Yankee. 
His father, Alanson Koon, was a farmer in 
moderate circumstances, in Schuyler county. 
New York, a man of sterling Christian char- 
acter. His mother's maiden name was Marilla 
Wells, and Mr. Koon is wont to speak of her in 
terms of deep affection and the most profound 
reverence for her memory. She was a woman 
of strong character, and deeply impressed 
herself upon her children. The most valuable 
legacy which his parents bequeathed to him 
was habits of industry, indomitable persever- 
ance, never-failing energy, and a mind natur- 
ally active and studious. While he was yet a 
lad his father removed with his family to 
Hillsdale county, Michigan, where Martin 
grew T up on a farm. He recalls that the first 
money he ever earned was by riding a horse 
for a neighbor while plowing corn. Mr. Koon 
attended the winter schools, as most farmer 
boys did in those days, and worked on the 
farm in summer. He pursued his studies, how- 
ever, with such diligence that, at the age of 
seventeen, he was prepared to enter Hillsdale 
College. During his college course he supple- 
mented his limited resources by teaching school 
several terms, but kept up his studies and 
completed his course in 1863. He had, how- 
ever, labored so hard as a student as to se- 
riously impair his health, and in 1864, a change 
of climate becoming necessary, he made a trip 
to California by way of the Isthmus. The 
change was beneficial, and after remaining 
two years in California, engaged in teaching, 
he returned to Michigan to take up the studj 



of law in the office of his brother, Ezra L. 
Koon. In 1867 he was admitted to the bar in 
Hillsdale, Michigan, and soon afterwards en- 
tered into partnership with his brother, under 
the firm name of E. L. & M. B. Koon, which 
association continued until 1878. While he 
did not go actively into politics, he was elected 
to the office of prosecuting attorney on the 
Republican ticket in Hillsdale county, in 1870 
to 1874. In ls7:'« he spent four months in 
travel in Europe. In the meantime he had be- 
come convinced that Hillsdale did not offer a 
sufficient field for the exercise of his talent, 
and, in 1878, he removed to Minneapolis. His 
career since he came to this city is briefly but 
ably summarized as follows, by one who is in 
a position to know Judge Koon, as a lawyer 
and as a man, as well as any one living: 

"Beginning practice in Minneapolis. Judge 
Koon almost immediately ascended to the front 
rank of his profession, and soon came to be 
recognized as one of the few leaders at the 
bar of Minneapolis, and of the State. In 1883 
a vacancy occurred on the District Bench, and 
at the unanimous solicitation of the Hennepin 
county bar he was appointed to fill this vacan- 
cy. At the election following he was chosen 
without opposition for the term of seven years. 
When later he decided to retire from the bench 
his resignation was regarded as a great misfor- 
tune by the entire profession and the whole 
community. During his occupancy of that pi>- 
sition he decided some of the most important 
cases ever tried in his Judicial District, and 
his decisions, when appealed, were almost in- 
variably affirmed. Possessed of fine legal 
attainments, with a remarkable ability to de- 
cide quickly, and an unusually keen sense of 
the dividing line between right and wrong, 
between justice and injustice, he combined all 
the elements requisite for an able and upright 

On retiring from the bench. Judge Koon re- 
sumed the practice of law, and is now the 
senior member of the firm of Koon. Whelan iS. 
Bennett, which enjoys one of the most desir- 
able and lucrative practices in Minneapolis. 
Judge Koon is a member of the Minneapolis 
club, the Commercial Club, the Chamber of 
Commerce, and a trustee of the Church of the 
Redeemer. He was married in November, 

1873, to Josephine Vandermark of Phelps, New 
York. To them have been born two daughters, 
Katheriue Estelle and Marilla Louise. 


The Pillsbury family has borne high honors 
both in the civil and military history of New 
England for nearly three centuries, and tin 
larger number of its members have discharged 
Hie inconspicuous duties of private life in a 
manner alike meritorious and unobtrusive. 
Some of them have achieved eminence in com- 
mercial pursuits, and some in politics and 
statesmanship in the boundless empire of the 
Northwest. The family was transplanted in 
America by Joshua Pillsbury, who emigrated 
from England and settled in Newburyport, 
Massachusetts, in 1690. He was there the 
beneficiary of a land grant, the title of a por- 
tion of which has never been alienated, but 
passed by descent to his children and their 
descendants down to the present time. One 
branch of the family settled early in New 
Hampshire, and from this branch Charles 
Alfred Pillsbury descended. He was born at 
Warner, New Hampshire, October .'?, 1842, the 
son of George A. Pillsbury and Margaret S. 
Carleton. His maternal ancestors were also 
Puritans of the staunchest character. His 
education was begun in the public schools of 
his native town, continued in the New London 
Academy, where he was prepared for college 
at the age of sixteen, and completed in Dart- 
mouth, from which he was graduated in 1862 
at the age of twenty. The term "completed" 
as applied to education is misleading, since it 
means only the acquirements obtained in the 
schools. The completion of a course in college 
is in reality only the preparation for that 
larger practical school of life which a man 
enters after securing his diploma. And this 
was eminently so with Charles A. Pillsbury. 
Having that strong moral fibre which is the 
resultant of pure breeding and correct train- 
ing for generations in the best New England 
families of Puritanic lineage, and equipped 
with the best learning of the schools; guided 



by a financial and commercial instinct strong 
enough to dominate his whole life, he began 
as a merchant's clerk at Montreal. For six 
rears he remained in Canada at merchandis- 
ing, and then saw afar oh" the opportunities 
awaiting the ambitious and sagacious in the 
northwestern portion of the United Stales. 
Mr. Pillsbury came to Minneapolis, and his 
location in the young city really marked the 
•opening of his business career. He saw the 
enormous waste of power in the waters of 
the Mississippi rushing over the Falls of St. 
Anthony, and looked out upon the vast wheat 
fields in proximity. The utilization of this 
power in the manufacture of flour was the 
problem in which he became early and deeply 
interested. The only available means at hand 
was a mill of small capacity and a reputation 
for bad flour, which the millers were disposed 
to charge to the inferior quality of the wheat. 
He purchased, on time, a third interest in this 
mill, agreeing to pay therefor the sum of 
flfl.OOO. This afforded opportunity for the ex- 
ercise of genius and public spirit, and the 
ultimate gratification of an ambition to be 
something more than a plodder. Mr. Pillsbury 
was unwilling lo condemn the wheat with 
wholesale condemnation, until he should first 
avail himself of the inventor's genius by the 
introduction of the best machinery and ap- 
pliances for the "rinding of the wheat, the 
separation of the different parts of the grain, 
which he deemed essential to the production 
of pure flour. His efforts were so successful 
that the first year demonstrated the wisdom 
of his expenditure of ten thousand dollars for 
the firm in improving the mill's equipment. 
He was among the first to adopt the steel 
rollers as a substitute for the buhrs compris- 
ing the "upper and nether millstone" of 
sacred history; but lon^ before this substitu- 
tion, Pillsbury's flour had gained a wide repu- 
tation. He found out by actual demonstration, 
what he had at first suspected, that the mills 
and the millers were responsible for the failure 
to manufacture first-class flour from spring- 
wheat. From the beginning, ex-Governor 
Pillsbury was a member of the firm, and, in 
1872, George A. Pillsbury, father of Charles. 

was admitted to the partnership, and subse- 
quently Fred C. Pillsbury was added to 
the firm, which conducted business in the name 
of Charles A. Pillsbury & Co., until all of the 
large mills at Minneapolis were bought by an 
English syndicate, and consolidated in the 
name of the Pillsbury- Washburn Flour Mills 
Company. Limited, of London. The Pillsbury 
family retained a considerable part of the 
stock, and Mr. Charles A. Pillsbury continued 
to manage the business of the combined prop- 
erties with great success until his death, 
September 17, 1899. As early as 1882, Mr. 
Pillsbury. for his firm, adopted the policy of 
sharing profits with his employes, and at the 
end of eight years he said in a published in- 
terview, "We have divided profits during five 
years out of the eight." Continuing the inter- 
view, he said: "I was first led to adopt the 
system of profit-sharing from a desire to enter 
into some plan which would more equitably 
divide the profits between capital and labor. 
Of course the continual agitation of the labor 
question called my attention to the subject; 
Imii there was no disaffection among my own 
employes, so far as I was aware. On the con- 
trary, our relations with our employes were 
and always have been so harmonious that 
there has never been any intimation of a strike. 
As to the details of a profit-sharing scheme, I 
was not influenced by what others had done, 
and at thai time knew absolutely nothing of 
the experience of others or the results of any 
kindred experiments." After a trial of many 
years, Mr. Pillsbury became convinced that 
the system of profit-sharing in a business 
which depends largely upon the carefulness 
and skill of employes, is profitable to the com- 
pany. It actually enhances the earning capac- 
iiv of the men employed by increasing their 
interest in the production due to a conscious- 
ness of proprietorship. It tends to promote 
good feeling between capital and labor, and 
fosters unity of purpose to make the output 
as large as possible for the mutual advantage 
of all concerned. His view of the value of 
labor differed from the popular idea that the 
rate of wages should be regulated solely by 
the law of supply and demand. He would 



consider the question in its equitable aspect 

and pay whatever is right — what the laborer 
is worth — rather than take advantage of his 
aecessities when (he supply is great and the 
competition severe. There is a plain distinction 
between cooperation and profit-sharing. In 
a business or industry employing large capital 
and subjected to keen competition, executive 
ability of very high order is required, and 
while co-operation is impracticable, the system 
of profit-sharing may be introduced with ad- 
vantage to the capital as well as the labor 
employed. Mr. Pillsbury, always a man of 
public spirit and devoted to duty as a citizen 
and a man, never sought political office, but 
uniformly discouraged all efforts to bring him 
before the public as a candidate. When urged 
to accept a nomination for Congressman, he 
declared he would not accept the office as a 
gift. Although pre-eminently qualified by his 
practical views, the result of successful ex- 
perience in business and manufacturing, he 
said to intimate friends who urged his accept- 
ance of the honor: "I would rather be a first- 
class miller than a second-rate Congressman." 
He gave liberally to worthy organized chari- 
ties, and assisted the individual cases of 
poverty that came under his observation with 
a generous hand. Perhaps the crowning glory 
of his useful life was the disinterested service 
in behalf of the sufferers from the disastrous 
forest fires of September, 1S94, in which four 
hundred square miles of territory were swept 
by the flames, and more than four hundred 
persons lost their lives, and more than three 
thousand lost their homes. As chairman of 
the commission of five noble men appointed 
by the Governor to provide ways and means 
for the relief of those who had suffered, Mr. 
Pillsbury set about the work, actuated by 
characteristic philanthropy and qualified by 
commanding executive ability. His probity 
was a guarantee that every dollar contributed 
for relief would be honestly accounted for; his 
practical experience and sound judgment as- 
sured the wise and judicious expenditure of 
every dollar placed in the hands of the com- 
mission. He regarded the duty as a sacred 
trust, and devoted his time and energy for 

six months to carrying out the plans of the 
commission. A comfortable house was built 
for each family whose home had been de- 
stroyed, or the equivalent thereof was paid in 
cash. Every lot on which a new home was 
built was first made free and clear of mort- 
gage. If the home had been destroyed on a 
mortgaged farm, the commission obtained 
from the mortgagee a release of two acres on 
which to build the new home, so that it might. 
not be taken for the debt. In this manner the 
relief was not only made immediately helpful, 
but the beneficence was permanent. All the 
relief was rendered, not as charity, but as a 
means of enabling the victims of a misfortune, 
for which they were in no wise responsible, to 
help themselves. Rev. William Wilkinson, of 
Minneapolis, who had charge of the first relief 
party sent out after the Are, says: ''The service 
of Mr. Pillsbury on that commission cannot 
be overstated. The cause was worthy, and 
grandly did he measure up to all the require- 
ments." Mr. Pillsbury was an attendant upon 
the services of Plymouth Congregational 
church, of Minneapolis, and long a member of 
its board of trustees. He was married Sep- 
tember V2, 1866, to Mary A. Stinsou, of 
Goffstown, New Hampshire, daughter of ("apt. 
Charles Stinson. Two sons, Charles Stinson 
and John Sargent Pillsbury, Jr., are the fruit 
of that marriage. They are twins, fine, sturdy, 
young men. students in the University of 
Minnesota at the time of their father's death. 


Judge Daniel Buck, late of the Supreme 
Court of Minnesota, was born at Boonville, 
New York, September 8, 1829, the second of 
a family of six children, whose parents were 
Jonathan and Roxana (Wheelock) Buck. On 
the paternal side he is a descendant of Isaac 
Buck, who, with his wife, Frances Marsh, and 
others refused to take the "oath of conform 
ity" to the Established church, was forcibly 
transported from England to Boston in the 
ship "Amelia." in October, 1635. Isaac Buck- 
settled at Scituate. Massachusetts, and is thus 

Th& Qtnlujy Putlisniiiy &£nyiwmj Co ChUMpv 



described in the history of the town: "He 
was a very useful man, often engaged in public 
business, and was the clerk of the town for 
many years. He was a lieutenant in King 
Philip's War, and repulsed the Indians with 
great loss from Scituate, in March, 1676. He 
died in 1695." Isaac Buck's eldest son, Thomas 
— the Judge's great-grandfather — lived in 
Bridge water, Massachusetts, prior to 1712. 
His son, Daniel — for whom the Judge was 
named — was a soldier in the War of the Revo- 
lution, enlisting twice, first in 1778 or 17711, at 
the age of sixteen or seventeen, in Captain 
Bonney's Company of Colonel Portei*'s Regi- 
ment; and again in 1780 in Captain Smith's 
Company of Colonel Richard's Regiment of 
Massachusetts State troops. He settled at 
Boonville, New York, in about 1800, and died 
in 1843. His son, Jonathan Buck, the father 
of Judge Buck, was born at Boonville, in De- 
cember, 1804, and died May 2, 1883. He was 
a prosperous farmer, and spent all his life on 
the farm where he was born. His wife, the 
mother of Judge Buck, Roxana Wheelock (born 
at Claremont, New Hampshire, in 1799, died 
November 3, 1842), was of Quaker ancestry. 
She was a sister of Col. Charles Wheelock, 
who during the War of the Rebellion was 
colonel of the 97th New York Volunteers, and 
was brevetted a brigadier general. Judge 
Buck was reared to manhood on his father's 
farm. He was educated in the common schools, 
and at Rome and Lowville Academies, New 
York. After leaving school he studied law, 
was admitted to the bar, and engaged in the 
practice of his profession with uniform success 
from the first. In the spring of 1857, he came 
to Minnesota, arriving in the then Territory, 
May 15. He pre-empted a homestead near 
Madelia, in Watonwan county, but the same 
year located in Blue Earth, which has ever 
since been his home county. The circum- 
stances personal to himself on his location on 
the frontier were fortuitous. He was twenty- 
seven years of age, a thoroughly equipped 
lawyer, of fine mental attainments, of splendid 
physical proportions, and of striking and a I 
tractive presence — qualities especially admired 
by the people of a new country. At once he 

became popular and prominent. The following 
year he was elected to the Legislature, but 
certain circumstances prevented the assem- 
bling of that body in that year and he did not 
serve. In 1859, when he had been but two 
years in Minnesota, he was the Democratic 
candidate for Secretary of State on a ticket 
headed by Gen. George L. Becker for Governor, 
but the Republicans won. Upon first coming 
to Blue Earth county, he opened a law office 
at South Bend, then a flourishing and promis- 
ing village at the southern angle of the great 
bend of the Minnesota river, four miles west 
of Mankato. In 1SG5 he removed to Mankato, 
where he has since resided. Judge Buck has 
been the man pre-eminent whom the people 
of Mankato and Blue Earth county have ever 
delighted to honor. They have placed him iu 
public positions frequently, and he has always 
been their faithful servant. Yet he has never 
been an office seeker or a place hunter, and 
his preferments have always come to him un- 
sought. In 1805 he was elected to the Legis- 
lature, and in the session of 18G6, while a 
member of the House of Representatives, he 
secured the enactment of the law locating the 
State Normal School at Mankato. He had 
the principal charge of the construction of the 
buildings of this school, of which he is con- 
sidered virtually the founder. For five years 
he was a member of the State Normal School 
Board, and was prominent in the location of 
and the selection of sites for the schools at 
Winona and St. Cloud, as well as at Mankato. 
He was for four years county attorney of Blue 
Earth county. In 1878 he was elected to the 
State Senate for the full term of four years. 
He was the author of that most beneficent 
measure, the insolvent law enacted by the 
Legislature of 1881, and while a State Senator 
was a member of the court of impeachment 
on the trial of Judge E. St. Julien Cox. He 
has always been a substantial friend of and 
closely identified with the moral and material 
interests of the city of Mankato, where he has 
made his hospitable and pleasant home. He 
was city attorney for several years, and for 
five years was a member of the city school 
board. He was the first president of the Man- 



kato National Bank, and lias been vice-presi- 
dent and a director of the Citizen's National 
Bank. For many years he was a member and 
the secretary of the Blue Earth County Agri- 
cultural Society, and he has been the owner 
of some of the best farms in the Slate. As 
a lawyer he has been prominent and distin- 
guished. Early in his professional career in 
Minnesota, he was associate counsel for the 
State in the great legal controversy over the 
"Five Million Loan Bill," and since has been 
counsel in a large number of prominent and 
celebrated cases. His legal business has 
always been large, its success most marked, 
and its results practical and profitable. His 
thorough and profound knowledge of the law, 
his dignified and high-toned conduct as a 
practitioner, and his abilities as an advocate 
and "trial lawyer" have won for him the sin- 
cerest confidence and admiration of his 
brethren of the legal profession, while his 
personal worth has given him the esteem of 
the general public. No other man is closer 
to the people of Minnesota or more securely 
placed in their affections, than the man whom 
many of them call "Honest Old Dan Buck." 
Judge Buck has always been a member of the 
Democratic party, a firm believer in its prin- 
ciples as enunciated and established by 
Jefferson, and maintained by a long list of 
succeeding American statesmen. He is of the 
old school of Democratic tenets, of the "Old 
Guard" in their defence, and believes that, 
though often violated and their usefulness 
stifled, they can never perish so long as the 
Constitution and the Republic shall endure. 
Principles which are elementary and funda- 
mental can never pass away. As stated, in 
1859 he was his party's candidate for Secretary 
of State; in 1888 he was its candidate for 
Lieutenant Governor, but on each occasion 
was defeated with his ticket. He was a dele- 
gate to the National Democratic Convention 
at St. Louis, in 1870, which nominated Tilden 
and Hendricks. In 1892 he was nomi- 
nated by the Democratic and Peoples' par- 
ties for Judge of the Supreme Court, and 
was elected by a large majority. His official 
term was to commence in January, 1894, and 

to expire in January, 1900; but in October, 
189:5, he was appointed a member of the court 
to fill the vacancy occasioned by the resigna- 
tion of Judge D. A. Dickinson. He served on 
the Supreme Bench from October, 189:5, until 
November, 1899, when he resigned. During 
his long official career in the service of the 
people and the State. Judge Buck has never 
accepted or used a pass on any railroad or 
transportation line, of his career on the 
bench, a prominent attorney well and truth- 
fully says: 

"No man of greater purity of character, none 
of more integrity, none of a higher sense and 
love of justice, none with a more solemn reali- 
zation of the equality of all men before the 
law, ever sat upon the bench of our Supreme 
Court. If it be the end of all law and all courts 
to decree justice, Judge Buck discharges his 
duties with the attributes of a great jurist. 
If justice be done it matters little by what 
display of erudition it is accomplished. Judge 
Buck's greatest worth to the people was his 
ability to do 'equal and exact justice to all 
men' and to go straight to the point." 

Judge Buck is not a member of any religious 
denomination, and does not air his pretensions 
to morality or do his good works "to be seen 
of men." His sympathies are — more than with 
any other religious doctrine — largely with the 
principles of those simple, honest folk, the 
Quakers, of which sect his good mother was a 
member. He was married at Elgin, Illinois, 
( >ctober 25, 1858, to Miss Lovisa A. Wood. Of 
this union were born three children, viz: 
Charles Delos Buck, born February 24, 1S04, 
and died, while a student in the Slate Univer- 
sity, at Colton, California, November 27, 1882; 
Alfred A. Buck, born April 10, 1872; and 
Laura M. Ruck, born June 15, 1874, and now 
Mrs. W. L. Abbott, of St. Paul. Mrs. Buck 
died December 30, 1899. 


The late Royal Day Cone, the memory of 
whom is still fresh in the hearts of many citi- 
zens of Winona, Minnesota, was born Novem- 
ber 8, 1821, in the village of New Berlin, 





Chenango county, New York. His parents 
were Benjamin and Elizabeth (Root) Cone, he 
being their second son. They belonged to a 
fanning community, and the subject of this 
memoir grew up amid rural scenes, helping 
with the tilling of the soil between the terms 
of the district school, at which he acquired 
his early education. While still under age, 
he accepted a clerical position in one of the 
stores of New Berlin. After gaining some 
business experience and a little capital in this 
subordinate capacity, he determined to venture 
in an independent enterprise, and, going to 
Rochester, New York, he engaged in a mer- 
cantile business, which he continued to conduct 
in that city until 1855. In the year just men- 
tioned he came west and located in Winona, 
which was the city of his home for the re- 
mainder of his life — a period of forty-three 
years. Soon after becoming a resident of 
Winona he established himself in the hardware 
business, on the same site later occupied by 
the corporation, founded by him — the R. I). 
Cone Company. Winona was scarcely more 
than a straggling pioneer settlement at the 
time Mr. Cone took his place among her citi- 
zens, and he was prominently associated with 
her evolution from that early crudity to the 
developed and thriving status she presents to- 
day. Mr. Cone was a man of strictest integrity 
of principle, which was applied even to the 
minute details of business; and while lie took 
care to do justice to every man with whom 
he had dealings, Justice prospered his own 
interests. His business grew steadily until it 
reached, in the natural course of events, the 
dignity of a corporate institution, with Mr. 
Cone as president. The R, D. Cone Company, 
which was still flourishing when its chief be- 
came deceased, was for many years one of the 
leading wholesale firms of the State. During 
the period of his citizenship in Winona, Mr. 
< 1 one served in high municipal offices, and was 
identified with many and varied lesser public 
functions; and this in spite of the fact that 
he was of a nature which shrank at all times 
from publicity, which shows how strongly his 
abilities and virtues were appreciated in his 
community. In the early days of his residence 

in the city, he was persuaded to become a 
member of the board of school directors, and, 
as alderman from the Second ward, he served 
in the city council. In 18CG he was elected 
mayor of the city of Winona, and upon the 
expiration of his first term was re-elected for 
a second, his administration during both 
terms being markedly efficient and satisfactory. 
He early joined the Old Settlers' Association 
of Winona County, and was one of the most 
active members of that organization. He 
played a very energetic and effective part in 
furthering the organization of the Winona & 
Western Railway, and was made a director of 
the company. He was, also, at the time of his 
death, one of the directors of the First National 
Bank, and of the Winona Wagon Company. 
Mr. Cone was married in the year 1849, in his 
native town of New Berlin, New York, to Miss 
Ruena Merchant. Four children were born to 
them, namely: Ida E., Etta M., Frank R. and 
Hattie R, The first-named— the late Mrs. W. 
J. Landon — was the only one of the four to 
survive him. Mr. and Mrs. Cone were members 
and regular attendants of the Central Metho- 
dist Episcopal church of Winona, of which 
Mr. Cone served as treasurer for nearly a 
quarter of a century. And apart from the 
duties of this office, his interest and influence 
in the general activities of the church were 
very constant, and his contributions to its 
financial resources bountiful. Mr. Cone was 
for twenty-eight years a widower, the death 
of his wife having occurred on February 8, 
1870. During the last few years of his life 
his health was in a delicate state, and this, 
together with his advancing age, compelled 
him gradually to loosen his hold upon the 
business and social affairs with which he had 
for so long kept closely in touch. Early in 
the spring of 1898 he became an inmate of 
the Sanitorium at Hudson, Wisconsin, in 
which he had formerly spent some time 
as a patient. A few weeks later he 
was attacked by an acute malady, and 
died at the Sanitorium on the 29th of 
April, at the age of seventy-six years. Mr. 
Cone was a man of a deeply religions tempera- 
ment, and although he was never one to 



obtrude his views upon others, his convictions 
were firmly rooted, and the spirit of true 
Christianity made beautiful his character and 
the deeds and influence emanating from it. To 
his modesty and single-heartedness, absolute 
rectitude in all the relations of life seemed no 
more than the normal state, and nothing for 
which he deserved especial credit; but it was 
deemed otherwise by the many friends he had 
attached to him in Winona, through southern 
Minnesota, and at Hudson, Wisconsin, by 
whom his loss is still deplored. 


In every city, and particularly in our 
younger cities of the West, there is a corps of 
progressive workers, undefined in number, 
relied upon by the community, whether con- 
sciously or unconsciously, to keep the munici- 
pal wheels, not merely running smoothly, but 
running continuously on the desired upward 
grade; and just such a citizen of such an 
upward-moving municipality is Henry A. 
Young, of Lake City, Minnesota. Henry 
Albert Young is a native of Germany, born at 
Gailsbach, Wiirtemberg, December 9, 1845. 
He is a son of Frederick and Regina (Kiibler) 
Young, who were farmer folk of Wiirtemberg, 
in moderate circumstances. His father was 
also a baker by trade; but, although carrying 
on two distinct lines of business, he found 
time, and possessed the ability, to participate 
in the public affairs of his community, and at 
one time served as Burgermeister of the vil- 
lage of Gailsbach. Henry A. Young, of this 
biography, came to the United States in 1S03, 
being then a youth of eighteen years. He 
made his way to Minnesota, stopping at the 
town of Read's Landing, where he found em- 
ployment in Bullard's Hotel. A brother of 
our subject — the late C. F. Young — was at 
that time conducting a general store at Read's 
Landing, and upon leaving his position in the 
hotel, Henry A. engaged to assist this brother 
in his business. In 18G5 C. F. transferred the 
entire management of his store to his young 
brother and removed to Lake City; and in the 

following spring Henry A. closed out the 
business at Read's Landing and joined him at 
Lake City, where the two brothers for many 
years operated another store in the same line 
of trade. In 1889, in consequence of the death 
of C. F. Young, the younger brother acquired 
a (nut rolling interest in the business, which 
has since been conducted under the style of 
H. A. Young & Co. But the management 
of this business is with Mr. Young but one of 
many interests. Upon the organization, in 
1898, of the Citizen's Bank, he became presi- 
dent of that institution, and he had previously 
been for some years a director of the Lake 
City Bank. In politics he is a loyal and inter- 
ested member of the Republican party. 
Inning taken a prominent part in several 
of its county conventions; and he has held 
high official positions. But Mr. Young 
is not an office seeker, and his purpose 
in accepting preferment, made evident by 
his whole conduct, has been the service of his 
city and not the gratification of selfish aims 
— a political instance sufficiently rare to be 
worthy of note. Mr. Young served as mayor 
of Lake City in 1892, with re-election in the 
following year, and he has also officiated as 
city treasurer for a term of four years. His 
public and enterprising spirit has found prac- 
tical expression in many material benefits to 
the city, as, for instance, the establishment of 
its waterworks, in 1893, which was largely due 
to his efforts. The electric lights and public 
highway improvements were also, as projects, 
powerfully promoted by his foresight and 
personal activity. During the years of Mr. 
Young's active citizenship. Lake City has en- 
joyed a period of unusual development, and 
it is easy for reflective members of the com- 
munity to trace a connection between the two 
facts. On February 9, 1872, Mr. Young was 
married to Anna L. Schauble, of St. Paul. 
They have two sons: Henry <!., now married 
and a resident of Lake City, and assisting in 
the store, and Albert F. Mr. Young, together 
with his family, attends the Episcopal church 
of Lake City, of which he is treasurer. He 
also belongs to the order of Masons, and is 
an Old Fellow, and Son of Herman. 

The Century Publishing &Cnj/ravtnj Co Chicaptr 





Frank Henry Carleton, of Minneapolis, is a 
member of the well-known law firm of Cross, 
Hicks, Carleton & Cross. He was born Octo- 
ber 8, 184!), at Newport, New Hampshire. 
His ancestry on his father's side was English, 
and the family line is traced back to Sir Guy 
Carlton. On his mother's side his descent is 
also from English stock, going back to Joseph 
French, a leading citizen of Salisbury, Massa- 
chusetts, of a generation prior to the War of 
the Revolution. Frank H. is the son of Henry 
G. Carleton, now and for many years president 
of the Savings Bank of Newport, New Hamp- 
shire. For forty years he was one of the 
editors of the New Hampshire Argus and 
Spectator. He was for many years one of the 
leading Democratic editors of New Hamp- 
shire, and a personal friend of John P. Hale 
and Franklin Pierce. He has now retired from 
active business and is in good financial circum- 
stances. He has served as a member of the 
Legislature of the State of New Hampshire, 
has been register of probate, and has tilled 
other important public positions. The subject 
of this biography was educated in the common 
schools of Newport, and prepared for college 
at Kimball Union Academy, at Meridan, New 
Hampshire, where he graduated in June, 1868. 
He then entered Dartmouth College and there 
completed the course with the class of 1872. 
He took the first prize for English composi- 
tion during the senior year, and wrote the 
class ode for commencement day. During his 
academic and college days he was obliged to 
absent himself at different times, while he 
was engaged as teacher, and, in 1870, he was 
for a time principal of an academy for white 
pupils in Mississippi. Mr. Carleton also varied 
his experience by assuming the duties of city 
editor of the Manchester Daily Union, after 
his graduation from college, which position he 
held for several months. He then decided to 
carry out an early plan to seek a location in 
the West, and accordingly came to Minne- 
apolis, where he was engaged as a reporter 
for the Minneapolis News, then edited by 
George K. Shaw. This position he held for 

several months, at the same time serving as 
Minneapolis correspondent for the St. Paul 
Press. Subsequently he was appointed city 
editor of the St. Paul Daily Press under Mr. 
Wheelock. After a year's service on tin- 
Press, Mr. Carleton determined to carry 
out his original plan of preparing for the prac- 
tice of law, and accordingly commenced his 
study for that purpose in the offce of Cushman 
K. Davis and C. I>. O'Brien. While pursuing 
his studies he served as clerk of the Municipal 
Court of St. Paul, and after holding this posi- 
tion for five years, he resigned, owing In ill- 
health, and took a six-months' trip to Europe. 
<>n his return from Europe he was appointed 
secretary to Gov. John S. Pillsbury, and ren- 
dered important service in connection with 
the settlement of the repudiated Minnesota 
railroad bonds. A complete history of this 
memorable struggle against repudiation, led 
by Governor Pillsbury, is given by Judge Flan 
drau in another part of this book. His position 
as private secretary to Governor Pillsbury 
was not merely a clerical one, as Mr. Carleton 
had the entire confidence of the Governor, who 
was largely dependent upon him for assistance 
all through that memorable fight, to maintain 
the credit and honor of the State. For several 
years he was the Minnesota correspondent of 
the Chicago Inter Ocean and the New York 
Times. In 1882 he removed to Minneapolis 
and formed a law partnership with Judge 
Henry G. Hicks and Capt. Judson N. Cross. 
This firm still exists, the only change being 
the addition of Norton M. Cross, the son of 
Captain Cross. From 1883 to 1887, during 
Captain Cross' three terms as city attorney, 
Mr. Carleton was assistant city attorney of 
Minneapolis. These were formative days in 
the history of the city, and witnessed the in- 
auguration of important litigation in the 
development of Minneapolis. Mr. Carleton had 
practically the entire management of the 
numerous suits in the city courts (many of 
them being appealed to the Supreme Court of 
the State), which were brought to maintain 
the supremacy of the "patrol limits" ordinance. 
The principal was a new and a startling one 
to the lawyers, and for years, Mr. Carleton 



was confronted by the 1 » -st legal talent in the 
city, in fruitless onsets against its armor, until 
the principal had become a permanent one in 
Minneapolis. Mr. Carleton and the Arm with 
which he is connected lias a large and varied 
practice in real estate law, probate law and 
financial adjustments, in which he has had 
much experience. There is ample testimony to 
his ability in this direction, and the confidence 
reposed in him, by his frequent appointment 
as administrator of large estates, executor of 
wills, and as trustee of funds for individuals 
and institutions. In the drawing of wills he 
is considered an expert. In politics, Mr. Carle- 
ton is a Republican, although not an active 
participator in party affairs, preferring to 
devote his leisure time to scientific research 
and literary pursuits. Mr. Carleton is a Mason, 
a member and one of the trustees of the Park 
Avenue Congregational church, and is one of 
the directors of the Home Mission Society. 
In 1881 he was married to Ellen Jones, the 
only daughter of the late Judge Edwin S. 
Jones, of Minneapolis. They have had six 
children, Edwin Jones, Henry Guy, George 
Pillsbury, Charles Pillsbury, who died in in- 
fancy; Frank H., Jr., and Fred Pillsbury. Mr. 
< Jarleton is a lover of nature, a great cultivator 
of flowers, an enthusiastic fly-fisher, and much 
given to the pursuit of this fascinating sport 
in the celebrated fishing grounds that abound 
in the picturesque regions of northern Minne- 


The name of Bassett is w T ell known to Minne- 
apolis, partly through the public activities of 
the subject of this sketch, even more, perhaps, 
through those of his brother Joel. The native 
place of these brothers is Wolfborough, New 
Eampshire, a quiet town on the shore of the 
beautiful Lake Winnipiseogee, with its tradi- 
tion of an island for each day of the year. 
They were issued from Quaker stock, their 
genealogy being traceable back to the French 
Euguenots, and were reared in accordance 
with the strict yet wholesome precepts of the 

Friends. Their father, also named Daniel, 
owned a farm in Wolfborough, and here his 
family of four sons and two daughters grew 
up. Eventually, however, father and children, 
with a single exception, had all come to make 
their home in Minnesota, where the senior 
Bassett died in 1861. Daniel Bassett junior 
was born in the year 1819, and to the age of 
thirty-six continued a citizen of New Hamp- 
shire. His mature years in his native State 
were devoted, not to farming, but largely to 
financial business in the village of Wolf- 
borough. In 1855 he came to Minneapolis, 
where his brother Joel had then been located 
for four years. For a short time the two 
brothers followed together the lumber indus- 
try. When this was abandoned, Daniel, who 
had acquired some means previous to coming 
West and still retained an influential connec- 
tion with a Wolfborough bank, employed such 
capital as he had, in real estate investments 
and loans. But his abilities and integrity of 
character soon made a demand for his service 
in public functions. In 185S, when the town- 
ship government" was organized, he was elected 
to the board of supervisors, together with D. 
II. Richardson, Isaac I. Lewis and Edward 
Murphy, and R. P. Russell as chairman. To 
this position Mr. Bassett was repeatedly re- 
elected. For three years of the Civil War, he 
served, by appointment of General Hancock, 
as purveyor for the Second army corps, during 
two years of which time, the General and his 
staff remained with Mr. Bassett's men. Upon 
his return from the war, Mr. Bassett was ap- 
pointed postmaster of Minneapolis, but he soon 
resigned because of his disapproval of certain 
schemes of the Johnson administration. In 
politics he has always been a Republican, and 
he has been several times elected to the Leg- 
islature of Minnesota. He served on the 
Public Land committee in the House of Rep- 
resentatives of the Seventeenth and Eighteenth 
Legislatures. Mr. Bassett was among the 

first nibers of (he pari; commission of Minne 

apolis, organized in 1883, and was for several 
years retained in this position, his colleagues 
on the board being Governor Pillsbury. George 
A. Pillsbury, W. S. King, C. M. Loring and 




Dorilus Morrison. He received appointments 
to various committees, including those on 
finance and improvements, and repeatedly 
served on committees specially chosen to 
soled new sites for park development. Into 
all this work he entered with earnest zeal, 
giving freely of his time and energies; and in 
the care and expenditure of public funds was 
most conscientious and wise. Mr. Bassetl is 
a man of plain and frugal speech, but under 
the stimulus of strong conviction is capable 
even of eloquence, as he once proved in an 
address opposing a project for making a park 
of Nicollet island. On the occasion of the 
Indian outbreak and massacre near Fort 
Ridgely, a hundred citizens, Mr. Bassett one 
of them, volunteered succor to the imperiled 
fort. Joining General Sibley, at St. Peter, 
they marched forty miles in the night, some- 
times stepping over dead bodies, but reached 
the fort in time to rescue three hundred men, 
women and children, who would soon have 
become the victims of savage slaughter. Re- 
appointment of Governor Fillsbury, Mr. Bas- 
sett served for many years as a member of 
the State board of equalization of taxes, and 
while his work has been excellent in all the 
offices he has held, it was particularly credit- 
able in this one, and he was continued in it 
until he requested the Governor to cease re- 
appointing him. Trior to 1880 Mr. Bassett was 
for some time vice-president of the Merchants' 
National Bank of Minneapolis. He has also, 
in past years, done duty on the executive com- 
mittee of the Minneapolis Trust Company. 
Before coming West Mr. Bassett was married 
to Eliza Jane Canney, whose brother, Joseph 
H. Canney, thus became twice the brother-in- 
law of Mr. Bassett, having previously married 
his sister. The two children of Mr. and Mrs. 
Bassett, both daughters, were bom in New 
Hampshire and educated in Minneapolis. One 
of them married F. B. Hill of Chicago; the 
other is Mrs. Tyson Mowry, now of Minne- 
apolis, who formerly lived in Texas, where her 
husband was engaged in business. Mr. Bas- 
sett has retired from the active affairs of life, 
and lives quietly in his substantial residence 
on Hennepin avenue; but through his circle of 

devoted friends he keeps well in touch with 
the life of the city, for the advancement of 
which he has faithfully and effectively labored. 


"This Nation has been served from genera- 
tion to generation by many great and good 
men, and in our assurance of the permanence 
of our institutions and our public prosperity 
it will be so served from generation to genera 
tion in the future. Among them all, William 
Windom will always be a marked and admir- 
able figure, and few will be more secure, in 
the ever-changing minds of men and in ever- 
changing times, from detraction or neglect." 
—Hon. William M. Evarts. 

"The Nation will fondly cherish the recollec- 
tion of his triumphant career and his distin- 
guished services, but the heritage of his fame 
belongs especially to Minnesota. This was the 
State of his adoption, and upon this State, in 
a peculiar sense, did he shed the luster of his 
great achievement. He became a citizen of 
Minnesota in his early and unknown manhood. 
By its people was he sent to the National Con- 
gress for ten successive years; by its Legisla- 
ture was he twice honored with a place in the 
National Senate; as the representative of this 
State he held a most important position in 
the councils of two administrations, and as an 
adopted and honored sou of Minnesota, his love 
and loyalty were warm and constant and true." 
—Hon'. J. W. Tawney. 

To the State Mr. Windom was indebted tor 
unusual opportunities of usefulness. The 
State owes him much for the conspicuous and 
masterly use of those opportunities. William 
Windom was born in Belmont county, Ohio, 
on "the tenth day of the nfth month," lsi'7. 
He was the second and youngest child of 
Hezekiah and Mercy Windom. His ancestors 
were sturdy English Quakers, who came to 
America about two hundred years ago and 
settled in Virginia and Pennsylvania. During 
the minority of his parents, his paternal and 
maternal grandfathers, George Windom and 
Nathan Spencer, removed to Ohio and wire 
among the pioneer farmers of Belmont county. 
The home of Hezekiah and Mercy Windom was 
a humble one, but it was a home of purity and 
peace. The mother always wore the Quaker 



garb, and the children as well as the parents 
used the Quaker forms of speech. After he 
was grown to manhood, and as long as his 
parents lived, Mr. Windom when visiting them, 
or in writing to them, naturally and easily 
resumed the "thee" and "thou" of his child- 
hood. In 1837 the family removed to Knox 
county in the same State. This was thence- 
forth the family home. Here, amid the 
limitations, the hard work, and the wholesome 
economies of pioneer farm life in the Buckeye 
State, William Windom spent the remainder 
of his boyhood and laid the foundations of his 
subsequent character and career. In that early 
day Knox county was far removed from the 
great markets, and although products of the 
farm abounded, lack of any adequate means 
of transportation kept the price of farm prod- 
acts so low that little money came to till the 
family purse. But the poverty of Hezekiah 
Windom was ''the poverty of the frontier, 
which is indeed no poverty; it is but the be- 
ginning of wealth." The lad's early educa- 
tional advantages were only such as the 
country schools of that day afforded, and the 
eager reading of such books as w r ere to be 
found in the small libraries of the neighbor- 
hood. Probably a lawyer had never been seen 
among the peaceable Quakers of Knox county; 
but in books, young Windom had met some 
fascinating representatives of the legal pro- 
fession, and while still a mere lad, had settled 
in his own mind the question of a career. He 
would be a lawyer. To Hezekiah and Mercy 
Windom this was an alarming declaration. 
Their religion had taught them to regard the 
profession of law with peculiar disfavor, and 
hoping to save their son from so worldly and 
iniquitous a calling, they resolved that he 
should learn and follow "a good honest trade." 
But the lad's instincts and ambitions were 
stronger than parental purposes, and the re- 
sult was an academic course at Martinsburg. 
Ohio, followed by a thorough course in law in 
the office of Judge K. C. Hurd of Mount Ver- 
non. In 1850, at the age of twenty-three, Mr. 
Windom was admitted to the bar at Mount 
Vernon, and at once entered upon the practice 
of his profession. As may be supposed, this 

result was not accomplished without great 
effort and self-denial. That Mr. Windom's 
parents finally acquiesced in their son's deci- 
sion is evidenced by the fact that his father 
mortgaged his farm to raise a sum of money 
to assist him while pursuing his studies. This, 
however, was in the form of a loan, and was 
promptly repaid after he had entered upon 
the practice of law. While in the academy, 
Mr. Windom sometimes taught a country 
school three months in the winter, keeping 
abreast of his own' class meanwhile, by devot- 
ing all his evenings to study. His summer 
vacations were spent at home on the farm, 
where he recruited his health and assisted his 
father in the work of the harvest field. Also 
for a time, while studying law in Mount Ver- 
non, he served several hours each day as 
assistant to the postmaster of the town. 
Though never boastful of his success in strug- 
gling with adverse circumstances, Mr. Windom 
regarded this part of his career with no sense 
of shame, but rather with a just and manly 
pride. After two years' practice in Mount 
Vernon, Mr. Windom was elected prosecuting 
attorney for the county by a majority of 300, 
which meant a change of 1,300 votes, a strik- 
ing presage thus early in life of the remarkable 
personal popularity that was always thence- 
forward to attend him. In 1855 the new 
Northwest was attracting the enterprising 
spirits of the Eastern and Central States. Mr. 
Windom felt a desire to identify himself with 
the stirring life of the great region then just 
opening to settlement beyond the upper Missis- 
sippi, in whose future he saw possibilities 
which subsequently were more than realized. 
Closing his office in Mount Vernon, and bidding 
adieu to old friends, he came to Minnesota, 
then a Territory embracing thrice its present 
area, and, after a survey of the field, settled 
in the practice of law at Winona. Here he 
maintained a legal residence until the time of 
his death. Mr. Windom was married on the 
20th of August, 1850, to Ellen Towne, third 
daughter of the Rev. R. C. Hatch. The union 
thus formed was one of unbroken happiness. 
Destiny had evidently marked Mr. Windom 
for a life of public service. In the autumn of 


21 I 

1858, at the age of thirty-one, he was elected 
as a Republican to the Thirty-sixth Congress, 
and was successively re-elected to serve in the 
Thirty-seventh, Thirty-eighth, Thirty-ninth and 
Fortieth Congresses, a period of ten years, 
terminating in 1869. In that year he was ap- 
pointed to the United States Senate to fill the 
unexpired term of Hon. I). S. Norton, deceased. 
In 1871 he was elected to the United States 
Senate by the Legislature of Minnesota for the 
usual six years' term, and was re-elected in 
1877. In the National Republican Con vent ion 
of 1880, Mr. Windom's name was presented 
and during twenty-eight ballots was adhered 
to by the delegates from Minnesota, as then- 
candidate for the Presidency. In March, 1881. 
he was appointed Secretary of the Treasury 
in the Cabinet of President Garfield. Retiring 
from the Treasury upon the death of the 
President and the accession of Mr. Arthur in 
the autumn of 1881, Mr. Windom was again 
re-elected to the United States Senate and 
served out tlie term expiring March :'>. 1883, 
making an aggregate of twelve years in that 
body. In January, 1883, Mr. Windom's name 
was again presented to the Legislature, but 
to the surprise of the country, his re-election 
was defeated. The limitation and character 
of this sketch do not permit a discussion of the 
causes which led to this defeat. It is enough 
to say that they were not in derogation of the 
honorable record he had made in his long and 
faithful public service, and that Mr. Windom 
suffered no loss of prestige in his party on this 
account, as was fully shown by subsequent 
events. A happy result of this release from 
exacting duties was an ideal year of foreign 
travel with his family. This was almost the 
first respite from work in Mr. Windom's 
hitherto busy life. After his return from 
Europe, he devoted himself to his private busi- 
ness, which heretofore had claimed too little 
of his attention. From this he was called by 
President Harrison to serve again as Secretary 
of tlie Treasury, the duties of which position 
he reassumed March 4, 1889. Entering the 
House of Representatives in the ardor of his 
youth, and when the rising tide of anti-slavery 
reform was reaching its culmination, Mr. 

Windom threw himself with enthusiasm into 
the conflict of ideas which was soon to result 
in a widespread conflict of arms. Two years 
later, and at the beginning of his second term 
in Congress, the war for the Union opened. 
and from that time until its victorious close, 
Mr. Windom, though among the youngest of 
the men then in the arena of National politics. 
helped to render the war period memorable 
in civic, as it was in martial affairs. Dur- 
ing his long service in the Senate, Mr. 
Windom was actively identified with many 
leading measures of legislation. From lsTti 
until he resigned his seat to take the portfolio 
of the Treasury, in 1881, he occupied the 
arduous and responsible post of chairman of 
the Committee on Appropriations, a position 
that, amid the legislative complications then 
existing, involved herculean labors, all of 
which were patiently and successfully per- 
formed. When he re-entered the Senate after 
the death of President Garfield, he became 
chairman of the Committee on Foreign Rela- 
tions. Shortly after 1870 began the agitation 
in respect to inland transportation. So wide 
spread, especially among farmers, was the 
demand for improved facilities for reaching 
the markets of the world, that Congress was 
constrained to consider the problem in all its 
bearings. The Senate appointed a special com- 
mittee on transportation routes to the sea 
hoard, of which Mr. Windom was made 
chairman. After very diligent study of the 
subject, during which, accompanied by several 
members of the committee, he visited the chief 
commercial centers of the Union, .Mr. Windom 
wrote in 1874 a report of the committee's in- 
vestigations and conclusions, which was pub 
lished in two volumes by order of Congress. 
This report was a pioneer publication in the 
field which it covered, and has proved Id he 
an invaluable magazine of carefully digested 
fads, and just deductions, which have con 
tributed not a little to shape the legislation of 
Congress and various State legislatures affect- 
ing the carrying trade of the country. In the 
United States Senate, twelve years after the 
report in question was laid before Congress 
and the country, Mr. Hoar, of Massachusetts. 



in debating ;i resolution proyiding for a con- 
tinuance of similar investigations, said: 

"I think Senators who have attended to the 
subject will agree generally that the most val- 
uable Stale paper of modern times by this 
country is the report made by the late Senator 
and Secretary of the Treasury, Mr. Windom, 
from the committee on transportation routes to 
the seaboard on the general question of the 
relation of the railroads to the commerce of 
the country, and the means of controlling the 
railroads in the interests of commerce. That 
most instructive, valuable and profound report 
brings the subject down to the year 187.'?." — 
Congressional Record, March 18, 1885. 

One of the direct results of this investigation 
and report was the deepening of the mouth of 
the Mississippi river, a work of incomparable 
importance to the South and West. When Mr. 
Windom took up this work, the relation be- 
tween land and water routes was wholly 
misunderstood, and the ueed of the latter gen- 
erally denied. His labors transformed the 
opinion of that small class which studies these 
questions, and gradually leavened public opin- 
ion, lie gathered facts and laid down 
principles, which have profoundly affected the 
construction of public works and legislation 
on continental traffic, and thus accomplished 
a most beneficent work in reforming and de- 
veloping the interior commerce of the country. 
Tt is interesting to trace the connection be- 
tween Mr. Windom's zeal in this undertaking 
and the lessons learned in boyhood on his 
father's farm, where such commodities as milk, 
cream, eggs and potatoes, were freely given 
away, because, owing to the distance from 
market, they possessed no commercial value. 
Mr. Windom brought to every task his full 
i nergy, and all the knowledge it was possible 
to obtain. Whatever problem presented itself, 
he grappled with it earnestly, and was not con 
tent until he hail mastered il. Thus he wrung 
success from situations which to many another 
would have yielded only failure. "In his brief 
term of service under President Garfield, Mi'. 
Windom accomplished one of the most valu- 
able and brilliant achievements in our financial 
history, by his conversion of the public debt 
at tin' unprecedented rate of interest of three 

and a half per cent." The situation which 
confronted Mr. Windom when he took the port- 
folio of the Treasury, in March, 1881, is thus 
explained by Gen. A. It. Nettleton: 

"The Congress which adjourned March 3, 
1881, had failed to provide for the great 
volume of maturing bonds, which consisted of 
$196,378,600 six per cents and $439,811,250 five 
per cents, a total of $636,189,850, redeemable 
on or before July 1. 1881. For three several 
reasons it was very important that the failure 
of ('ongress to make provision for this great 
volume of maturing bonds should not result 
in their remaining outstanding at the old rate 
of interest: First, it would have been a cum- 
brous, difficult, and expensive task to continue 
paying interest on scores of millions of coupon 
bonds from which all coupons had been re- 
moved. Second, it would have been a distinct 
and serious injury to the public credit, if the 
Government had permitted more than six 
hundred millions of dollars of its debt to pass 
the maturity date without protection, and then 
continue to draw rates of interest which had 
by that time become exorbitant for a nation 
in the known financial condition of the United 
States. Third, the actual money loss involved 
in continuing to pay five and six per cent per 
annum on such an amount of debt, as com 
pared with the three and a half per cent per 
annum at which Secretary Windom believed it 
should be floated, would be at the rate of more 
than eleven million dollars per annum. With 
this threefold stimulus, the Secretary devoted 
himself to the task of devising some method 
which, without involving a violation of law. 
should virtually take the place of that legisla- 
tion which Congress had failed to enact. After 
careful study of the situation, he matured and 
put in execution a plan whereby the bulk of 
the maturing bonds were continued at the 
pleasure of the government to bear interest at 
the rate of three and a half per cent per an- 
num, and the residue redeemed at maturity." 

For this achievement in governmental finance 
there was no precedent, and the announce- 
ment of the Secretary's purpose was met with 
almost universal incredulity. The total cost 
of the process of thus converting government 
loans aggregating more than $600,000,000 
bearing five and six per cent interest, into a 
uniform three and a half per cent loan running 
at the pleasure of the government, was less 
than $2,000, and no money whatever was taken 



even temporarily from the channels of business 
in America or Europe. The general estimate 
placed upon the accomplishment of this under- 
taking, after it had become history, was all 
that Mr. Windom's most ardent admirer could 
desire. "Quietly and successfully the change 
was made. There was no flourish of trumpets, 
but no finer achievement is recorded in the 
history of American financiering." — Hon. 
Thomas P. P.ayard. The press of the country 
was absolutely without stint in its praise. The 
New York Tribune summed up by saying, 
"This operation will rank as the greatest and 
most creditable financial triumph in history." 
Thus was Mr. Windom's reputation as a 
financier enhanced at home and established 
abroad. His ability to administer the Treasury 
Department wisely with reference to the 
needs of a great commercial Nation having 
been tested to the utmost, his selection by 
President Harrison to again become the head 
of that most important department, was wel- 
comed by the business community as a guar- 
anty that the interests of the Nation would 
be wisely and courageously guarded. That it 
was not disappointed in this expectation is 
shown by his timely, sagacious and courageous 
use of the treasury resources during the clos- 
ing months of 1800. "The Secretary's grasp 
of the situation seemed perfect, and his 
prompt, decisive, though conservative mens 
ures, in the face of impending paralysis of all 
business and every industry, restored public 
confidence and averted National, if not inter- 
national disaster." The official duties of the 
Secretary, always very exacting, were greatly 
augmented during the winter of 1890-1891, 
when questions of momentous importance en- 
grossed the public mind and the attention of 
Congress was largely devoted to a discussion 
and formulation of financial measures. "Put so 
loyal to duty was he. that, regardless of known 
peril to life, he worked on, meanwhile refusing 
most flattering and tempting offers to return 
to private life and business." The necessity 
for husbanding his strength, generally forbade 
his attendance upon public entertainments. 
When, however, he received an invitation from 
the Board of Trade and Transportation of New 

York to attend their annual banquet, making 
its convenience secondary to his, and cour- 
teously allowing him to name the date, 
he at once accepted, naming January 29. 
In reply to some expressions of solicitude lest 
this additional tax upon his time and strength 
might prove too exhausting, Mr. Windom said 
that the occasion would place him among 
friends with whom in former years he had 
labored in a common cause, and furnish an 
opportunity which he was unwilling to forego 
to urge measures which he considered to be of 
great importance to the country. Thus it will 
lie seen that in responding to this call. Mr. 
Windom accepted, not simply an invitation to 
a banquet, but a summons to the discharge of 
a duty as distinctly patriotic as any ever laid 
upon a public-spirited citizen of the Republic. 
The world knows the sequel! He fell at 
the post of duty as truly as does a- soldier on 
the field of battle. The scene was a brilliant 
one. Art and wealth had combined to make 
the surroundings beautiful. The assembly con- 
sisted of representative men from all parts of 
the country and leading business men of New 
York, and the interest of all was whetted by 
anticipations of the evening. After an hour 
of social intercourse, the banquet was served, 
and then the toastmaster of the evening — 
Judge Arnoux — introduced as "chiefest among 
this brilliant galaxy of guests, the Hon. Secre- 
tary of the Treasury." Mr. Windom had 
chosen for his subject "Our Country's Pros 
perity Dependent Upon Its Instruments of 
Commerce." Of the address itself little need 
he said. So competent a judge as Senator 
Hoar, of Massachusetts — after alluding to 
Mr. Windom's report on transcontinental 
transportation, which he characterized as "one 
of the very foremosf of our stale papers," said: 
"If it were desired to preserve for future use 
and study the best specimens of the political 
discussion of our day, this report — and the 
powerful speecb Mr. Windom made just before 
his death — would have no superiors and few- 
equals for that purpose." Mr. Windom spoke 
forty three minutes and closed amid bewilder 
in«' applause. He rose and courteously bowed 
his acknowledgments — and then, in a moment 



of time and while the applause was still ring- 
ing in his cars, without a struggle or conscious 
ness of failing strength or any pain of parting 
from those he held most dear, "he passed 
beyond earth's vexed problems, into the peace 
and joy of immortality." The sorrow that was 
everywhere manifest so soon as the story of 
the Secretary's death became known, and the 
universally favorable comment upon the char- 
acter and career of Mr. Windom by the people 
and the press of the whole country, without 
regard to political preferences, serves forcibly 
to illustrate the fact that there was in his life 
and work, that which was above and beyond 
the zone of partisan interests, and which 
commanded the esteem and admiration of the 
wisest and best of his countrymen of every 
party name. To all who knew Mr. Windom 
familiarly, or who had come within the atmos- 
phere of his rare personality, any estimate of 
his character and career would seem purposely 
deficient which should omit reference to his 
strongly religious nature. In early manhood 
he publicly professed his faith in Christ, and 
throughout a lifetime of strenuous activity and 
conflict, covering a period of political agitation 
and tempest scarcely equaled in the history of 
men, he not only "bore the white flower of a 
blameless life," but maintained that inward 
spiritual calm which conies alone to him whose 
soul is anchored in an intelligent Christian 
faith. His pure and reverent life, in the midst 
of masculine activities and political struggle, 
is an object-lesson to the young which cannot 
be too widely studied, lie always dared to do 
the thing he saw to be right; he always be- 
lieved that in the end the right thing would 
secure the indorsement of the country that he 
loved. With a sweetness of spirit which never 
wearied, there was allied in him a quiet firm- 
ness which none could misunderstand, and 
which revealed the rounded strength of a great 
character. Singularly devoted to his friends 
and ever thoughtful of their interests, he nei- 
ther wasted his time nor embittered his genial 
nature by resentful thoughts of his enemies. 
Mr. Windom is survived by his wife and 
three children — one son. William Douglas, and 
two daughters, Ellen Hatch and Florence 

Bronson — the former being the wife of Bentley 
Wirt Warren of I'.oston. The felicities of do- 
mestic life were his in an unusual degree. All 
who came within the sphere of his influence 
felt the charm of his personality, but nowhere 
did the combined sweetness and strength of 
.Mr. Windom's nature make itself felt as in his 
own home. No shadow ever fell across its 
threshold, until that fatal night when its light 
was so suddenly extinguished. 


Gen. Lucius Frederick Hubbard, of Bed 
Wing, Minnesota, represents two prominent 
Eastern families — the Hubbards of New Eng- 
land and Van Valkenbergs of New York, ne is 
of English and Dutch extraction, his earliest 
American ancestors on the paternal side hav- 
ing been George and Mary (Bishop) Hubbard, 
who came over from England in the Seven- 
teenth Century, while his remote maternal an- 
cestors — the Van Valkenbergs and Van Cotts 
of Holland — joined a colony in the valley of 
the Hudson in the days of its early history and 
have ever since been one of the foremost fami- 
lies of that locality. Lucius F. Hubbard is the 
eldest son of Charles F. and Margaret (Van 
Valkenberg) Hubbard, and was bora in Troy, 
New York, January 26, 1830. His father hav- 
ing died when he was but three years of age, 
he was placed under the care of a relative at 
Chester, Vermont, where his childhood was 
passed, and in whose schools he obtained an 
elementary education. At the age of twelve 
years he was sent to the academy at Gran- 
ville, New York, where he took a three years' 
course of instruction. At fifteen hi' returned 
to Vermont and became an apprentice in th" 
tinner's trade at Poultney. His apprenticeship 
was completed in 1854, at Salem, New York, 
to which place he had removed in is.")::. At 
eighteen he went to Chicago, where for three 
years he was employed at his trade, then, in 
the summer of 1857, he came to Red Wing, 
Minnesota, where lie has since made his home. 
II<- had not looked upon his education as com- 
pleted when he left the academy at Granville; 

The fcntu/y PuMtshay &Diym\'iiu/ Co C/iLcaytr 




indeed, he had regarded his school training 
as but a theoretic basis upon which he pro- 
ceeded to construct a broad practical educa- 
tion by means of systematic reading and re- 
search in leisure hours. Accordingly, when he 
came to Minnesota, although but twenty-one 
years of age, he had arrived at the point where 
he could lav aside the tools of the artisan and 
work with the more subtle implements of the 
intellect. His first business venture was the 
publication of a newspaper — the Rod Wing 
Republican — which lie established and, al- 
though without previous journalistic expe- 
rience, conducted successfully from the start. 
The Republican was the second paper in Good 
hue county, and through that organ Mr. 
Hubbard became known and so popular that 
in 1858 he was chosen register of deeds for the 
county. In the State campaign of 1861 the 
Republicans nominated him as candidate for 
the Senate, but failed to secure his election. 
By this time, however, the Civil War was in 
progress, and Mr. Hubbard was prompt to re- 
spond to his country's call for defenders. He 
sold his newspaper in December and imme- 
diately enlisted as a private in Company A. 
of I lie Fifth Minnesota Infantry. On February 
5, 1862, he was commissioned captain of Com- 
pany A. and on the 20th of March following, 
when the regiment was organized, was pro- 
moted to the rank of lieutenant colonel. In 
May the regiment was divided, three of its 
companies being ordered to the frontier of 
Minnesota, while the remaining seven were 
sent Smith to join the Second Division. Army 
of the Mississippi. The first battle in which 
Colonel Hubbard was engaged was that of 
Farmington, Mississippi, on the 28th of May. 
Afterwards, in the first battle of Corinth, he 
was wounded quite severely, not, however, so 
as to disable him for further service. In Au- 
gust, 1N02, he was advanced to the full rank 
of colonel. In command of his regimenl lie 
was engaged in a number of importani battles 
and participated in the siege of Vicksburg. 
After the fall of that stronghold Colonel Hub 
hard was given command of the Second Bri- 
gade, First Division. Sixteenth Army Corps, 
which lie led through numerous conflicts. At 

the fierce battle of Nashville. December 15 
and l(i. lsr.4, the brigade suffered heavy losses. 
Colonel Hubbard had two or three horses shot 
under him and was himself wounded; but so 
brave and efficient was his conduct throughout 
the struggle that he was brevetted brigadier 
general "for conspicuous gallantly." During 
the battle the Second Brigade augmented the 
honor which it had already won under its able 
commander, by capturing several pieces of ar- 
tillery and stands of colors, and taking prison- 
ers far exceeding in number the brigade itself. 
General Hubbard's subsequent operations were 
for the most part in the vicinity of New Or- 
leans and Mobile. The total number of battles 
and minor engagements in which he partici- 
pated during the war exceeded thirty, and his 
military record is one to which the State of 
Minnesota may well point with pride. Late 
in 1865 he was mustered out of service and 
returned to his home in Red Wing. His health 
had been badly shattered by the strain and 
privations of army life and he was compelled 
to afford himself a season of rest. In 1800, 
however, he became engaged in the grain and 
milling business, and gradually increased the 
scale of his operations until it dominated that 
interest on several lines of railroad. Mr. Hub 
bard's political tenets have been always Re- 
publican. He represents Minnesota in the 
National Committee of that party, and in offi- 
cial life has rendered valuable service to his 
constituency and his State. In 1868 the Sec- 
ond District of Minnesota nominated him for 
Congress, but he declined to 11111 because of a 
question which arose concerning the genuine- 
ness of the nomination. In 1S72 he was elected 
to the State Senate, and re-elected two years 
later; but in 1876 he declined a second re-elec- 
tion. During (he last-named year he became 
interested in railroad const ruction. His first 
enterprise in that line was the completion of 
the Midland Railway from Wabasha to Zum- 
brota. This railroad, which was sold to the 
Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway, led to 
the building and operating of a rival line by 
the Chicago iV; Northwestern Railway. Mr. 
Hubbard subsequently successfully projected 
two other lines, viz.: (he Minnesota Central 



Railway, connecting Red Wing and Mankato, 
and the Duluth, Red Wing & Southern Rail- 
road, of which latter road he is at present 
manager. In 1881 Mr. Hubbard was elected 
Governor of Minnesota by a majority of 27,857 
votes, which was a1 that time the largest ever 
received by any candidate for the office. Be 
was re-elected in 1883, and throughout his in- 
cumbency of five years he administered the 
Stale affairs with marked efficiency, especially 
in the management of ils finances. The rale of 
taxation was materially reduced. alsi> the pub- 
lic debt, while the trust funds were increased 
by nearly three millions. Many important 
measures were carried into effect at Governor 
Hubbard's recommendation, among which 
were the following: The establishment of the 
State Board of Charities and Corrections; the 
Slate Public School at Owatonna; State in- 
spection of dairy products, and the present 
sanitary organization for protecting public 
health; the creation of the exist inn railway 
aud warehouse commission; the present sys- 
tem of grain inspection; the organization of 
a State National Guard; the change from an- 
nual to biennial elections. Governor Hubbard 
has also served on numerous weighty State 
commissions. In 18G6 he was a member of 
the commission appointed by the Governor to 
ascertain the status of I lie Slate railroad bonds 
and the terms on which they would be surren- 
dered by holders; in 1S74. a member of the 
commission appointed by the Legislature to 
investigate the accounts of State auditor and 
treasurer; in 1879, on the commission, simi- 
larly appointed, for (lie arbitration of differ- 
ences between Hie State and State prison 
contractors, and in 1889, on that appointed to 
compile ami publish a history of the military 
organizations of Minnesota in the Civil and 
Indian wars of 1861-65. In the Spanish-Amer- 
ican war Governor Hubbard received I lie 
appointment of brigadier general. United 
States Volunteers, anil served in command of 
the Third Division. Seventh Army Corps. Goa 
ernor Hubbard is a member of several mil 
itary and social organizations, as follows: 
Acker Tost. (I. A. R., of St Paul, Tom 
manderv of ihe Loyal Legion, Minnesota 

Society of Sons of the American Rev- 
olution, Society of the Army of the Ten- 
nessee, Society of Foreign Wars, Society 
of American Wars, and Bed Wing Comman- 
dery of Royal Arch Masons. Governor Huh 
bard is a man of family, having, in May. 1868, 
been united in marriage, at lied Wing, to .Mis; 
Amelia Thomas, daughter of Charles Thomas 
and a lineal descendant of Sir John Moore. 
Governor and .Mrs. Hubbard are the parents 
of two sons — Charles P. and Lucius Y. — and 
a daughter — Julia M. Many are Ihe testi- 
monials to the courage and high moral worth 
of Governor Hubbard which might be quoted 
from army comrades and official and business 
associates to swell the volume of this sketch, 
were not those traits of his character already 
sufficiently obvious in the simple record of his 
deeds. His has been a life of varied expe- 
rience; a life full of activity and marked by 
many triumphs and some defeats, through all 
of which he lias borne himself with modest 
dienitv and an integrity without blemish. 


Gen. Christopher ( '. Andrews, soldier and 
publicist, was born at the Upper Village of 
Hillsborough, New Hampshire, October '11, 
1829. His ancestors were among the early set- 
tlers of Massachusetts. His paternal great- 
grandfather, Ammi Andrews, was a lieutenant 
in the American army in the battle of Bunker 
Hill. His maternal grandfather, Elijah Beard, 
was a member of the New Hampshire Legisla- 
ture al the time of his death. Gen. Andrews' 
parents were Luther and Xabby (Beard) An- 
drews, lie was the youngest of four children 
and was reared to the age of fourteen on his 
father's thirty-acre fat m. In May, 1843, he 
went lo Boston and worked in his brother's 
provision store, receiving eight dollars a month 
and his hoard, for his services. He was present 
al the dedication of the Bunker Hill monu- 
ment, in -111111', 1843, when Daniel Webster de- 
livered one of his famous oral ions, and in (he 
Presidential campaign of 1st I he listened to 



21 7 

i lie address of John Quincy Adams before the 
Clay Club in Boston. After attending two 
terms at the Francestown (New Hampshire) 
Academy in 1844 he returned to work in the 
same store in Boston, and after another term 
at the Prancestown Academy in the fall of 
1846 he, the following winter, taught one term 
of a district school for eleven dollars a month 
and board. He was admitted to the Massa 
chusetts bar in 1850 and began practice at 
Newton, Lower Falls. He was elected and 
served on the superintending school commit- 
tee of Newton. In is."):; he opened an office in 
Boston. The great orators of that period, Web- 
ster, Choate, Everett, Phillips, Sumner, he 
often heard in and out of Faneuil Hall. 
In June, 1854, he went to the then Territory 
of Kansas, which became the scene of great 
excitement and turbulence over the question 
of slavery. He wrote letters to the Boston 
Post and other Eastern papers commending 
the resources of Kansas which were widely 
copied. Although he had been opposed to the 
Kansas-Nebraska act, yet it having become a 
law, he upheld its execution under the express 
provision that the introduction or exclusion of 
slavery was for the citizens of the 
Territory to del ermine. In July following his 
arrival, in a public speech at Salt Creek, near 
Fort Leavenworth, he declared his preference 
that Kansas should become a free State. In 
this speech Mr. Andrews said: "I have always 
been an outspoken upholder of the compro- 
mises of the Constitution; but I am not a 
Northern man with Southern principles. I am 
opposed to the extension of slavery and shall 
vote to make Kansas a free State." Lieut. R. 
O Drum (afterwards Adjutant General of the 
Army), who was present, said to him after his 
speech: "You have to-day done the best thing 
you ever did." His was the first Free State 
speech ever made in Kansas. ( rovernor Reeder 
tendered him the position of private secretary, 
which he declined, and in November he went 
to Washington, intending to stay only during 
the short session of Congress; but a severe 
illness of typhoid fever, contracted in Kansas, 
reduced his finances and changed his plans. 
After he got up from his sickness, through the 

influence of President Pierce, his former towns 
man, he was appointed to a $1,400 clerkship in 
the Third Auditor's office and transferred to 
the office of Solicitor of the Treasury to suc- 
ceed Mr. Hamer of Ohio, who resigned volun- 
tarily. He entered upon his duties March, 
1855, and served till May, 1857, when he 
voluntarily resigned and settled at St. Cloud, 
Minnesota, in the practice of law. In 1850 he 
was elected as a Democrat to the State Senate 
for a term of two years. In 1SG0 he was a 
candidate for Presidential Elector on the 
Douglas Democratic ticket, and held about 
thirty joint discussions in various parts of the 
Slate with Mr. Stephen Miller, afterwards Gov- 
ernor. In the spring of 1861, at a war meeting 
at St. Cloud, he made an address and inscribed 
his name as a volunteer. He was nominated 
by a "Union" convention for Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor, but the ticket was soon withdrawn and 
the Union party was absorbed by the Repub- 
lican. For a time he edited the "Minnesota 
Union," which heartily supported Lincoln's 
administration in the prosecution of the war. 
General Andrews will always, perhaps, be 
most prominently known for his military rec- 
ord during the War of the Rebellion. There 
is not space here for this record in full, nor 
even for a proper epitome. His six months' 
residence at Fort Leavenworth gave him many 
ideas of military discipline; and the better 
to tit himself for the military service he spent 
a week at Fort Ripley, Minnesota, in the spring 
of 1861, practicing the manual of arms and 
witnessing drills under Capt. N. H. Davis of 
the regular army. He was mustered as a pri- 
vate October 11, 1801, in Company I, Third 
Regiment Minnesota Infantry, which he helped 
to recruit; appointed captain of the same com 
pany the following November; promoted to 
lieutenant colonel of the Third Regiment in 
December, 1862; colonel in August, 1863; brig- 
adier general January 4. 1804; also commis 
sioned, by President Lincoln, major general by 
brevet March 9, 1865. He was with his regi- 
ment in nearly all of its movements and oper- 
ations while he was connected with it, and the 
records of the War Department show that dur 
ing the whole term of his service, except while 



lie was a prisoner of war, he was not off duty 
on any account more than ten days in all. 
At Murfreesboro, Tennessee, July 13, 1862, 
he very earnestly opposed the surrender of llie 
Third Minnesota to the Confederate General, 
Forrest. The next three months he spent in 
tlie Confederate prison at Madison. Georgia; 
was paroled at Libby prison, Richmond; and 
exchanged in November. On the reorganiza- 
tion of his regiment, in December, 1862, he was 
appointed its lieutenant colonel. While with 
the regimenl before Vicksburg he was made 
colonel. In August and September, isii::, he 
commanded the regiment on General Steele's 
campaign in Arkansas which resulted in the 
capture of Little Rock; and was appointed by 
General Steele commander of the post of Little 
Rock, and served till the latter part of April. 
He received a vote of thanks from the Arkan- 
sas Free Slate Constitutional Convention. On 
the 1st of April, 1864, before his commission 
as brigadier had reached him. he commanded 
the Union force of about L'Oil men, mostly of 
the Third Minnesota, in an action against 600 
Confederates under Gen. 1>. McRea, near Au- 
gusta, Arkansas, which engagement is known 
as the battle of Fitzhugh's Woods. His com- 
mand was well nigh surrounded by the enemy, 
but was well handled, behaved superbly and 
fought its way through. The result of the 
action was determined by a charge led 1>\ 
Colonel Andrews. The Confederates were 
forced to retire, and their loss was three times 
as greal as that of the Union force. In this 
engagement Colonel Andrews had his horse 
killed under him. A few weeks later he led 
another expedition into the country about Au- 
gusta and captured several prisoners. lie 
served seventeen months in Arkansas. After 
receiving his commission as brigadier he 
started with a column for Camden. May lil, 
1.864, assigned to the command of the Second 
Brigade, Second Division, Seventh Army 
Corps, with headquarters at Little Rock. A 
month later he succeeded to the command of 
the division. He was in command of the post 
and district at Devall's Bluff— General Steele's 
base of supplies — from July until in January, 
1865, during which lime his troops made many 

successful scouts; also defeated (ien. doe Shel- 
by in the battle of the Prairies. January :'., 1865, 
al Morganzia, Louisiana, he took command 
of nine regiments undergoing reorganization. 
In March following he assumed command of 
the Second Division of the Thirteenth Army 
Corps, which he commanded in the Mobile 
campaign. His division of over 5,000 veterans 
of the Western Siaies. on April 9th, partici- 
pated in the assault on Fort Blakeley, near 
Mobile, storming the enemy's works, capturing 
1,400 prisoners, twelve pieces of artillery, etc.. 
and losing thirty killed and 20(1 wounded, lie 
was in command at Selma, Alabama, from 
April 27 to .May 12, and of the district of 
Mobile from the latter date until July 4, when 
he was sent to Texas. The policy, whether wise 
or not, Inning been adopted of assigning to dis 
trict commands in the South only officers of 
the regular army, he was,Augus1 14, following, 
relieved from duty as commander of the mili- 
tary district of Houston, Texas, by Major Gen- 
eral Mower, and a few days later, under a gen- 
eral, order of the War Department, proceeded 
lo his home at St. Cloud. He was mustered 
out of the service, to take effect January 15, 
1866. Although not an original Abolitionist, 
General Andrews was never a pro slavery man. 
When the War of the Rebellion came he was 
in favor of the abolition of slavery and favored 
every measure of the administration of Presi- 
dent Lincoln toward that end. In a speech at 
Lil tie Rock in November. 1863, he said he 
was heartily glad to see slavery expiring, add 
in;;: "II must and will go under." He advo- 
cated enlisting the negroes as soldiers, al- 
though many oilier Union officers were op- 
posed to this feature of the administration's 
war policy. As a War Democrat he voted for 
Lincoln in 1864. On account of the position 
taken by the Democratic party on re-construc- 
tion and its treatment of the freedmen after 
i he war he supported the Republican policy 
and advocated negro suffrage as a means of 
protection to the freedmen. lie opposed the in- 
flation of the currency and upheld the National 
credit in speeches in successive campaigns. In 
1868 he was a delegate to the Republican Na 
lional Convention al Chicago, when Grant and 




Colfax were nominated. Later in the same 
year he received the regular Republican nomi- 
nal ion for Congress in his district. Hon. 
Ignatius Donnelly — classified in Horace Gree- 
ley's Tribune Almanac as the "irregular" Re- 
publican candidate — was in the field, and, the 
vote being divided, Hon. Eugene M. ^Vilson of 
.Minneapolis, the Democratic candidate, was 
elected. As the representative of the regular 
organization and of proper methods in politics, 
General Andrews should have received the full 
support of his party. However, although the 
campaign was short, he received 8,598 votes 
and a majority of the Republican votes in sev- 
enteen out of twenty four Republican counties 
in the district. In May, 18(59, he was appointed, 
by President Grant, Minister to Copenhagen; 
but in July was transferred to Stockholm, 
where he served eight years and a half. Re- 
turning to Minnesota, he took up his residence 
in St. Paul, May, 1878. As the official repre- 
sentative of our country at the court of Sweden 
and Norway, his service was most valuable. 
On the part of the United States he concluded 
a treaty for the reduction of postage between 
the countries, and his numerous and elaborate 
reports on a variety of important subjects are 
yet consulted and regarded as authorities. 
His reports on the production of iron, on edu- 
cation, forestry, agriculture, finance, labor and 
wages, civil service, etc., were published by the 
Department of State. General Andrews has 
been a writer for the public press since early 
manhood. For several years he made the re- 
sources of Minnesota known to the Eastern 
public as correspondent of the Boston Post 
and of the New York Evening Tost. In 1880 
he engaged in journalism as principal owner 
and editor of the St. Paul Dispatch. He pre- 
sided over that paper for one year and during 
this time Garfield was elected President, the 
sett lenient of the Minnesota Railroad bonds 
question was effected, and the St. Paul high 
school was built. All of these he strongly ad- 
vocated. He sacrificed $10,000 in his newspa- 
per venture, but gave the Dispatch a reputation 
fully equal to that amount. In 1882 General 
Andrews was appointed, by President Arthur, 
Consul General for the United States at Rio de 

Janeiro, Brazil, and served until in 1885, when 
he was recalled by President Cleveland. In 
1895, under the Forest Preservation Act, lie 
was appointed Chief Fire Warden of Minne- 
sota, which office lie still holds. In 1899 he 
was made Secretary of the Minnesota State 
Forestry Board, in which position he serves 
without salary. He was influential in the es- 
tablishment anil location of the State Soldiers' 
Home. General Andrews has done a great deal 
of valuable literary work. Among other notable 
contributions of his to American literature, it 
may be stated that he was the author of the 
article on Cuba in the Atlantic Monthly for 
July, 1879; of the volume entitled: "Brazil; 
Its Condition and Prospects" (D. Apx»leton & 
Co., 1889); of a pamphlel entitled: "Adminis- 
trative Reform" (two editions, in 1877-88); 
of Minnesota and Dakota, Digest of Opinions 
of Attorneys General, Treatise on the Revenue 
Laws, Campaign of .Mobile, etc., of a series of 
papers on agriculture in Minnesota, published 
in the St. Paul Pioneer Press in 1894; of a 
special report on wheat culture in the North- 
west, published in 1882 by the U. S. Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, etc. He was the 
projector and editor of the invaluable military 
records, the two volumes entitled: "Minne- 
sota in the Civil and Indian "Wars." His four 
annual reports as Chief Fire Warden, which 
treat mainly of Minnesota's forestry interests. 
have been favorably received. He is an earnest 
Republican in full accord with the declared 
principles of his parly. Hi' favors the gold 
standard, and his influence has always been 
exerted for sound money. General Andrews 
was married, December, 1868, to Miss Mary 
Frances Baxter, of Central City, Colorado (de- 
ceased 1893). In all his twelve years of official 
service abroad, this most estimable lady was 
his companion and helpmate. His daughter 
resides with him in St. Paul. 


Among the names which stand most sig- 
nificantly for the industrial and social prog- 
ress, not only of the State which enrolls them 



as citizens, but of the whole great Northwest, 
is that of Frank Hutchison Peavey. He is 
a native of Maine, born in the city of Eastport, 
on the 18th of January, 1850. His paternal 
grandfather was Gen. Charles Peavey (a na- 
tive of New Hampshire), who was prominent 
in the military a Hairs of the State of Maine 
and one of the leading merchants and lumber 
manufacturers of the State, located at Fast 
port, lie was highly esteemed for his ability 
and force of character. During the war of 
1812, Eastport was captured by the British 
forces, and General Peavey removed his 
family to Portsmouth, New Hampshire, where 
some of his children were born. Albert D. 
Peavey, the father of Frank H., was born am! 
reared in Eastport, Maine, and when arriving 
at the age of maturity, became associated 
with his father in the very prominent mercan- 
tile and lumber firm of Peavey & Son. Ib- 
died in 1859, when our subject was but nine 
years of age, leaving also a widow and two 
younger children. The maiden name of Mrs. 
Peavey, the mother of Frank H., was Mary 
Drew, a daughter of Daniel Drew, a success 
ful merchant of Eastport and a man of vigor- 
ous mind and body. Mrs. Peavey is still 
living, in the beautiful home built for her by 
her devoted son, at Sioux City, Iowa, where 
she is highly esteemed for her bright mind, 
force of character and many womanly graces. 
The five or six years following his father's 
death were uneventful ones to Frank H. He 
attended the common schools of Eastport, 
studied well and played heartily, being blessed 
with excellent health and spirits. Nothing in 
the external circumstances of his life distin- 
guished him essentially from the boys with 
whom he mingled or pointed to a remarkable 
career for him; but there was an internal cir- 
cumstance of inherited ambition and persever- 
ance, working like leaven in the uniformed 
character. His father's death had curtailed 
the opportunities which would otherwise have 
been open to him in his native city, at the 
same time creating in him an early sense of 
responsibility as the male head of the family, 
and the expanding energy within him yearned 
for the roomy region of the West. In April, 

tsd.'i, at the age of fifteen, he set out for the 
Eldorado of his dreams, arriving in due time 
in Chicago, where he soon secured employ- 
ment as messenger boy in the Traders National 
Bank. He subsequently obtained the position 
of bookkeeper in the Northwestern National 
Bank, which he retained until compelled by 
illness to return to his native city for recupera- 
tion. Within a year he decided upon a move 
which later events proved to have been a 
most wise and fortunate one. Returning to 
Chicago he secured a position as head book- 
keeper in the large general store of II. D. 
Booge & Company, at Sioux City, Iowa; and 
before attaining his majority he became a 
partner in the agricultural implement house 
of Booge, Smith & Peavey. which was suc- 
ceeded by the firm of Evans & Peavey, and 
in due time developed into the wholesale 
hardware house of Peavey Brothers. To their 
implement business Evans & Peavey added 
the buying of grain, and erected a small eleva- 
tor at Sioux City. Shortly afterwards Mr. 
Peavey bought out his partner's interest, and 
through negotiations with prominent millers 
of Minneapolis, obtained authority to act as 
agent for the purchase of wheat. Thus was 
formed the nucleus from which, by a process 
of gradual yet rapid expansion, his business 
has developed to its present colossal propor- 
tions. The modest little elevator at Sioux 
City became the progenitor of numerous and 
more imposing ones, which mark the course 
of the Northwestern Railway system through 
Northern Iowa, Southern Minnesota and South 
Dakota; the largest, at Duluth, holding 5,000,- 
(MMI bushels, and the combined capacity of all 
being 35,000,000 bushels. The extension of the 
business in time necessitated the removal of 
his headquarters to Minneapolis, which was 
effecled in 1884. During the fifteen years 
since he established his offices in that city the 
business of F. II. Peavey & Company has made 
strides commensurate with the proportions of 
the giant it had already become, until now it 
undoubtedly leads all concerns of its kind in 
the world. In contemplating such phenomenal 
development of an industry under the guidance 
of an individual, one is struck with amaze- 



ment that any man can do so much; and, in- 
deed, no man can, except as he co-operates with 
evolutionary forces. The underlying secrel of 
the vasi successes of the world's industrial 
leaders is that deep-seeing and far-seeing 
faculty by which they discern the progressive 
(rend and play into Nature's bands. Having 
thus watched and studied his business through- 
out ils growth, Mr. Peavey knows it familiarly 
in all ils ramifications, and is able to keep his 
affairs well in hand without giving up his 
whole time to them. He has a multitude of 
interests, not a few of which are of a philan- 
thropic character. The Samaritan Hospital at 
Sioux City — an institution well worthy of its 
name — owes its freedom from debt and in- 
creased usefulness to his bounty and influence. 
Educational matters lie always near his heart. 
and he has been for several years a member 
of the Board of Education of Minneapolis. 
He loves his adoptive city, having imbibed to 
the full the contagion of pride and enthusiasm 
which characterizes her citizens, and he is a 
zealous and powerful promoter of her public 
enterprises. And beyond his city and his 
State, his interest is extended and his influence 
felt, even to the furthest limits of the North- 
west. While residing in Sioux City, Mr. 
Peavey organized and served as president of 
the Security National Bank, which is now the 
leading national bank of that city. He is one 
of the directors of the Minneapolis, St. Paul & 
Sault Ste. Marie Railway, as also of the Minne- 
apolis & St. Louis line. Two classes of people 
who find in Mr. Peavey a faithful champion 
are the poor and the young. He is a man of 
broad charities — not the less so because he 
follows the more rational modern method of 
helping people to help themselves. He is the 
author of an unique scheme for stimulating 
the newsboys of Minneapolis to economy, b\ 
inducing them to deposit regularly a portion of 
their slender earnings in the bank, with an 
arrangement for having the sum doubled from 
his own account every three months. This 
plan has started many a boy. who without 
such a stimulus might have developed habits 
of indolence or extravagance, on the road to 
a successful business career; for to the im- 

pressionable mind of a boy, quite as much as 
to his seniors, the possession of property gives 
a sense of dignity and responsible citizenship. 
So great is the concern which Mr. Peavey has 
manifested for the waif population of Minne- 
apolis, that it has sometimes been called his 
hobby. Apart from his acts of more direct 
benevolence, Mr. Peavey is in himself a con- 
stant incentive to thrift and prudence, setting 
a wholesome example of industry and ab- 
stinence from risky speculation. To the army of 
men in his employ he pays good salaries, justly 
and beneficently requiring in return a full 
equivalent of good service. Loyal as is Mr. 
Peavey to Minneapolis, and the whole region 
over which his commercial interests extend, he 
still cherishes a deep tenderness for his native 
New England. As his Western interests and 
affections center in Minneapolis, so his Eastern 
ones center in the city of his birth; and East- 
port, Maine, is indebted to him for its public 
library, he having several years ago donated 
funds for its erection. It is called the "Albert 
Peavey Memorial Building," in honor of his 
father, and is at once a rich public boon and 
a splendid filial monument. As he is a lover 
of nature, so Mr. Peavey is a lover of art — 
nature's reflection — in which he is a connois- 
seur; and he has a large private collection of 
choice and rare pieces — an ideal retreat from 
the prose of business life. A description of 
Mr. Peavey's person would coincide with his 
character — broad, massive, vital, of an easy 
and agreeable magnetic presence. He looks, 
as he is, well able to bear his full share of 
the world's burdens; but he shrinks from 
notoriety with positive aversion, and but 
reluctantly consents to this portraiture in 
recognition of the urgent modern demand for 
such an introduction to the men who stand 
back of our progressive institutions. One of 
the leading bankers of Chicago, who has 
known Mr. Peavey intimately during the 
greater part of his business career, says of 

"He is a man of remarkable executive abil- 
ity, especially along the lines of organization, 
lie has a peculiar faculty for selecting brighi 
and able men for the component parts of this 



great organization. Those who catch the in- 
spiration and 'pull with him' are sure of their 
reward. But there is no place for drones in 
the Peavey hive. During his entire business 
career, Mr. Peavey lias made it a point to be 
prompt, even punctilious, in meeting every 
financial obligation. .More than this — he has 
many times assisted those in financial straits 
in times of business depression, by paying his 
obligations before they became due; he, by 
his business sagacity and thrift, having the 
ready money to do so. As a result of his busi- 
ness 'methods. Mr. Peavey has established his 
reputation with bankers, from the Atlantic to 
the Pacific, as a man of the highest commercial 

In 1872 Mr. Peavey was married to Miss 
Mary D. Wright, eldest daughter of Hon. 
George G. Wright, one of the most prominent 
residents of Des Moines. Iowa. Judge Wright 
has been a member, both of the State Legis- 
lature and the United States Senate; was for 
fifteen years on the Supreme Court Pench, 
and for a number of years Chief Justice; 
founded the State University Law School, and 
is one of the founders of the Republican party 
in Iowa. Mr. Peavey is the devoted father of 
three children: Lucia Louisa — Mrs. Frank T. 
Heffelfinger since October, 1895; Mary Drew, 
wife of Frederick P.. Wells since September, 
1898, and George Wright Peavey. The sons 
and sons-in-law are all members of the firm 
of F. H. Peavey & Company, and they vie 
with each other in loyalty to the firm and 
respect for the founder. Two little represen- 
tatives of a new generation, Frank Peavey and 
Totten Heffelfinger. have come to add their 
sanction to their grandsire's gray hairs and 
a generous contribution to the joy of his do- 
mestic hearth. 



Mr. Dalrymple was born in Warren county, 
Pennsylvania, in 1830. His father was (dark 
Dalrymple, a native of Amherst, Massachu- 
setts, and a descendant of the old and dis- 
tinguished Dalrymples of Scotland. For two 
hundred years the name of this family was 
illustrious in the annals of Croat Britain, 
where its members bore the proudest titles. 

tilled the highest civil and military positions, 
and were eminent as authors, jurists and 
statesmen. The maiden name of his mother 
was Elizabeth Shoff. born at Troy. New York, 
and she was of the well-known Dutch stock 
that settled the Hudson and Mohawk valleys. 
His grandfathers on both sides fought in the 
Revolutionary War, and other members of his 
family served in the War of 1812. His educa- 
tion was completed at Alleghany College, 
Pennsylvania, and at Yale, supplemented by 
a course in the Yale Law School. For a time 
he was principal of the Warren Academy, at 
Warren, Pennsylvania, where he was admitted 
to the bar in 1855. It was in 1855 — now forty- 
live years ago — when Mr. Dalrymple crossed 
the Mississippi river to cast his lot with the 
pioneers of the Great West in their work of 
the settlement and development of a vast 
country, the greater portion of which then 
seemed almost as virgin as the earth when the 
Creator had made it. Then a few steamboats, 
chiefly from Southern waters, lined the levee 
at Si. Louis and made a primary commercial 
center for the West. Railroad men of heroic 
mould were struggling to connect Chicago, 
.Milwaukee, and the Croat Lakes with the 
Mississippi river — building at the rate of 
t weiity miles a year. Eastern Iowa and South- 
ern Wisconsin had a few scattered settlements. 
The government had recently negotiated the 
purchase of Minnesota from the Indians. The 
map of civilization practically gave out at the 
Palls of St. Anthony. Where now are North 
and South Dakota and the States farther to 
the westward was a veritable "terra incog- 
nita," with the Indian, the fur trader, and the 
bison in undisputed possession. To-day. how- 
changed! Forty-five years of history have 
been recorded. The sturdy pioneer had done 
his work. Magnificent achievements have 
come from his industry, prowess, and enter- 
prise. Eight great States, being in area nearly 
one-fourth of our Republic, have been peopled, 
opened up to husbandry, checkered with rail- 
roads, crowned with growing cities, endowed 
with institutions of learning, the ordinances 
of religion, and all that pertains to the great- 
est advancement of an intelligent, free, and 



prosperous people. Iu April, 1856, after mak- 
ing a tour of the Northwesl and traveling 
through several States, Mr. Dalrymple settled 
in Minnesota and opened a law, land, and loan 
office, and for several years carried on exten- 
sive operations in these branches at Chattield, 
Faribault, and St. Peter, where United Slates 
land offices were then located. January 1, 
I860, he removed to St. Paul, where he took up 
his permanent residence and entered upon the 
practice of law. Shortly thereafter he formed 
a law partnership with the late Horace R. 
Bigelow, and soon became known as a success- 
ful lawyer. In 1862 occurred the massacre of 
nearly 1,000 settlers and the destruction of 
vast values of property, by the Sioux Indians 
in Minnesota. Mr. Dalrymple enlisted in the 
cause of the survivors of the massacre, who 
had suffered loss of property, and demanded 
that the general government should in- 
demnify the loss from the annuity funds held 
in trust for the hostile Indians under former 
treaties. Aided by others, he finally succeeded 
in obtaining a grant of more than $1,000,000 
for the surviving settlers — many of them 
widows and orphans, made so by the massacre 
— whose property had been destroyed. .Mr. 
Dalrynrple's tastes and inclinations led him to 
rural life and agricultural pursuits. In 1866 
he withdrew from the practice of law and 
for the past thirty-five years he lias been en- 
gaged in farming. His field of operations for 
the first ten years was in the peninsula be- 
tween the St. Croix and the Mississippi, in 
Washington county, Minnesota, about fifteen 
miles southeast of St. Paul. Here he had 
three large farms, which he named the Grant, 
the Sherman, and the Sheridan farms, in honor 
of the three great generals of the Civil War. 
And here he "cropped" 2,500 acres of grain, a 
feat which thirty-five years ago was regarded 
as well nigh impossible, for farm machinery 
was then quite imperfect and every bundle of 
wheat was bound by hand on the ground. Dur- 
ing the past twenty-five years he has operated 
extensively in the now far-famed valley of the 
Red River of the North. In the winter of 
1875-6, when the country was in a primitive 
state, and before there was a railroad station 

or a dwelling house between Fargo and Bis 
march, he purchased — partly from the North- 
ern Pacific Railroad Company and partly from 
the government— 75,00(1 aires of the choicest 
and best located wheat lands in the Red river 
valley. Of part of these lauds he was sole 
owner, and in the remainder he had a half 
interest, with Gen. ('.. \V. Cass, of New York. 
president and director of the Northern Pacific; 
lion. B. P. Cheney, of Boston, and Grandin 
Bros., bankers, of Tidioute, Pennsylvania. 
The Bed river valley was originally regarded 
as practically worthless. Mr. Dalrymple was 
a farmer and believed in the valley. When 
he first visited the country, in the winter of 
1.875-6, to invest in it, the railroad was built 
to Bismarck, but the cars did not run for want 
of business, lie "pumped" his way into the 
valley on a hand car. and cut and boxed sam- 
ples and specimens of the soil. On returning 
to St. Paul he exhibited these specimens to 
his family, remarking that the lands from 
which they had come were intrinsically worth 
$25 per acre to raise wheat on. regardless of 
the effect of the future settlement of the 
country. By using railroad stock at par and 
Indian scrip, these lands cost from forty cents 
to three dollars per acre. They are at present, 
as now improved, salable at an average price 
of $30 per acre, and have paid twelve per cent, 
on an average, during good and bad years, 
while in cultivation. Starting in 1876 Mr. 
Dalrymple broke up and put under plow 6,000 
acres per annum each year for five years, con 
stituting a wheal farm of 30,000 acres, 
equipped with good farm buildings, teams, 
machinery, and elevators, of which he is three- 
quarters owner and general manager, making 
Mr. Dalrymple the largest wheat grower in 
the world. He was the originator and the 
pioneer in "bonanza," or wholesale farming, 
which has contributed so much to the settle- 
ment and development of the new Northwest, 
and given to its author more than a National 
notoriety and reputation. Mr. Dalrymple's 
famous farm is operated in divisions of 2,500 
acres each. Over each division is a mounted 
foreman, with a superintendent over each six 
divisions. Mr. Dalrymple himself takes the 



general management, and gives directions to 
the superintendents. Each division is equipped 
with iis own separate buildings, trains, and 
machinery, and is connected with the head- 
quarters by telephone, while the headquarters 
connects with the Western Union telegraph. 
The lands of the farm are so level and free 
from obstructions that in plowing, etc., four 
or six horse teams sometimes make as high 
as twelve miles in a single round. A bonanza 
farm of this size uses in its operation 150 
seven-foot self-binding harvesters, 150 gang 
plows, TO eleven-foot gang drills and 1 li extra 
large steam thrashing outfits, with self-feeding 
and self-stacking attachments, straw being 
used in the engines for fuel. The farm owns 
all property used thereon, and also owns its 
own elevators and hoards and lodges its own 
laborers. From 500 to 600 men are employed, 
and about 000 horses. The farm raises its 
own horses. Its twelve steam thrashers each 
turn out from 2,000 to 2,500 bushels of wheat 
per day, and the farm ships daily, as thrashed, 
two trainloads of grain to Duluth, where a 
vessel is loaded every other day for Buffalo or 
New York. The accounts of this business are 
kept with the system of a bank, and the farm 
ing operations are carried on with the precision 
and discipline of a military organization. 
Trior to the building of railroads, Mr. Dalrym- 
ple, with another gentleman, built and ran a 
line of boats for" several years on the Bed 
River of the North between Fargo and Winni- 
peg, for the purpose of carrying out their 
wheat and opening the country to settlement. 
In 1871, Mr. Dalrymple married Mary E. Stew- 
ard, the daughter of Hon. John Steward, of 
Panama. New York. For many years Mrs. 
Dalrymple has been prominent in the benevo- 
lent and religious societies of St. Paul. Mr. 
and Mrs. Dalrymple have two sons, William 
and John, both graduates of the University of 
Minnesota. William is in the grain business 
at Duluth and Minneapolis, and also attends 
to his father's wheat and elevator business. 
John manages his father's estates in the Red 
river valley, and spends the winter in St. Paul. 
Mr. Dalrymple is an able and successful busi- 
ness man. He lives in St. Paul, where he has 

an elegant and comfortable home, and spends 
his summers upon his estates, which have been 
to him a source of enjoyment, owing to hi> 
quiet tastes and habits and his fondness for 
country life. He has never sought official posi- 
tion, hut has regarded the private station as 
the post of honor. Mr. Dalrymple takes some 
satisfaction in having for forty-five years been 
one of the pioneers of the West who have 
contributed to that development of the coun- 
try which has prepared it for its splendid 
present and its magnificent possibilities and 
growing future. 


The family of Monfort or de Monfort, as the 
name was originally spelled, originated in the 
Province of Brittany, France. Having adopted 
the Huguenot faith at the time of the Prot- 
estant Reformation, they were compelled to 
have France soon afterward and seek refuge 
from religious persecution, in Germany. Their 
property was confiscated and given to a 
younger branch of the family, who renouncing 
their faith, remained behind. The refugees, 
settling in the Province of Baden, near the 
lake of Constance, founded the town to which 
they gave their family name, and here Peter 
Monfort, a descendant of this family, was born 
in 1724. In 1750 he removed to the United 
States, and locating in the State of New* Jer- 
sey, became a member of the Assembly of that 
State, and also one of the original proprietors 
of a large tract of land near where the city 
of Trenton now stands. He was the father of 
four sons, Abram, Jacobus, John and Peter. 
Abram Monfort, the eldest son of Peter Mon- 
fort, was born in New Jersey in 1752, and re- 
moved to New York in 1780, settling near the 
present site of the city of Rochester, where 
his only son, also called Abram, was born, in 
1783. This son afterward removed to Jeffer- 
son, New York, and later to the town of 
Pentield, New York. Jared Goodrich Monfort. 
the eldest son of Abram Monfort and Eleanor 
Goodrich Monfort, was born at Jefferson, New 
York, in 1810, and later removed to Hamden 


and then to Unadilla, New York, at which 
latter place he died in 1864. Delos Abram 
Monfort, the subject of this sketch, was 
born at Haraden, New York, April 6, 1835, 
and was the eldest son of Jared G. Monfort 
and Loretta Fuller Monfort, daughter of 
Nathan Fuller and Chloe Williams Fuller, and 
granddaughter of Nathan Fuller and Phoebe 
Harris Fuller, the former being a descendant 
of John Fuller, one of the earliest settlers of 
Attleboro, Massachusetts. While still quite 
young Delos A. Monfort removed with his 
parents to Unadilla, New York, where his 
father was for many years a leading merchant, 
and continued to reside up to the time of his 
death. Here he received his education, and 
then, as a youth, he went to Cooperstown, New 
York, where he entered the employ of Joshua 
A. Story, a prominent dry goods merchant of 
that place. In 1854, with another young man, 
he made quite an extensive trip through the 
Northwest, and was very much impressed with 
this portion of the country. In 1S57, largely 
through the influence of Judge R. R. Nelson, 
of this city, who had also been a resident of 
Cooperstown, he decided to settle in St. Raul. 
He arrived there in May, 1K57, on the old 
steamer "Menomonie," which was the first 
steamboat to arrive that year, the railroad 
from the East at that time running only as 
far as Freeport, Illinois, at which place lie 
took the stage for Galena, Illinois, and from 
thence came by steamer to St. Paul. On 
arriving here he entered the private bank- 
ing house of Mackubin & Edgerton as a 
teller, which bank was then situated in the old 
Winslow House at the Seven Corners. When 
this bank was merged into the Reople"s Stale 
Rank a few years later. Mr. Monfort became 
cashier, and when the bank was finally reor- 
ganized under the national banking system, in 
1864; after the passage of the National Rank 
Act, and became the Second National Rank, 
he continued in the position of cashier under 
the new organization. A few years later he 
became vice-president of the bank, and on the 
death of the president, Mr. Erastus S. Edger- 
ton, in April, 1S93, he became president, which 
position he held up to the time of his death. 

For several years prior to the time of his 
decease he was the oldest banker in the 
Slate in point of years of service. In I860 
Mr. Monfort married Miss Mary .1. Edger- 
ton, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Erastus 
Edgerton, of Franklin. New York, and sister 
of .Mr. Erastus S. Edgerton, one of the orig- 
inal organizers of the Second National Hank 
and its predecessors, the People's State Bank, 
and the private bank of Mackubin & Edger- 
ton, and also president of the Second National 
Rank, from its organization until his death. 
Although banking was his life work, Mr. Mon- 
fort was at one time or another engaged in 
several other lines of business, as side issues. 
Thus he was at various times during his busi- 
ness career actively interested in an insurance 
company, the grocery business, a foundry, and 
a silver mine in the Black Hills, North Dakota, 
but during the last fifteen years of his life he 
devoted himself exclusively to the manage- 
ment of the Second National Rank. However, 
his entire time and attention were by no means 
devoted to business, for his was a well rounded 
character. During his earlier years he was 
fond of athletics of various kinds. lie was 
always fond id' horseback riding, an exercise 
which he continued up to within two years of 
I he lime of his death. He was also very fond 
of fencing, and became very proficient in the 
use of both the foil and broad-sword. He had 
a great natural liking for military men ami 
things military. For a portion of the lime 
during the Civil War he was captain of a 
militia company, which organization was, 
however, never mustered into active service. 
For a long time he took a great interest in 
the orders of Free-masonry and Knights 
Templar, and was for many years Eminent 
Commander of Damascus Commandery of St. 
Raul, and was at one time Grand Commander 
nl the State of Minnesota, as well as a 32d 
degree Mason. He also took much pleasure in 
lini h the practice and competitive drills, as well 
as the memorable encampment of Damascus 
Commandery, at White Rear Lake, during the 
summer of 1879, while he was commander of 
that organization. It was, however, in his home, 
surrounded by his family, his friends and his 



books, thai lie ever found his truest and great- 
est pleasure. From his earliest youth be was 
a dose student of men, of affairs and of books. 
Reading and study was with liini a lifelong 
habit, and he spent much of his leisure time 
in this way. Mis reading was very extensive, 
ami covered almost every line of art. science 
and literature, and having a very retentive 
memory, his mind was a vast storehouse of 
information on almost every conceivable sub- 
ject. His library, which is one of the fines! 
private libraries in the Northwest, includes 

many old and rare 1 ks, as well as all the 

standard authors, and here is carefully pre- 
served every book that he ever possessed in 
his life. Although never a politician or candi- 
date for public office, he always took an active 
interest in public affairs, and ever stood 
strongly for truth and right. Thus he always 
served his country, his State and his city in 
a quiet, unostentatious and unselfish way. He 
was one of the early members of the St. Paul 
Chamber of Commerce, and sewed several 
times as treasurer of that organization. He 
was for one year president of the Minnesota 
Bankers' Association, vice-president of the 
Dual City Bankers' League, chairman of the 
executive committee, and afterwards president 
of the Town and Country Club, president of 
the Minnesota Board of World's Fair Commis- 
sioners for the Columbian Exposition at 
Chicago, in IS!!:!, one of the charter members, 
and at the time of his death, a member of the 
board <d' governors of the Minnesota Club, and 
was also a member of the Commercial Club, 
the While Bear Lake Yacht Club, the Society 
of Colonial Wars, the .Minnesota Historical 
Society, and a member of the board id' directors 
of the St. Paul Public Library. Mr. Monfort 
was a man who never possessed very great 
physical strength. Nevertheless, his erect 
military carriage and quick elastic step indi- 
cated a great reserve force of nervous energy. 
In 1878, his health being poor, he spent nine 
months abroad. He enjoyed especially the 
Paris Exposition held that year, the great 
Spring Review at Berlin, the magnificent 
scenery of the Rhine and of the Alps, and the 
art treasures and the old historic places of 

Italy. Mr. Monfort's health had been delicate 
for the past two years, but it was only in 
October, L898, that he became seriously ill. 
lie was confined to the house during the 
latter part of the fall, most of the winter and 
the early spring. About the first of May he 
went East, accompanied by his wife, hoping 
that a change of climate migbi benefit his 
health, lb- spent some three weeks in Wash- 
ington, D. O, visiting his daughter and her 
family, and then went to Atlantic City, New 
Jersey, where he improved steadily for two 
months. During the last four weeks he was 
not as well, but was not thought to be in an 
alarming condition. The end came suddenly 
and painlessly, at six o'clock on Saturday 
morning, August lid, 1899. He is survived by 
his wife, his daughter, Mrs. Edward H. Gheen, 
wife of Commander Gheen, of the United 
States Navy, his son Frederick D. Monfort, 
cashier of the Second National Bank, St. Paul; 
his brother, Mr. Charles J. Monfort, and his 
sisters, Mrs. John Summers, of this city, 
and Mrs. James II. Keyes, of Oneonta, 
New York. A just and upright man and a 
patriotic citizen has gone to his reward. A 
good husband, a kind brother, a gentle and 
affectionate father, a thoughtful friend and 
neighbor, will be missed and mourned by 
many, for gentle, courteous and just to all. he 
had no enemies and his friends were legion. 
The influence and example of such a life can- 
no! be effaced, and the winds of the greatest 
of the English poets might truly be applied to 
him: "His life was gentle, and the parts so 
made up in him that nature might stand up 
before the whole world and say, 'This was a 
man!' " ■ — 


Timothy J. Sheehan, the commander of Fort 
Ridgely, Minnesota, during the Sioux massacre 
of 1862, is one of the best-known men in the 
State. He was born in the County Cork, Ire- 
land, December 21, 1835. He was the son of 
Jeremiah and Ann McCarthy Sheehan, who 
lived on a farm in that county. Both his 
parents died in 1838, when he was but three 

The Century PuMishim/ S Cry rail ny Co Chicaner 


years old, and he was reared alums! from in- 
fancy to young manhood by his paternal 
grandfather. He was given the rudiments of 
education in the national schools of his native 
land, being kept at his studies until he was 
fourteen years of age. In 1850 he came to the 
United States, landing in New York City in 
the month of November, and going thence 
directly to Glen's Falls. New York, where he 
again attended school for some time, and 
where for two years he was engaged as a 
mechanic's apprentice. In L855 he went to 
Dixon, Illinois, where he remained two years, 
at work in a saw-mill in the summer and at- 
tending school in the winter. In the spring of 
1857 he came to the then Territory of Minne- 
sota, arriving May 3, at Albert Lea, then a 
frontier village only a year old, and Minnesota 
lias ever since been his home. ( >n Lake Albert 
Lea, three miles from (he village, he made a 
homestead, and for some years worked his 
claim. In 1860 he was elected clerk of the 
township of Albert Lea, was re-elected in 

1861, and held the office until he resigned to 
enter the Union Army. On October 11, 1861, 
when Hie war of the Rebellion was fairly on, 
he left his home at Albert Lea and enlisted as 
a private in Company F, Fourth Minnesota 
Infantry Volunteers. lie was made a corporal, 
and soon became so proficient in the duties of 
a soldier and evidenced such tilness generally, 
that Gen. John B. Sanborn recommended him 
for a commission. February 15, 1862, at Fort 
Snelling, he was discharged from the Fourth 
Regiment, by order id' Major General Halleck, 
to accept promotion, and three days later, on 
February 18, was commissioned by Governor 
Ramsey, first lieutenant of Company ('. of the 
Fifth Regiment, Minnesota Volunteers, then 
being organized. His company was made up 
very largely of men from Freeborn county, and 
Lieiiienanl Sheehan recruited sixty-five men 
for the company among his neighbors and 
friends. After this his military experience 
was a very notable one throughout. Upon the 
organization of the Fifth Regiment, March 20, 

1862, Company C — Lieutenant Sheehan's 
company — was ordered to Fori Ripley. Minne- 
sota. Lieutenant Sheehan's services in Minne- 

soia, in 1862, meritorious, conspicuous and 
valuable as they were to the Slate, are so fully 
set forth in the pages of other authentic his- 
tories thai l hey need noi here be described in 
detail, and only certain incidents connected 
therewith may be adverted to. On .June is, 
1862, Lieutenant Sheehan was ordered, with 
fifty men of his company, to march overland 
from Fort Ripley to Fort Ridgely, a distance, 
by the route marched, of nearly two hundred 
miles. He arrived with his detachment on the 
28th, and the next day was ordered with the 
portion of his company present and fifty men 
of Company B, under Lieut. Thomas P. Gere, 
to the Yellow .Medicine Indian agency, forty 
five miles distant up the Minnesota river, to 
report to Agent Galbraith, for the purpose of 
preserving order and protecting LTnited States 
property during the time of the annuity pay- 
ment, which was expected to take place in a 
few days. He was placed in command of the 
force, consisting of one hundred men, and took 
with him one cannon, a twelve-pound mountain 
howitzer. On (he 27th of July, while in service 
at Yellow Medicine, Lieutenant Sheehan, with 
fourteen of his soldiers, four cili/.ens, and an 
Indian guide named Wasu-ho-washte (or 
Good Voiced Hail) made an expedition from 
the agency to the Dakota line west of Lake 
Benton, after the bloody and merciless Ink 
pa-doo-ta, the leader of the Indians in the 
Spirit lake and Springfield massacres of 1857. 
The Lieutenant set out on the morning of July 
28, before daylight, and for a week was en- 
gaged in an unsuccessful search for the wicked 
bui wily marauder, who. warned id' his danger, 
had lied swiftly and far into South Dakota. 
The troublous times at Yellow Medicine dur- 
ing the month of .Inly and first pari of August, 
1862, are described in oilier volumes. It niusl 
suffice here to say thai the agency was almost 
constantly threatened by several thousand 
wild, turbulent, and hungry Indians, who were 
ready for any desperate undertaking because 
of the protracted and inexplicable delay of 
the annual payment. Nothing saved the 
agency, iis property and its while occupants, 
at this time, but I he presence and the brave 
and intelligent conducl of Lieutenant Sheehan 


mid his soldiers, who now had two pieces of 
artillery, When, on August 4th, about eight 
hundred armed warriors came upon the 
agency, broke in the door of the government 
warehouse, and began plundering it of its 
stoics, there was do faltering in this gallant 
band. A mountain howitzer was promptly 
trained >m the broken doorway by Lieutenant 
Gere. The Indians at once fell away from the 
range of the cannon, and through the avenue 
thus formed Lieutenant Sheehan and Ser- 
geant Trescott, with sixteen men, marched 
straight to the warehouse and drove out every 
plundering Indian. Lieutenant Sheehan kept 
his men well in hand. If, under the greal 
provocation, a single musket had been fired, 
not a soldier would have lived to tell the story. 
A dreadful slaughter was further prevented 
by Lieutenant Sheehan's success in inducing 
Agenl Galbraith to give the Indians a moder- 
ate supply of provisions; and when the 
savages again became insolent and menacing, 
he put his men into position and his guns "in 
battery"' in front of the warehouse, and then 
the Indians withdrew. The impending storm 
of carnage and rapine had, however, only been 
checked for the time. But it was in the gal- 
lant defence of Fori Ridgely when and where 
Lieutenant Sheehan so greatly distinguished 
himself and rendered such invaluable service. 
On the evening of August 11'. 1862, the Lieu- 
tenant returned to Port Ridgely from Yellow 
Medicine with his command; all prosped of 
trouble with the Sioux Indians in that quarter 
had disappeared. On the 17th he was ordered 
in march with his detachment back to Fori 
Ripley, and he set out in the early morning of 
the next day — August IS. The Sioux had 
broken out at the Redwood agency and had 
commenced one of the most horrible massacres 
recorded in the pages of American history, 
indiscriminately murdering and scalping men. 
women and children, and burning and destroy- 
ing all property in the surrounding country. 

A i eleven o'clock in the forei n the news 

of the outbreak reached Captain Marsh at 
Fori Ridgely. and he al once determined to 

move to the scene of the trouble with 1he 

larger portion of his company. At the same 

time he dispatched a messenger. Corporal Mc- 
Lean, with the following order to Lieutenant 
Sheehan. who was then on his way to Fort 

"Headquarters, Fort Ridgely, 

August IS, 1862. 
Lieutenant Sheehan: — 

It is absolutely necessary that you should 

return with your command immediately I i 

this I'ost. The Indians are raising hell at the 

Lower Agency. Return as soon as possible. 


Captain Commanding I'ost." 

Corpora] McLean did not overtake Lieuten- 
ant Sheehan's detachment until evening, when 
it was in cam]) near Glencoe, forty-two miles 
from Fort Ridgely. The men had marched 
twenty-five miles that hot day and were going 
into bivouac for the night, but the lieutenant 
al once ordered them to "about face." and they 
obeyed cheerfully, and the return march was 
begun. Meantime Captain Marsh and twenty- 
three of the men had perished in the deadly In- 
dian ambuscade at the Redwood ferry. Fort 
Ridgely was being filled with citizen refugees 
— men, women and children — many of them 
wounded, anil all destitute and terror-stricken. 
The prairies, the roads, and the little farms 
were strewn with mangled bodies; murder and 
rapine were in the air; the glare of burning 
buildings illuminated the sky. The savages 
had beset the fort and the surrounding coun- 
try. The fort was merely a military post, a 
collection of buildings about a square, with 
not a stone in place as a fortification, not a 
spadeful of earth thrown up as a breastwork. 
As a garrison to defend the place, there were 
but twenty-nine men with muskets, under 
Lieutenant Gere, a young officer only nineteen 
years of age. Following is an extract from 
Lieiiicnaiil Gere's account of the situation at 
1 his I hue: 

"The Indians, hilarious at the desolation 
I hey had wrought during the day, were at the 
agency, celebrating in mad orgies their suc- 
cesses, and neglected their opportunity to 
capture what proved to be the barrier to the 
devastation of the Minnesota valley. Tuesday 
morning dawned on mingled hope and appre 
heiision for the coining hours, and when sun 



light shone upon the prairies, every quarter 
was closely scanned from the roof of the 
uighesl building through the powerful tele- 
scope fortunately at hand. At about nine 
o'clock Indians began congregating on the 
prairie some two miles wesl of the fort, 
mounted, on foot, and in wagons, where, in 
plain view of the fort, a council was held. 
Tins council was addressed by Little Crow and 
their movements for the day decided upon. 
While this was in progress, cheers of welcome 
announced the arrival at the fort of Lieutenant 
Sheehan with his fifty men of < iompany * !. The 
courier dispatched by Captain Marsh on the 
previous day had reached this command at 
evening, soon after it had gone into camp. 
forty-two miles from Fort Ridgely, between 
New Auburn and Glencoe. Promptly obeying 
the order for his return, Lieutenant Sheehan 
at once struck tents, and the command cum 
menced its forced march, covering during the 
night the entire distance traversed in the two 
preceding days, arriving the first to the rescue 
and meriting high praise. Lieutenant Sheehan 
now took command at Fort Ridgely." 

The Lieutenant and his men reached the 
fori in the nick of time, at ten minutes of nine 
A. M. on Tuesday morning, having marched 
forty-two miles in ten hours, and seventy miles 
in twenty-two hours. There is no parallel to 
this great endeavor in the official records of 
the War Department, and no account of its 
having been surpassed, is mentioned in history. 
Reaching the fort, he found the place 
thronged with weeping and sorrowful people; 
illy supplied with food, water and ammunition; 
without sufficient protection even against the 
Indians' bullets: with but few arms save those 
of the soldiers, and no prospect of reinforce- 
ment or relief of any sort. Bui when the 
Renville Rangers arrived, he had then one 
hundred and fifty brave and resolute men in 
his command, three good cannon, and a great 
interest at stake, and he determined to defend 
the post and its helpless occupants d> the last. 
He knew that Fort Ridgely was the gateway 
to the lower Minnesota valley, and that if it 
were forced by the savages, not only would 
there be one of the greatest and bloodiest 
butcheries in history, but the entire beautiful 
valley would be desolated with tire and gun 
and tomahawk. The Indians were present in 

vastly superior numbers, and were eager to 
attack him, confident of success. Of the de- 
fence of Fort Ridgely during its eight full 
days of siege and investment by a very largely 
superior force, history speaks; but of the re- 
sponsibilities upon the young commander, his 
trying experiences, his great exertions, there 
can be no adequate description. He was 
greatly aided and supported by his gallant 
and faithful subordinate, Lieut. T. P. Gere, 
and by every soldier, and also by the citizen 
defenders, whom he organized into a company, 
with Hon. It. H. Randall as their captain. The 
first formidable and concerted attack on the 
fort by Little Crow and his chief's, with about 
six hundred braves and warriors, on August 
20th, began about two o'clock P. M., and did 
no1 cease until dark". It was met and repulsed 
at every quarter, for the commander was pre- 
pared for if. He had placed his artillery, had 
built breastworks, and distributed his men t 1 
the best advantage, and the result was all that 
could be desired. Tn the desperate fight dur- 
ing the afternoon, the Indians were whipped 
and driven off. The heaviest and. most des- 
perate attack was made on Fort Ridgely on 
August 22. Little Crow, believing that if Fort 
Ridgely were taken his path to the Mississippi 
would be comparatively (dear, resolved to 
make one more desperate attempt at its cap- 
ture, his numbers Inning been largely aug- 
mented. The second and most furious attack 
was made at about one o'clock P. M. With 
demoniac yells the savages surrounded the 
fort and at once commenced a heavy musketry 
tire. The garrison returned the fire with equal 
vigor and with great effect on the yelling 
demons. Early in the fight, Little Crow with 
his warriors took possession of the government 
stables, the sutler's store and all outside 
buildings, and in order to dislodge the Indians 
from those buildings, Lieutenant Sheehan or- 
dered them set on lire. Then on came the 
painted, yelling warriors, tiling volley after 
volley, as they charged 011 the garrison. The 
heroic defenders opened an all-around fire from 
1 !■!■ artillery and musketry, which paralyzed 
fhe Indians and drove them back'. Thus, after 
six hours of continuous blazing conflict, alter- 

2 3° 


nately lit up by the flames of burning build- 
ings and darkened by whirling clouds of 
smoke, terminated the second and last attack 
on Fort Ridgely. Four more days and nights 
of suspense ensued until, on the morning of 
the 27th of August, the fori was relieved 
by the advance of General Sibley's force. Be- 
fore the fight the following message was re 
ceived from Hen. c. E. Flandrau, commanding 
at New I'lni : 

"New Ulm, Augusl 20. 
Commander, Fori Ridgely: 

Send me 100 men and guns if possible. We 
are surrounded by Indians and fighting every 
hour. Twelve whites killed and many 
wounded. C. E. FLANDRAU, 

Commanding New Ulm." 

Flandrau's message was most discouraging, 
for it shewed the general situation at New 
Ulm and the surrounding country. But the 
young lieutenant rose to the occasion with the 
address of a veteran, although this was his 
maiden battle. lie assumed charge of every- 
thing, and directed the defence in every detail. 
On August 31, 1862, he was promoted to cap- 
tain of his company. lie continued in com- 
mand of Fort Ridgely until September IS, 
when he was ordered with his company to Fort 
Ripley. After the Sioux massacre in Novem- 
ber, Companies 1! and C were sent to the 
south to join the main portion of their regi- 
ment, from which they had been separated 
since its organization, and reached it near 
Oxford. Mississippi, December 12, 1862. ('at- 
tain Sheehan served at the head of his com- 
pany in the South during tin' war of the 
Rebellion from December, 1862, to September. 
1865. He participated in several important 
campaigns, and was engaged in a number of 
battles and skirmishes, prominent among 
which were the siege id' and assault on Vicks- 
burg; the battle of Tupelo, Mississippi, where 
he was in command of the portions of the Fifth 
Minnesota and Eighth Wisconsin present, and 
other detachments, in all three hundred men; 
i he action at Abbeyville; i he long and arduous 
campaign through Arkansas and Missouri, 
known as the Price campaign; the battles 
alioui Nashville, notably that of December Hi, 

1864, and the siege of Mobile in the spring of 

1865. He was discharged from the service al 
Demopolis, Alabama. September 6, 1865. lb' 
was frequently mentioned in orders, and on 
many occasions distinguished himself. In the 
gallanl charge of General Hubbard's Brigade 
at Nashville, which swept away a part of 
Hood's strongest line. Captain Sheehan was 
among the foremost. His was the •■color cum 
pany" id' the regiment. Five color bearers 
weie shot down. Captain Sheehan seized the 
flag and charged with his company over the 
breastworks, commanding the Confederates to 
surrender to the flag. For his conduct on this 
occasion he was especially mentioned in the 
reports. September 1, 1865. Captain Sheehan 
was commissioned, by Governor Miller, lieu 
lenant colonel of his regiment. The line sub- 
stantial monument erected by the State in 
1896 on the former site of Fort Ridgely, to 
commemorate its defence in lst>2, bears upon 
it a brief history of the memorable engage- 
ment and a life-size bronze medallion of Lieu 
tenant Sheehan. the commander, as he 
appeared at the time. The dedicatory inscrip- 
tion reads. "In memory of the fallen, in 
recognition of the living, and for the emulation 
of future generations," and altogether the 
monument is a most befitting and appropriate 
structure. After his return from the army to 
his old home at Albert Lea, Minnesota, Colonel 
Sheehan re-engaged in his former occupation, 
that of farming. In 1871 he was elected sheriff 
of Freeborn county, and at subsequent (dec- 
lions was reelected live times, holding the 
office in all, six terms, or twelve years. In 
that position he showed ureal activity, adroit- 
ness and expedition in arresting criminals of 
various kinds, and was a very popular county 
officer. February 25, 1885, Colonel Sheehan 
was appointed by President Arthur agenl for 
the Chippewa Indians of the White Earth 
agency of Minnesota. This office he held for 
more than four years, or until dune. 1889. His 
service was of great value and importance, 
and acceptable both to the governmenl and 
the Indians. He took a prominent part in 
making what was known as the Bishop Whip- 
ple treaty of 1886, and the Henry M. Rice 



treaty of 1889, with the Chippewas of Minne- 
sota. In May, 1890, he was appointed Deputy 
U. S. Marshal by Col. J. O. Donahower. He 
has held the position ever since, under all the 
changes of administration, including the 
present Republican incumbent, Hon. W. H. 
Grimshaw. Colonel Sheehan himself lias 
always been a Republican. He has made a 
most efficient and valuable officer, lias often 
been cut rusted with matters of large responsi- 
bility, and has always discharged liis entire 
duties with intelligence and satisfaction. 
While in service as deputy marshal under 
Marshal O'Connor, in October, 1898, Colonel 
Sheehan took a prominent and an active part 
in the incidents connected with the battle 
with the Chippewa Indians at Sugar Point, 
which is described elsewhere in this volume. 
His intimate acquaintance with the Leech 
Lake Indians — having for four years been their 
agent — and his thorough knowledge of Indian 
character generally, enabled him to be of greal 
service on this occasion. He was first sent 
up to Leech Lake to arrest the turbulent In- 
dians who had resisted and who were still 
defying the authorities and the law. He ac- 
companied the force under General Bacon and 
Marshal O'Connor that went from Walker to 
Sugar Point, and it was Colonel Sheehan in 
person who arrested the first of the lawless 
Bear Islanders for whom warrants had been 
issued. When the battle began he at once 
became a participant and fought as he did at 
Ridgely. During the fight he was wounded 
three times — in the right arm, in the hip, and 
severely across the abdomen — yet lie never 
left the field. The wounds he received at Sugar 
Point made seven given him in battle — two at 
Ridgely, two at Nashville and three at Sugar 
Point. In the opinion of the best informed, 
a piece of work performed by Colonel Sheehan 
in the battle of Sugar Point contributed very 
largely to saving the white forces from utter 
defeat, if not from annihilation. This was his 
charge with a platoon of soldiers and deputy 
marshals on the Indian left flank, which was 
being pushed around and threatened to en- 
velop General Bacon and his entire command. 
Mr. Will. II. Brill, of the St. Paul Pioneer 

Press, who has written and published the 
standard account of the Sugar Point affair, 

"Meanwhile Colonel Sheehan had taken 
charge of the fighting on the right of the flank, 
and he did wonders with the green men that 
composed his command. He also refused to 
take shelter, but kept on walking up and down 
the line, encouraging his men and imploring 
them to keep cool. After the first two or three 
volleys he ordered his men to charge the fence 
on the right, under cover of which the Indians 
were pouring in a cross fire. The charge was 
successful, and the Indians were driven off. 
In this charge twelve of his detachment of 
twenty men were killed and wounded." 

Colonel Sheehan's conduct in the Sugar 
Point fight was the theme of admiring com- 
ment from the public press of the State and 
the Nation, and he received numerous letters 
of congratulations from friends and asso- 
ciates. Ex-Governor McGill wrote him as fol- 

"St. Paul, October 12, 1898. 
Dear Colonel Sheehan: 

I congratulate you on the gallant part 
you played in the recent battle at Leech Lake 
with the hostile Indians, and I am profoundly 
grateful that your life was spared. In your 
case the hero of '62 has become the hero of 
'98. It has been thirty-six years since your 
famous tussle with the red men at Fort 
Ridgely. The lapse of lime seems neither to 
cool your blood nor modify your courage. You 
are the same gallant officer you were when I 
first met you at St. Peter after the siege of 
Fort Ridgely. I did not meet you personally 
then, but saw yon. and have always since that 
time carried you in my mind and heart as one 
of Minnesota's most gallant soldiers and 
bravest men. Cod bless you. Colonel, for all 
you have done and endured. But don't do so 
any more. You have won the right to refrain 
from further Indian fighting. Let the younger 
men do the rest of it. We want you with u* 
as long as the rest of us live. Poor Major 
Wilkinson! How sincerely I mourn his death. 
It was simply the chance of war that his life 
was taken, while yours was spared. Again 
congratulating you on your courage and never 
failing grit, and again admonishing you to 
stop fighting, I am sincerely. 
Your friend, 

A. R. McGILL." 



Colonel Sheehan was married in November, 
1866, to Miss .Icnnic -Judge, who was also born 
in Ireland. They have three sons, now grown 
to manhood, and named, Jeremiah, George 
\Y.. and Edward Sheehan. Mrs. Sheehan is 
an accomplished and mosl estimable lady, and 
a worthy companion for her husband. She is 
prominent in church work and other beneficent 
movements, and a well-known member of the 
best social circles. The historian of Ihis 
volume, who has long and intimately known 
Colonel Sheehan, says: 

"All the world admires a hero. And when 
he has been lnave and imperiled himself in a 
right cause and the fruit of his courage is a 
substantial benefit to his fellow men. he is to 
be honored for all lime. With true courage 
came the other qualities and elements which 
constitute right manhood and make a man 
worthy of right distinction. As one who fills 
this measure — as one who has fought the bat 
ties of his State and his Country, and by his 
invincible courage and fidelity saved hundreds 
of valuable lives and a greal area of territory 
from destruction, and as one who. as a citizen, 
soldier, and public official has made an 1111 
blemished record — Colonel Sheehan well 
merits his place among Minnesota's most hon- 
orable and distinguished men. And it is 
gratifying and good to say that, with the 
blessing of Providence, there arc many more 
years of distinction and usefulness before him. 
Well does Colonel Sheehan deserve the gold 
and bronze medals which adorn his breast." 


William Hood Dunwoody, who has long been 
identified with the Hour milling interests of 
Minneapolis, is a native of Pennsylvania, born 
in Chester county. March 11. 1841. His father 
was .lames Dunwoody. whose father, grand- 
father and great-grandfather lived in the same 
vicinity in Chester county, and were all en- 
gaged in agricultural pursuits. The family is 
of Scotch ancestry. Mr. Dunwoody's mother 
was Hannah Hood, the daughter of William 
Hood, of Delaware county, Pennsylvania, 
whose ancestors came to Ihis country when 
William Peiin founded the colony which took 
his name. Mr. Dunwoody's early life was 

passed upon the farm where he was born. 
After a period of schooling in Philadelphia, he. 
at i he age of eighteen, entered his uncle's 
store in Philadelphia, and commenced what 
proved to be the business of his lite. His 
uncle was a grain and flour merchant. After 
a few years Mr. Dunwoody commenced busi 
ness for himself as a senior member of the 
firm of Dunwoody & Robertson. After ten 
years of practical experience in the Philadel- 
phia flour markets, Mr. Dunwoody came to 
Minneapolis in 1869, and, for a time, repre- 
sented several eastern houses as Hour buyer. 
Milling at Minneapolis was then in a state of 
transition. It was the time when the old- 
fashioned mill stones were giving place to the 
modern steel rollers and the middlings purifier. 
Willi keen perception Mr. Dunwoody saw that 
a greal advance in the milling business was 
at hand, and in 1871 he embarked as a member 
of the firm of Tiffany. Dunwoody & Com 
pany. He was also a member of the firm 
of II. Harrow & Company, and the busi 
ness of both concerns was under his per- 
sonal management. Early in his career 
as a Minneapolis miller Mr. Dunwoody 
distinguished himself among his associates by 
devising and organizing the Minneapolis 
Millers' Association, which was for a long time 
a most important organization, its object being 
co-operation in the purchase of wheat through- 
oul the Northwest. It had an important part 
in the building up of the Minneapolis milling 
business. Its work was discontinued when the 
general establishment of elevators and the 
development of the Minneapolis wheat market 
made it no longer necessary for the millers to 
work in cooperation in buying their wheat. 
Another important work which Mr. Dun 
woody early attempted was that of arranging 
for the direct exportation of Hour. It had 
been the custom to sell through brokers and 
middle-men of the Atlantic seaports. In 
ls~7 Governor C. < '. Washburn conceived the 
idea of introducing spring wheat Hour in the 
markets of the United Kingdom by direct ship 
men! from the mills, and in this he was 
heartily seconded by Mr. Dunwoody. Winn 
other millers wore solicited to co-operate in 

% M^ 



2 33 

such a project, they promptly declined, offering 
as a reason that nothing could be accom- 
plished, and that the money so expended 
would be 'thrown away. Governor Washburn 
was not in the least discouraged by this posi- 
lion of his neighbors and very soon arranged 
with Mr. Dunwoody to make a trip to Europe 
in furtherance of the idea of building up a 
direct exporting business. In November, 1877, 
Mr. Dunwoody went to England, and, though 
he met with a most determined opposition, 
succeeded in arranging for the direct export 
of flour from Minneapolis, a custom which has 
since continued without interruption. Shortly 
after the great mill explosion of 1878, Gover- 
nor C. C. Washburn induced Mr. Dunwoody to 
join him in a milling partnership with the late 
John Crosby, and Charles J. Martin. The firm 
thus formed, Washburn, Crosby & Company, 
continued for many years, and was finally suc- 
ceeded by the Washburn-Crosby Company. 
Since Mr. Dunwoody's connection with the 
Washburn mills, in 1870. he lias been unin- 
terruptedly identified with the conduct of Ibis 
famous group of mills. It was natural that 
Mr. Dunwoody, as a prominent miller, should 
take a large interest in the management of 
elevators. He has invested largely in elevator 
properties, and was one of the organizers of 
the St. Anthony & Dakota Elevator Company, 
of which he is president; the St. Anthony 
Elevator Company, and the Duluth Elevator 
Company, being vice-president of these com- 
panies. In addition to these Mr. Dunwoody 
holds other important interests, and is con- 
nected with a number of the strongest financial 
institutions of Minneapolis. He is vice-presi- 
dent of the Northwestern National Dank, a 
director of the Minneapolis Trust Company, 
and vice-president of the Washburn-Crosby 
Company. Mr. Dunwoody is a man of large 
means, and has been actively identified with 
many enterprises calculated to benefit the 
whole Northwest, as well as the city in 
which he resides. Before coming to Minne- 
apolis, he married Miss Kate L. Patten, 
the daughter of John W. ratten, a prom- 
inent merchant of Philadelphia. Mr. Dun- 
woodv's refined tastes have been grati 

fled in late years by extensive travel. He has 
spent much time abroad, and delights, above 
all things, to escape from the cares of business 
into the open country with dog and gun. 
He is a model citizen, enterprising, methodical 
and painstaking in business; he is unassum- 
ing, genial and affable in private life, but of a 
retiring disposition. He has cultivated liter- 
ary and artistic taste, and enjoys refined social 


Mr. Christian, who has been long and 
prominently connected with the great mill- 
ing interests of Minneapolis and Minne- 
sota, was born in Wetumpka county. Ala- 
bama, June 10, 1841. He is a son of 
John Christian, a native of New York, and 
the maiden name of his mother was Susan 
Weeks. She was born in Wilmington, North 
Carolina. In his early childhood Mr. Chris- 
tian's parents removed from Alabama to Wil- 
mington, North Carolina, and in 1840 came to 
Geneva, Wisconsin, then practically on the 
northwestern frontier. In 1854 he was sent to 
Chicago, and was at school in that city for 
four years. He then went to New York City, 
and there remained for about fourteen years. 
Mr. Christian has been connected with Minne- 
sota milling interests since 1872. In that year 
he came to Minneapolis and became a member 
of the firm of Christian, Day & Company, 
which operated the Zenith mill. In 1874 he 
entered into partnership with his two brothers 
and C. C. Washburn, forming the firm of J. A. 
Christian & Company, proprietors of the 
Washburn mills. The company continued to 
operate these mills until the noted explosion of 
the Washburn "A" mill in 1S78. Subsequently 
he was connected with the Tettit mill as a 
member of the linn of Pettit, Christian & 
Company. In 1870, in company with his 
brothers and C. M. Hardenburgh, he built the 
Crown Holler Flouring Mills, and was con- 
nected with their operations until the mills 
were sold to the Northwestern Consolidated 
Milling Company in 1801. After the sale 

J 34 


of his flouring mill interests in Minneap- 
olis, Mr. Christian and Mr. C. E. French 
bought a mill at Shake-pee, Minnesota, 
which they are still operating in connection 
with a grain commission business. No other 
man is better informed on the flouring mill 
industry and the grain interests of the North- 
west than .Mr. Christian, lb- is regarded as an 
authority on wheat and Hour production in 
the Northwest, lb- made two extensive tours 
of the Old World, mainly in search of informa- 
tion concerning modes, methods and improve- 
ments in milling, and has long been a student 
and investigator of the subject. As a citizen 
of Minneapolis, loyal to the interests of the 
city, he is prominent and influential. He is a 
member of St. Mark's Episcopal church, in 
which he has been a vestryman for several 
years. In 1874 he married Miss E. D. French, 
of his childhood home. Wilmington, North 
Carolina. They have no children living. .Mr. 
and Mrs. Christian have a tine residence at the 
corner of Fifth avenue and Eighth street, 
which is one of the most attractive places in 
the down-town district. They also have a 
beautiful summer home on the shore of Lake 
Minnetonka, and are well known and popular 
members of society. 


Rome G. Brown is a native of the Green 
Mountain State, and was born at Montpelier, 
June 15, 18fi2. His parents were Andrew 
Chandler and Lucia A. (Green) Brown. He 
was educated at Harvard University, gradua- 
ting from that institution in 1884. He after- 
wards entered the office of Hon. Benjamin F. 
Fifield, of Montpelier, and studied law with 
him for three years. The Supreme Court of 
Vermont then admitted him to I he bar as an 
"attorney and counsellor at law and solicitor 
in chancery." This was on the 24th of Octo- 
ber, 1887. Less than two months later, De- 
cember 7, 1887. he went west, locating in 
Minneapolis, which city has been his home 
ever since. He at once entered the law office 
of Benton & Roberts, composed of Reuben 

C. Benton and William P. Roberts, at that time 
a well known law firm of Minneapolis. Feb- 
ruary 9, 1888, he was admitted to practice in 
the courts of Minnesota. On the first of -Ian 
nary, 1890, he went into partnership with 
Messrs. Benton and Roberts, the name- of the 
firm becoming Benton, Roberts & Brown. 
The partnership continued for five years, the 
dissolution being occasioned by the death of 
Colonel Benton, January •">, 1895, since which 
time he has continued in practice alone. < >n 
the 27th of May, 1895, he was admitted to 
practice in the United States Supreme Court. 
Mr. Brown's practice has been general for the 
most part, although he has been attorney for 
many business interests and corporations, in- 
cluding the Great Northern Railway. He has 
been, and still is, extensively engaged in legal 
controversies involving questions of water 
powers and water rights in lakes and streams. 
He is the attorney of the two companies which 
control the entire water power of the Missis 
si|i]ii at Minneapolis, viz., the St. Anthony 
Falls Water Power Company and the Minne- 
apolis Mill Company. He is also the legal 
representative of the Crookston Water Works 
Power and Light Company, the Grand Forks 
Gas and Electric Company, the Minneapolis 
Tribune, and other commercial and manufac- 
turing concerns. On the 25th of May, 1888, 
Mr. Brown was united in marriage at Marsh- 
field, Vermont, to Miss Mary Lee Hollister, 
daughter of Samuel D. and Flora (Coburn) 
Hollister. Mr. and Mrs. Brown have two chil- 
dren. Edwin Chandler, born July 8, 1891, and 
Dorothv. born July 19, 189(5. 


Gen. dames Ileaton Baker was born in 
Monroe. Butler county, ' Ohio, May ('.. 1829. 
lie is the son id' Rev. Henry and Hannah 
(Heaton) Baker. His father was a Methodist 
preacher and a physician; a gentleman of good 
literary attainments, who died at Memphis. 
Tennessee, in 1864, while serving as chaplain 
ot ;i regiment in the Civil War. His great 
grandfather, William Baker, served in the 

Th& antury Puttishitiy & Lynn imj Co Ctticaytx 



Revolutionary War under Washington. On 
1 lie maternal side, his great-grandfather, Da- 
vid Heaton, fought for American independ- 
ence in the battles of Germantown, Princeton, 
Trenton and others, and Ins grandfather, 
James Heaton, was a quartermaster, serving 
with General Harrison in the War of 1812-15. 
When James was about two years old (he fam- 
ily moved to Lebanon, in the adjoining county, 
where, in due time, he prepared for college, 
entering the Wesleyan University at Dela- 
ware, Ohio, in 1847. He graduated in 1852, 
receiving the Latin honors of his rlass for su- 
perior scholarship. He then engaged in teach- 
ing, and was for a short time at the head of a 
female seminary in Richmond, Indiana. In 
1853 Mr. Laker purchased the Sciota Gazette 
at Chillicothe, one of the oldest newspapers in 
Ohio. On the organization of the Republican 
party, his paper became its champion, and his 
writings contributed materially to the growth 
of the infant party in southern Ohio. In ap- 
preciation of his services lie was nominated 
as the Republican candidate for Secretary of 
State, Hon. Salmon P. Chase heading the 
ticket; the two canvassed the State together, 
winning at the October election. At the expi- 
ration of his term of office, in 1S">7. Mr. Baker 
came to Minnesota and settled in Line Earth 
county, near Mankato. The following year he 
was the Republican candidate for Secretary of 
State for the State of Minnesota, and was 
elected. He was re-elected and was still serv- 
ing as Secretary of State when the Civil War 
broke out at the South. Feeling it was his 
duty to go into the military service, he re- 
signed, enlisted and received a colonel's com 
mission from Governor Ramsey. He took 
command of the Tenth Minnesota Infantry, and 
served under General Sibley in the campaign 
of 1862 and 1863, against the Sioux Indians. 
Colonel Baker was in command of the soldiers 
at the time of the execution of the thirty eight 
condemned Indians at Mankato, December 2<>, 
IstJL'. After the Indian troubles Colonel Laker 
was ordered to the South and reported at SI. 
Louis, Missouri, October 10, 1S(;:;. and was as- 
signed to that post by General Schofleld, but 
his command was soon enlarged to that of a 

district. He was subsequently appointed pro- 
vost marshal of the department of Mis 
souri by Secretary Stanton, and in that im- 
portant position lie served until the close of 
the war. For his fidelity in this important 
trust, which virtually made him military go\ 
ernor of Missouri, he was brevetted brigadier 
general of volunteers. Peace being restored, 
General Laker was mustered out of service, 
November 31, 1865, and was appointed register 
of the consolidated land offices at Boonville, 
Missouri, which office he resigned at the end 
of two years. He returned to his farm in Line 
Earth county, intending to enjoy the quiet of 
rural life. In 1S71 President Grant tendered 
him the office of commissioner of pensions, 
and he entered upon the duties of that impor- 
tant office June 1, of that year. Through his 
instrumentality the pension laws, formerly 
scattered through different volumes of the 
statutes, were compiled into one law and very 
much simplified. A tier serving four years 
with great credit to himself in the faithful and 
able discharge of his duties, and to the satis- 
faction of the department, he resigned. In 
1875 General Grant tendered him the office of 
Surveyor General of the State of Minnesota, 
which office he accepted and served for four 
years, after which he retired to his farm in 
Line Earth county. While holding the office 
of Surveyor General and living at Mankato. 
General Laker wrote many letters for publica- 
tion, which attracted wide attention and con- 
tributed more largely than any other influence 
to bring into notice the north shore of Lake 
Superior. In 1881 General Baker was elected 
by the people of Minnesota as railway com- 
missioner, to succeed ex-Governor Marshall, 
and was subsequently re-elected to the same 
position. General Baker is an active member 
of the Minnesota Historical Society, and has 
contributed much valuable material to its 
archives. Among his mosl important works are 
the "History of Lake Superior" and the discov- 
ery of "The Sources of the Mississippi," an able 
and carefully prepared paper, published in 
1SS7. He also wrote (lie "History of the Min- 
nesota Valley," an interesting and valuable 
contribution to the history of Minnesota, pub- 



Iished January 10, 1878". He was the first to 
bring to light, by a series of public letters, the 
great mineral resources of northeastern 
Minnesota, and was the author of several pa- 
pers on the International Line. As a member 
of the Loyal Legion, of which he was com- 
mander in 1898-9, he contributed many impor- 
tant papers to their annual publications. His 
essay on the "Military Career and Personal 
Character of Ulysses S. Grant" attracted much 
attention, and liis serie